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O princípio de não-discriminação tributária no comércio internacional de bens; Le principe de non-discrimination fiscale dans le commerce international des marchandises

Brito Filho, Washington Juarez de
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 22/06/2011 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.9%
Hoje em dia, muito se fala sobre a globalização e o aprimoramento das relações comerciais no plano internacional, tanto do ponto de vista econômico quanto do político. No entanto, tais fenômenos carecem de estudos mais aprofundados quanto a alguns dos seus aspectos eminentemente jurídicos. No que se refere à disciplina multilateral de regulação do comércio, o objetivo do sistema GATT/OMC é o de, mediante um contínuo processo de reforma e liberalização das políticas comerciais nacionais, proporcionar melhores condições de competitividade entre os países, especialmente por meio da proibição da edição de normas nacionais discriminatórias que afetem a livre circulação de mercadorias. Todavia, tal proposta não tem alcançado a efetividade que deveria, não só em função da proposital limitação do seu escopo como também por conta da fluidez conceitual que, ainda hoje, ronda alguns de seus institutos basilares. O mesmo pode-se falar a respeito de outros sistemas, tanto regionais, como o da União Europeia, quanto nacionais, em países de forma de estado federalista, como os Estados Unidos. O objetivo da tese é, portanto, após fornecer um levantamento sistemático dos instrumentos mais evoluídos atualmente à disposição dos juristas...

Os aspectos econômicos da discriminação racial no Brasil; The economics of racial discrimination

Fernandes, Gustavo Andrey de Almeida Lopes
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 22/03/2012 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.06%
O objetivo deste trabalho é contribuir para uma melhor compreensão dos aspectos econômicos da discriminação racial no Brasil. Com esse intuito, é realizada, primeiramente, uma breve revisão do debate existente na literatura teórica e empírica sobre o tema, possibilitando uma definição mais precisa dos conceitos de raça e discriminação, como uma decorrência de um problema de informação assimétrica no mercado de trabalho, associado a crenças preestabelecidas sobre os grupos. Dentro dessa perspectiva, o erro de mensuração existente na variável indicadora de "raça" é investigado, visto que, caso a classificação recebida pelo trabalhador no mercado de trabalho não coincida com sua declaração no censo, é necessária uma correção dos procedimentos de estimação a fim de evitar resultados enviesados. Aplicando o método proposto, verifica-se que o diferencial de salário estimado entre brancos e não brancos parece ser subestimado no Brasil, usando-se dados do Censo Demográfico de 2000. O efeito da média educacional dos grupos no salário esperado é também inferido, não sendo rejeitada, o que sugere a existência do fenômeno da discriminação estatística no Brasil. Em seguida, a evolução dos diferenciais é estudada a partir de dados das Pesquisas Nacionais de Amostra por Domicílio entre 1992 e 2009. Para tal...

Competitive targeted advertising with price discrimination

Esteves, Rosa Branca; Resende, Joana
Fonte: Universidade do Minho. Núcleo de Investigação em Políticas Económicas Publicador: Universidade do Minho. Núcleo de Investigação em Políticas Económicas
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento
Publicado em /03/2011 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.1%
This paper investigates the effects of price discrimination by means of targeted advertising in a duopolistic market where the distribution of consumers’ preferences is discrete and where advertising plays two major roles. It is used by firms as a way to transmit relevant information to otherwise uninformed consumers and it is used as a price discrimination device. We compare the firms’ optimal marketing mix (advertising and pricing) when they adopt mass advertising/non-discrimination strategies and targeted advertising/price discrimination strategies. If firms are able to adopt targeted advertising strategies, we find that the symmetric price equilibrium is in mixed strategies, while the advertising is chosen deterministically. Our results also unveil that as long as we allow for imperfect substitutability between the goods, firms do not necessarily target more ads to their own market. In particular, firms’ optimal marketing mix leads to higher advertising reach in the rival’s market than in the firms’ own market, provided that advertising costs are sufficiently low in relation to the consumer’s reservation value. The comparison of the optimal marketing-mix under mass advertising strategies and targeted advertising strategies reveals that targeted advertising might constitute a tool to dampen price competition. In particular...

Rights without Duties? Reflections on the State of Liability Law in the Multilevel Governance System of the Community: Is There a Need for a More Coherent Approach in European Private Law?

