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Education, neighbourhood effects and growth: an agent based model approach

Araújo, Tanya; St. Aubyn, Miguel
Fonte: ISEG – Departamento de Economia Publicador: ISEG – Departamento de Economia
Tipo: Outros
Publicado em //2005 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.98%
Endogenous, ideas-led, growth theory and agent based modelling with neighbourhood effects literature are crossed. In an economic overlapping generations framework, it is shown how social interactions and neighbourhood effects are of vital importance in the endogenous determination of the long run number of skilled workers and therefore of the growth prospects of an economy. Neighbourhood effects interact with the initial distribution of educated agents across space and play a key role in the long run stabilisation of the number of educated individuals. Our model implies a tendency towards segregation, with a possibly positive influence on growth, if team effects operate. The long run growth rate is also shown to depend on the rate of time preference. Initial circumstances are of vital importance for long run outcomes. A poor initial education endowment will imply a long run reduced number of skilled workers and a mediocre growth rate, so there no economic convergence tendency. On the contrary, poor societies will grow less, or will even fall into a poverty trap, and will diverge continuously from richer ones.

The Establishment of Urban Open Spaces to meet User needs:; A Comparative Case Study of Two Neighbourhood Parks in Abuja, Nigeria

Akubueze, Nnamdi
Fonte: Quens University Publicador: Quens University
Tipo: Outros
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.75%
This report compares two neighbourhood parks in Abuja, Nigeria through an analysis of their use and design characteristics. The study seeks to determine which of the two parks is more attractive to users while providing an insight into the way parks and open spaces are used by the residents of Abuja. The research will also proffer recommendations on what planning and design features should be added to both parks to make them even more attractive to users.

The Positive Impacts & Best Practices of Youth Participation in Planning: Strengthening Theory & Application Through Diverse Contexts, The Community Design Initiative Case Study In The Kingston-Galloway/ Orton Park Priority Neighbourhood Scarborough, Ontario

Gawor, Jennifer
Fonte: Quens University Publicador: Quens University
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.89%
The United Nations recently criticized the Canadian Government for lacking a unified federal policy for child programming; lacking a clear strategy in the development of youth rights, opportunities, and initiatives; and averting accountability as there is no assurance that these programs are effective due to the absence of evaluative methods. The UN went on to highlight that addressing these issues in Canada is particularly important for “vulnerable” youth such as Aboriginal, black, immigrant, and disabled children. Youth- that being anyone between the ages of 15 and 24- have been greatly, if not completely excluded from research that informs public policy and planning, and barred from the opportunity to meaningfully participate in planning processes that affect their lives. This has left industry professionals with a large anomaly when it comes to ensuring inclusive, effective, and sustainable planning practices within communities. Of the limited research that has been conducted, the majority is largely focused on the cognitive capacities of young people when participating within the adult dominated realm of planning. Overwhelmingly, researchers discover that young people do in fact have the ability and motivation to effectively participate in planning...

Falling Down and Climbing Up the Ladder of Neighbourhood Change: Filtering and Gentrification in Metro Vancouver, 1981-2006

Louie, Vincent
Fonte: Quens University Publicador: Quens University
EN
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This report highlights neighbourhood-level changes to Metro Vancouver between 1981 and 2006. Census data from 1981 and 2006 were used to track changes to demographic, income, education, employment, and housing-related indicators for two identical analyses with different scopes. The first analysis separated census tracts into the following categories based on average adjusted household incomes: (1) inner city gentrified; (2) inner city filtered; (3) suburban gentrified/greenfield development; (4) suburban filtered; and (5) stable. "Inner city" referred to any census tracts within the municipal borders of Vancouver while "suburban" referred to the remaining municipalities in Metro Vancouver. The second analysis separated census tracts into three categories: (1) rising; (2) declining; and (3) stable. Neighbourhoods that were improving (i.e. either gentrified or rising) were mostly populated by young adults and immigrants who were well-educated. Education was insufficient to guarantee a higher income as many filtered or chronically impoverished neighbourhoods experienced increases to their proportions of university-educated adults but either stagnated or declined in terms of average adjusted household incomes. The landscape of Metro Vancouver shifted in favour of apartments...