REICH, Norbert
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: application/pdf; digital
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.86%
The paper argues that some general Community standards for “horizontal liability” among private parties can be established already now. The basic requirement is a “sufficiently serious”, not necessarily negligent violation of an EU (including always EC) law provision intending to protect private parties, in particular under the free movement, non-discrimination, and investor protection rules. Remedies for compensation (injunctions were discussed only in passing) must be found under national law, but this must obey to the principles of effectiveness and equivalence which may be summarised as the principle of “adequate protection”. The existing national remedies must eventually be reshaped and “upgraded” if they do not meet EU standards. This will lead to a “hybridisation of remedies” which could be shown in the basic requirements of “sufficiently serious breach”, causation, amount of compensation, and adequate procedures.

From Lëtzebuerg to Luxembourg: EU Law, Non-Discrimination and Pregnancy

BELAVUSAU, Uladzislau
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf; digital
EN
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45.87%
[Virginie Pontin v. T-Comalux SA, ECJ (Third Chamber), Judgment of 29 October 2009, C-63/08] In autumn 2009 the ECJ made another step forward in fostering gender equality through the instrumental framework of the EU law. The case triggers the right of pregnant women to protection against employers, who use inadequately constructed procedural norms to disguise an illegal dismissal. The Court holds that where the only remedy available under national legislation to a worker dismissed during pregnancy does not provide reasonable time bars on claims for wrongful dismissal, that legislation introduces less favorable treatment linked to pregnancy and constitutes discrimination against female employees. The Court held that a 15 days limit to bring proceedings was insufficient in terms of the principle of effective judicial protection of an individual’s rights under EU law. A pregnant woman should equally enjoy other remedies beyond an action for nullity and reinstatement, such as an action for damages, in case the analogous recourses are available for other categories of dismissed workers. The Court therefore clarified an essential element for the implementation of the Pregnant Workers’ Directive in the Member States.

Fighting Hate Speech through EU Law

BELAVUSAU, Uladzislau
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf; digital
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.01%
This article constitutes a chapter from a forthcoming book on EU non-discrimination law (E. Ellis & K. Benediktsdóttir (eds.), Equality into Reality: Action for Diversity & Non-Discrimination). It explores the rise of the European ‘First Amendment’ beyond national and Strasbourg law, offering a fresh look into the previously under-theorised issue of hate speech in EU law. Building its argument on (1) the scrutiny of fundamental rights protection, (2) the distinction between commercial and non-commercial speech, and, finally, (3) the looking glass of critical race theory, the paper demonstrates how the judgment of the ECJ in the Feryn case implicitly consolidated legal narratives on hate speech in Europe. In this way, the paper reconstructs the dominant European theory of freedom of expression via rhetorical and victim-centered constitutional analysis, bearing important ethical implications for European integration.

Biao v. Denmark : discrimination among citizens?

ERSBØLL, Eva
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: application/pdf; digital
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.04%
On 25 March 2014 the European Court of Human Rights delivered a controversial judgment in a case on family reunion in Denmark, the Biao case. The applicants were a Danish national, Mr Ousmane Ghanian Biao, and his wife, a Ghanaian national, Mrs Asia Adamo Biao. They alleged that a refusal by the Danish authorities to grant them family reunion was in breach of the European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR) article 8, alone and in conjunction with article 14. The Danish authorities had refused the application for family reunion because the spouses did not fulfil the requirement that their aggregate ties to Denmark be stronger than their aggregate ties to any other state where they could live together – in this case Ghana (‘the attachment requirement’). They submitted that the decision breached their rights under article 8 of the ECHR since it did not pursue a legitimate aim on the ground that it was introduced to target Danish citizens of non-Danish ethnic or national origin. Alternatively, if the refusal was not deemed to be contrary to article 8, they claimed that it was contrary to the prohibition against discrimination, cf. ECHR article 14 read in conjunction with article 8, since particular groups of Danish citizens were treated differently in relation to family reunion in Denmark. In analogous circumstances...

El derecho humano al agua y los aportes del sistema Interamericano de derechos humanos; The human right to water and the contributions of the Inter-American