Neighbourhood effects influencing early childhood development: conceptual model and trial measurement methodologies from the Kids in Communities Study

Goldfeld, S.; Woolcock, G.; Katz, I.; Tanton, R.; Brinkman, S.; O Connor, E.; Mathews, T.; Giles-Corti, B.
Fonte: Springer Publicador: Springer
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2015 EN
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37.1%
Socio-environmental factors, including the neighbourhoods in which children live and grow, are key determinants of children’s developmental outcomes. Thus, it is important to examine and consider the relationships between these factors and the multiple contexts that influence children. Drawing on a broad disciplinary range of existing research, we aimed to develop a conceptual model of neighbourhood effects influencing early childhood development. The neighbourhood effects literature was reviewed with a specific focus on existing models and frameworks. This review was then further expanded through consultation with our cross-disciplinary research collaboration (Kids in Communities Study Collaboration). From this a theoretical model specific to early childhood development was developed. The hypothesised model comprised five interconnected domains: physical, social, service, socio-economic, and governance. A small trial of indicator measurement was conducted and findings were used to make a series of recommendations regarding measures or indicators which might provide useful and effective for neighbourhood effects research. The proposed model provides a useful and novel conceptual framework for classifying neighbourhood effects research. By synthesising disparate but related areas of research...

The European Neighbourhood Policy: A Framework for Modernisation?

Fonte: European University Institute Publicador: European University Institute
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: application/pdf; digital
EN
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36.89%
This Working Paper offers a selection of the papers which were presented during the Workshop on “The European Neighbourhood Policy – A Framework for Modernisation?”, which was held on 1-2 December 2006 at the European University Institute of Florence under the auspices of the Academy of European Law. In particular, this Working Paper intends to explore from a trans-disciplinary perspective the objectives and instruments which have been devised in the European Neighbourhood Policy (ENP) and to consider in this light the capacity of the policy to promote a fundamental process of modernisation in the target countries. This is done in the conviction that a reconsideration of the coherence between instruments and objectives of the ENP is particularly urgent and it is likely to affect not only the effectiveness of the policy itself, but also the ability of the EU to create a circle of friends around its borders and, ultimately, its position in the international arena. To achieve this task, we have brought together the viewpoints of lawyers, political scientists and economists as they look at the wide range of questions prompted by the ENP. The first part of this volume is devoted to the analysis of the Objectives of the ENP. In this framework...

Guiding the exercise of union's administrative power in the EU wider neighbourhood : the rule of law from paper to operationalisation

VIANELLO, Ilaria
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: application/pdf
EN
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36.98%
The purpose of this paper is to establish that the Union is under an obligation to respect the rule of law when it acts externally, and second, to map out the outline of a research agenda on what exactly the rule of law might mean when operationalised in one field of EU external relations characterised by a wide variety of administrative activities i.e. the EU wider neighbourhood (Stabilisation and Association Process and European Neighbourhood Policy). Furthermore, the paper – throughout its development – will try to highlight that the power exercised by the administration in these two policies is significant and often carried out in an unregulated manner; thus the need to research the operationalisation of the rule of law in guiding the Union’s administrative power in these two policies. The paper will proceed as follows. First, it will analyse the obligation to respect the rule of law when the Union acts externally. Secondly, it will provide the reader with a very brief definition of what it means to respect the rule of law in the EU internal legal order. Thirdly, it will explain the choice of the case study. Finally, by using as a starting point the meaning of the rule of law internally the paper will attempt to provide a preliminary operationalisation of what it means to respect the rule of law when the Union develops and implements its action in the wider neighbourhood.

The influence of neighbourhood formality status and socio-economic position on self-rated health among adult men and women: a multilevel, cross sectional, population study from Aleppo, Syria

Ahmad, Balsam; Ryan, Vicky; Maziak, Wasim; Pless-Mulloli, Tanja; White, Martin
Fonte: FIU Digital Commons Publicador: FIU Digital Commons
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Background There is substantial evidence from high income countries that neighbourhoods have an influence on health independent of individual characteristics. However, neighbourhood characteristics are rarely taken into account in the analysis of urban health studies from developing countries. Informal urban neighbourhoods are home to about half of the population in Aleppo, the second largest city in Syria (population>2.5 million). This study aimed to examine the influence of neighbourhood socioeconomic status (SES) and formality status on self-rated health (SRH) of adult men and women residing in formal and informal urban neighbourhoods in Aleppo. Methods The study used data from 2038 survey respondents to the Aleppo Household Survey, 2004 (age 18–65 years, 54.8% women, response rate 86%). Respondents were nested in 45 neighbourhoods. Five individual-level SES measures, namely education, employment, car ownership, item ownership and household density, were aggregated to the level of neighbourhood. Multilevel regression models were used to investigate associations. Results We did not find evidence of important SRH variation between neighbourhoods. Neighbourhood average of household item ownership was associated with a greater likelihood of reporting excellent SRH in women; odds ratio (OR) for an increase of one item on average was 2.3 (95% CI 1.3-4.4 (versus poor SRH)) and 1.7 (95% CI 1.1-2.5 (versus normal SRH))...

Examining Social Capital and Depressive Symptoms: Tackling Measurement Debates, Neighbourhood Correlates, and Gender Differences

Bassett, EMMA
Fonte: Quens University Publicador: Quens University
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
EN; EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.25%
Depression is the most common mental illness worldwide, and although aspects of the social environment, including social capital and neighbourhood disadvantage, have been linked to depression, the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. Debates within the social capital and neighbourhood disadvantage literatures have yielded mixed findings in studies of depression and an understanding of how social capital may differentially relate to symptomatology in men and women must be solidified. In the first manuscript of this thesis, I assess whether (1) network and psychosocial measures of individual social capital are each associated with depressive symptoms, and (2) the association varies according to whether the capital lies outside or inside an individual’s neighbourhood. The second manuscript investigates whether: (1) neighbourhood disadvantage has a stronger association with depression in women compared to men and (2) if specific social capital factors mediate the association between neighbourhood disadvantage and depression. Data came from the Montreal Neighbourhood Networks and Healthy Aging Study conducted in 2008. Data included telephone interview responses from 2624 adults from 300 census tracts in the Montreal metropolitan area. The CESD-10 instrument was used to assess depressive symptoms. Name and position generator instruments and self-reported questions were used to assess psychosocial and network components of social capital. Multilevel logistic regressions adjusted for a range of socio-demographic and economic characteristics. Manuscript 1 results indicated that core tie diversity as well as the psychosocial measures of generalized trust...

Norm implementation in the enlarged European neighbourhood : justice and home affairs in Moldova and Ukraine

Peich, Xavier
Fonte: Université de Montréal Publicador: Université de Montréal
Tipo: Thèse ou Mémoire numérique / Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
EN
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L’Union européenne (UE) se sert principalement d’outils normatifs pour exercer du pouvoir sur la scène internationale, notamment par la promotion de ses propres lois et standards. Le meilleur exemple est l’élargissement de l’UE, processus ayant contribué à stabiliser l'Europe et à transformer les candidats en des démocraties de marché, notamment en promouvant un rapprochement avec les normes européennes en échange d’une perspective d’adhésion à l’UE. La Politique européenne de Voisinage (PEV) utilise les mêmes mécanismes développés lors des élargissements, notamment la promotion de réformes en échange d’incitatifs financiers. Par contre, la PEV n’offre aucune perspective d’adhésion à l’UE aux États qui y participent. Ainsi, plusieurs études ont conclu que cette politique ne pourrait engendrer les réformes escomptées. Bien que la coopération au sein de la PEV ne soit pas aussi fructueuse que lors des élargissements, on remarque que certains pays plus que d’autres ont, malgré l’absence de perspective d’adhésion, fait des changements à leur législation en conformité avec les normes européennes. En comparant la coopération dans le secteur de la Justice et des affaires intérieures en Moldavie et en Ukraine...