Salmón, Elizabeth
Fonte: Universidad Carlos III de Madrid. Instituto de derechos humanos Bartolomé de las Casas Publicador: Universidad Carlos III de Madrid. Instituto de derechos humanos Bartolomé de las Casas
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; info:eu-repo/semantics/article Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /07/2012 SPA
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.86%
El derecho humano al agua no se encuentra regulado en ningún instrumento vinculante de derecho internacional. Sin embargo, ello no ha impedido que, por interpretación, los sistemas de protección de derechos humanos hayan desarrollado en su jurisprudencia un conjunto de estándares relacionados a este derecho. En el sistema interamericano, estos estándares se construyeron, principalmente, sobre la interpretación de cuatro derechos civiles y políticos: propiedad, vida, integridad e igualdad y no discriminación. Los estándares desarrollados se adecúan al contexto interamericano y especialmente, a la protección de algunos grupos en situación de vulnerabilidad del continente, como los pueblos indígenas, las personas privadas de libertad o las personas en situación de pobreza o exclusión estructural; The human right to water is not regulated in any binding international legal instrument. However, this has not precluded the formation of a set of standards that have developed out of the jurisprudence of human rights protection systems in addressing this right. Within the Inter-American system, these standards have focused on the interpretation of four civil and political rights: property, life, integrity, and equality and non-discrimination. The standards are applicable to the Inter-American context and are directed principally toward the protection of certain vulnerable groups on the continent...

Spécifier pour mieux protéger? : l’évolution de la notion d’orientation sexuelle comme critère de discrimination au sein du droit international

Massé, Claude
Fonte: Université de Montréal Publicador: Université de Montréal
Tipo: Thèse ou Mémoire numérique / Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
FR
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.23%
Le présent travail s’interroge quant au niveau de protection offert par la structure actuelle du droit international à l’ensemble de la population LGBT en vertu des normes juridiques de non-discrimination. Il questionne par le fait même la nécessité de créer une convention internationale spécifique contre la discrimination faite en fonction de l’orientation sexuelle au sein du système onusien des droits de la personne. Afin de le déterminer, une analyse bipartite est proposée. L’évolution de la notion d’orientation sexuelle au sein du droit international de 1975 à aujourd’hui expose dans un premier temps l’applicabilité de la norme de non-discrimination à l’ensemble de la population, et ce, malgré la polarisation de la communauté internationale sur la question. Par la suite, la jurisprudence du Comité des droits de l’homme en matière d’orientation sexuelle illustre la mise sur pied d’un régime de protection des minorités sexuelles modulé par les tractations politiques présentes sur la scène internationale. Ce mémoire conclut que la protection de la population LGBT ne nécessite pas la création une convention internationale contre la discrimination faite en fonction de l’orientation sexuelle...

Contribución de las políticas públicas a la realización efectiva de los derechos de la mujer

Barranco Avilés, María del Carmen; Carmona Cuenca, Encarnación; Desdentado Daroca, Eva; Escudero Rodríguez, Ricardo; Garrido Gómez, María Isabel; Lucas Durán, Manuel; Pérez Troya, Adoración; Rodríguez Palop, María Eugenia; Sánchez Martínez, M
Fonte: Universidad de Alcalá. Instituto de Estudios Latinoamericanos (IELAT) Publicador: Universidad de Alcalá. Instituto de Estudios Latinoamericanos (IELAT)
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: application/pdf
SPA
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.86%
En el presente estudio se parte de que la protección efectiva e integral de los derechos de las mujeres constituye una de las tareas inacabadas de mayor alcance en las sociedades contemporáneas. En él se analizan las políticas públicas que desde un enfoque de la igualdad y no discriminación tienen influencia en las esferas pública y privada; tratándose todo ello conforme a los postulados de la Ley Orgánica española 3/2007, de 22 de marzo, para la igualdad efectiva de mujeres y hombres. Por último, se aportan veintiséis recomendaciones y propuestas para hacer que los derechos de las mujeres sean tomados en serio; In this study the premise is the effective and comprehensive protection of women's rights as one of the most important pending duties of modern society. Public policies are analysed from the perspective of equality and non‐discrimination in public and private fields, all of which are considered in accordance with the Fundamental Act 3/2007 of 22nd March, for the effective equality between women and men. Lastly, twenty‐six recommendations are proposed in order that women's rights may be taken seriously.

Human Rights and the City: Anti-discrimination laws and policies in New York and Barcelona

GRIGOLO, Michele
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: Paper
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.11%
Defence date: 05/02/2009; Examining Board: Prof. Michael Keating, EUI (Supervisor) Prof. Virginie Guiraudon, CNRS, Lille Dr. Joan Font Fábregas, Cientro de Ciencias Humanas y Sociales, Madrid Dr. Daniel Sabbagh, CERI, Sciences Po., Paris; This thesis investigates the political and legal dimensions of human rights policies enacted by cities in order to respond to one main research question: how are these policies enacted and what is their outcome? Drawing on the human rights and urban politics literature, this research provides a first comprehensive overview of human rights discourses, laws and institutions enacted by municipalities against the background of conflicts and tensions between cities’ economic and security priorities and the many social questions and problems generated by the increasing differentiation of local populations. Within this broad and unified theoretical framework, this study looks also at the differences emerging from local human rights policies that can now be found in very different areas of the world. Private and public actors - from individual experts and NGOs to cities (and their networks) and international organizations - act as policy agents diffusing human rights among cities. While often relying on a human rights framework...

Constitutional and judicial recognition of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples: the migration of foundational ideas from Canada to Australia

Parrott, Louise Elizabeth
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Thesis (PhD); Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)
EN_AU
Relevância na Pesquisa
46%
Ideas that are migrating from Canada are already guiding advocates who seek greater judicial and constitutional recognition of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples. However, there is a need for a conceptual framework through which to approach the lessons that can be learned from Canada in this area. Inspired by The Migration of Constitutional Ideas, an edited work by Sujit Choudhry, in this thesis I argue that by thinking about the migration and transplantation of foundational ideas and by differentiating between four ‘modes’ of migration (arguments of counsel, judicial determinations, academic critique and constitutional reform deliberations), it is possible to better understand some of the processes that are at play. In particular, by adopting the terminology of the ‘migration’ and ‘transplantation’ of ‘foundational’ ideas, I aim to demonstrate that it is dangerous to transplant foundational ideas, whether derived from the common law or constitutional law, without other ideas (particularly in relation to implications) also migrating. This thesis is a response to two distinct but related topics: ‘Topic 1 — The Potential for Judicial Recognition of Indigenous Self-Government Rights: The Migration of Foundational Ideas from Canada to Australia’ and ‘Topic 2 — Constitutional Recognition of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples...

The experience of religious stigma and discrimination among members of religious minorities in Ireland : a multi-faith approach

Cosgrove, Olivia
Fonte: University of Limerick Publicador: University of Limerick
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/doctoralThesis; all_ul_research; ul_published_reviewed; ul_theses_dissertations
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
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peer-reviewed; This is an investigation of the experience of religious stigma and discrimination among eight non ethno-religious minority groups in Ireland. The study focuses on the connections between the Irish social context and the perception of religious stigmatisation and acts of discrimination. This is in order to understand the lived experience of religious discrimination and to examine the structural elements which appear to contribute the perpetuation of stigma in Irish society. This is the first study to explore religious discrimination specifically from a non ethno-religious perspective and also crucially takes a multi-faith approach to the field. This research is placed in the context of a nation which has undergone rapid demographic and religious changes in the past twenty years and therefore an understanding of the social treatment of small religious groups is increasingly important. Drawing on existing work on stigma and discrimination, this study is underpinned by an extended research definition which encompassed both the acts of discrimination and the processes of stigma designation in order to strengthen the links between the interrelated concepts. This was designed to produce a multi-level understanding of interactions between the individual and the wider social context...

Sécurité nationale vs. immigration: une violation du principe de non-discrimination

MARCLAY, Éric
Fonte: Centre de recherche en droit public (CRDP) Publicador: Centre de recherche en droit public (CRDP)
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
FR
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.98%
"L'intersection entre la sécurité de l'État et corollairement celle de ses ressortissants d’un côté, et la protection des droits des personnes qui se trouvent sur son territoire de l’autre, génère une situation antagonique : les prérogatives régaliennes et wébériennes d'utilisation de la force au nom de la sécurité nationale entrent en collision avec le respect des dispositions juridiques, telles que prescrites dans de nombreux instruments du droit international. Terre d’immigration, les États-Unis sont le reflet de ce paradoxe qui existe entre une vision qui place l’individu et ses libertés au centre de ses préoccupations, versus une conceptualisation étato-centrique de la sécurité. Mais le renvoi de l’immigration dans le registre sécuritaire ne relève pas forcément d’une réalité objective. L’analyse critique des manifestations d’(in)sécurité considère en effet ce concept comme n’étant plus exclusivement stato-centrée, élargissement conceptuel auquel s'associe une autre mutation conceptuelle : la securitization, qui postule que la menace n'est pas uniquement objective mais également subjective. Considérant cette ""évolution"" théorique, l’auteur analyse dans cet article l’immigration aux États-Unis au travers d’un processus de périodisation ­des mythes fondateurs aux mesures prises dans la foulée du 11 septembre 2001- pour démontrer que la gestion des flux migratoires en direction des États-Unis a toujours été considérée comme une question de sécurité nationale. Retenant à titre illustratif trois groupes de personnes...

Competitive targeted advertising with price discrimination

Esteves, Rosa Branca; Resende, Joana
Fonte: Universidade do Minho. Núcleo de Investigação em Políticas Económicas (NIPE) Publicador: Universidade do Minho. Núcleo de Investigação em Políticas Económicas (NIPE)
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento
Publicado em //2013 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.09%
This paper investigates the effects of price discrimination by means of targeted advertising in a duopolistic market in which advertising plays two major roles. It transmits relevant information to otherwise uninformed consumers and it acts as a price discrimination device. We look at the firms' optimal advertising and pricing decisions in two settings, namely mass advertising/non-discrimination strategies and targeted advertising/price discrimination strategies. In the case of targeted advertising, we show that firms advertise more in its weak market than in its strong market. The analysis highlights that targeted advertising might constitute a tool to dampen price competition. We show that average prices with mass advertising/non-discrimination can be below those with targeted advertising/price discrimination (regardless of the market segment). We also fi nd that, when advertising costs are not too high, price discrimination by means of targeted advertising can boost industry pro fits at the expense of consumer and overall welfare. Finally, we show that overall welfare and consumer surplus falls when firms use targeted advertising instead of mass advertising.; COMPETE; QREN; FEDER; Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia (FCT)

Unravelling fears of genetic discrimination: an exploratory study of Dutch HCM families in an era of genetic non-discrimination acts

Geelen, Els; Horstman, Klasien; Marcelis, Carlo LM; Doevendans, Pieter A; Van Hoyweghen, Ine
Fonte: Nature Publishing Group Publicador: Nature Publishing Group
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.16%
Since the 1990s, many countries in Europe and the United States have enacted genetic non-discrimination legislation to prevent people from deferring genetic tests for fear that insurers or employers would discriminate against them based on that information. Although evidence for genetic discrimination exists, little is known about the origins and backgrounds of fears of discrimination and how it affects decisions for uptake of genetic testing. The aim of this article is to gain a better understanding of these fears and its possible impact on the uptake of testing by studying the case of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). In a qualitative study, we followed six Dutch extended families involved in genetic testing for HCM for three-and-a-half years. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 57 members of these families. Based on the narratives of the families, we suggest that fears of discrimination have to be situated in the broader social and life-course context of family and kin. We describe the processes in which families developed meaningful interpretations of genetic discrimination and how these interpretations affected family members' decisions to undergo genetic testing. Our findings show that fears of genetic discrimination do not so much stem from the opportunity of genetic testing but much more from earlier experiences of discrimination of diseased family members. These results help identify the possible limitations of genetic non-discrimination regulations and provide direction to clinicians supporting their clients as they confront issues of genetic testing and genetic discrimination.

L'âge, un motif autorisé de discrimination? : étude critique des effets conjugués des articles 10 de la Charte des droits et libertés de la personne et 15 de la Charte canadienne des droits et libertés comme obstacles à la protection contre la discrimination fondée sur l'âge

Beaudoin, Marie-Hélène
Fonte: Université de Montréal Publicador: Université de Montréal
Tipo: Thèse ou Mémoire numérique / Electronic Thesis or Dissertation Formato: 6164877 bytes; application/pdf
FR
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36.13%
Le présent mémoire soulève divers questionnements face au traitement singulier qu'a reçu l'âge en tant que motif prohibé de discrimination, sous la Charte des droits et libertés de la personne du Québec et la Charte canadienne des droits et libertés. Ainsi, nous verrons que même si la discrimination fondée sur l'âge n'est pas à strictement parler « autorisée », elle est néanmoins souvent jugée acceptable. Tout d'abord, nous procéderons à une revue générale et synthétique des notions de discrimination et de droit à l'égalité, telles qu'elles sont prévues par les articles 10 de la Charte québécoise et 15 de la Charte canadienne. Ensuite, nous évoquerons un certain nombre de limites législatives qui ont été apportées à ces droits et qui peuvent constituer des obstacles importants dans la lutte effective contre la discrimination fondée sur l'âge. Enfin, nous nous permettrons de faire quelques réflexions critiques, afin de souligner comment la perspective particulière qu'ont adoptée les juges dans l'étude des questions relatives à la discrimination fondée sur l'âge a pu introduire un certain nombre d'incohérences au sein de la logique plus générale qui se dégage de l'ensemble de la jurisprudence portant sur le droit à l'égalité.; The present Master's Thesis raises questions regarding the singular treatment to which "age" has been subjected as a prohibited ground of discrimination...

La discrimination génétique dans l'emploi : une étude des protections offertes par les chartes canadiennes et québécoise

Lévesque, Emmanuelle
Fonte: Université de Montréal Publicador: Université de Montréal
Tipo: Thèse ou Mémoire numérique / Electronic Thesis or Dissertation Formato: 5156128 bytes; application/pdf
FR
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.08%
La science génétique tend de plus en plus à identifier des maladies génétiques et à associer des comportements humains au bagage génétique. Or, ces applications peuvent servir à exclure et stigmatiser des individus. Cela crée parfois ce qu'on appelle de la discrimination génétique. Le domaine de l'emploi est particulièrement propice à voir surgir cette forme de discrimination. Nous voulons ici déterminer dans quelle mesure les chartes des droits de la personne canadienne et québécoise protègent les travailleurs contre la discrimination génétique. Nous regardons d'abord si la lutte contre la discrimination génétique est compatible avec les objectifs de la règle anti-discrimination. Ensuite, nous examinons la prohibition de la discrimination basée sur le handicap afin de voir si celle-ci peut empêcher la discrimination génétique des travailleurs. Finalement, nous tentons de voir si les caractéristiques génétiques pourraient constituer un motif analogue de discrimination prohibé par la Charte canadienne.; Increasingly, the genetic science tends to identify sorne genetic diseases and to associate the human behaviors to the genetic code. This uses can serve to exclude and stigmatize the individuals. This sometimes creates what is called the genetic discrimination. The workplace is particularly favorable to see emerging this form of discrimination. We try to determine in what way the human rights charters protect the workers against the genetic discrimination. First...

Leitura bioética do princípio de não discriminação e não estigmatização; Bioethics reading of the principle of non-discrimination and non-stigmatization

Godoi, Alcinda Maria Machado; Garrafa, Volnei
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Saúde Pública Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Saúde Pública
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; Formato: application/pdf; application/pdf
Publicado em 01/03/2014 POR; ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.01%
O presente estudo objetiva realizar, na perspectiva da bioética, uma leitura analítica do artigo 11 da Declaração Universal sobre Bioética e Direitos Humanos (DUBDH) da UNESCO, segundo o qual: “Nenhum indivíduo ou grupo deve ser discriminado ou estigmatizado por qualquer razão, o que constitui violação à dignidade humana, aos direitos humanos e às liberdades fundamentais”. Tendo como referência os direitos humanos universais, são discutidos os seguintes conceitos indispensáveis à compreensão dos processos de produção do estigma e da discriminação: identidade, alteridade, diferença e tolerância. O texto procura demonstrar a centralidade do princípio da não discriminação e não estigmatização na agenda bioética contemporânea, ampliando a discussão para além das questões afetas unicamente aos campos da biotecnociência e da saúde, individual ou coletiva. Nesse sentido, traz para reflexão, além de questões do campo biomédico propriamente dito, aspectos de natureza social, indispensáveis no atual contexto internacional para uma melhor compreensão dos conflitos morais verificados nesse domínio.; This paper aims at an analytical reading of Article II of the Universal Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights (UDBHR)...

Discrimination and victimization against gay men and lesbians in Chile: Two patterns or just one?

Barrientos,Jaime; Bozon,Michel
Fonte: Interdisciplinaria Publicador: Interdisciplinaria
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/12/2014 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
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The Lesbian, Gay men, Bisexual and Trans -gender (LGBT) Pride Parade takes place in Santiago (Chile) every year. It gathers sexual minorities and also heterosexuals who attend to support LGBT population rights vindication. Specifically, the objective of the study was to describe gay men and lesbians who participate in the LGBT Pride Parade, from the viewpoint of discrimination and victimization. In this sense, this study is innovating because it is based on questionnaires administered in the context of LGBT Pride Parades. In Chile, data on this issue are scarce. There are few previous studies on the topic, revealing that many LGBT people report discrimination and victimization in different situations and contexts. Nevertheless, these studies have not clearly stated the existing differences in the patterns of discrimination and victimization events that affect the different groups (for example, those that affect gay men and lesbians). So, the study focused only on this population for two reasons: first, mainly LGBT subjects attend the parade and secondly, there were no previous studies to compare both groups in the country. Second, the study also aimed at showing that gay men suffer greater discrimination and victimization than lesbians. A non-probabilistic sample of 343 participants was collected. From this sample...