Features of neighbourhood environments associated with obesity and related health behaviours in children: using multiple statistical approaches to identify obesogenic environments

Van Hulst, Andraea
Fonte: Université de Montréal Publicador: Université de Montréal
Tipo: Thèse ou Mémoire numérique / Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.25%
Contexte: L'obésité chez les jeunes représente aujourd’hui un problème de santé publique à l’échelle mondiale. Afin d’identifier des cibles potentielles pour des stratégies populationnelles de prévention, les liens entre les caractéristiques du voisinage, l’obésité chez les jeunes et les habitudes de vie font de plus en plus l’objet d’études. Cependant, la recherche à ce jour comporte plusieurs incohérences. But: L’objectif général de cette thèse est d’étudier la contribution de différentes caractéristiques du voisinage relativement à l’obésité chez les jeunes et les habitudes de vie qui y sont associées. Les objectifs spécifiques consistent à: 1) Examiner les associations entre la présence de différents commerces d’alimentation dans les voisinages résidentiels et scolaires des enfants et leurs habitudes alimentaires; 2) Examiner comment l’exposition à certaines caractéristiques du voisinage résidentiel détermine l’obésité au niveau familial (chez le jeune, la mère et le père), ainsi que l’obésité individuelle pour chaque membre de la famille; 3) Identifier des combinaisons de facteurs de risque individuels, familiaux et du voisinage résidentiel qui prédisent le mieux l’obésité chez les jeunes...

Efficient parallel inversion using the Neighbourhood Algorithm

Rickwood, Peter; Sambridge, Malcolm
Fonte: American Geophysical Union Publicador: American Geophysical Union
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.75%
Issues controlling efficient parallel implementations of a popular direct search inversion algorithm are analyzed and discussed. A naive parallelization of a particular method, the Neighbourhood parameter search algorithm, leads to inefficient use of para

Seismic event location: nonlinear inversion using a neighbourhood algorithm

Sambridge, Malcolm; Kennett, Brian
Fonte: Birkhauser Verlag Publicador: Birkhauser Verlag
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.89%
A recently developed direct search method for inversion, known as a neighbourhood algorithm (NA), is applied to the hypocentre location problem. Like some previous methods the algorithm uses randomised, or stochastic, sampling of a four-dimensional hypocentral parameter space, to search for solutions with acceptable data fit. Considerable flexibility is allowed in the choice of misfit measure. At each stage the hypocentral parameter space is partitioned into a series of convex polygons called Voronoi cells. Each cell surrounds a previously generated hypocentre for which the fit to the data has been determined. As the algorithm proceeds new hypocentres are randomly generated in the neighbourhood of those hypocentres with smaller data misfit. In this way all previous hypocentres guide the search, and the more promising regions of parameter space are preferentially sampled. The NA procedure makes use of just two tuning parameters. It is possible to choose their values so that the behaviour of the algorithm is similar to that of a contracting irregular grid in 4-D. This is the feature of the algorithm that we exploit for hypocentre location. In experiments with different events and data sources, the NA approach is able to achieve comparable or better levels of data fit than a range of alternative methods; linearised least-squares...

Nonlinear waveform inversion for surface waves with a neighbourhood algorithm: application to multi-mode dispersion measurements

Yoshizawa, K; Kennett, Brian
Fonte: Blackwell Publishing Ltd Publicador: Blackwell Publishing Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.75%
A new technique for multimode dispersion measurement has been developed by employing fully non-linear waveform inversion for a path-specific 1-D profile using a neighbourhood algorithm (NA). One-dimensional models derived from waveform inversion are quite sensitive to the model parametrization and the reference model used to start the inversion. With different approaches to the parametrization of the shear wave speed profile, we can find models with significant differences in velocity variation with depth, which provide similar levels of fit to the observed waveforms. Although the models differ, the calculated phase dispersion for the first few modes of the surface waves are very close indeed. We therefore regard the 1-D models derived from the multimode waveform inversion as an implicit description of the path-specific dispersion for each of the modes. The inversion procedure using NA samples a substantial number of models and we select the 1-D wave speed model that achieves minimum misfit. Phase speeds for each for each mode branch are then calculated from the model parameters with the minimum misfit. Because we use the 1-D models as a summary of the average multimode dispersion along the path, we do not need to make assumptions concerning the nature of anisotropy. We can employ simple isotropic models and the method can be applied to both Rayleigh and Love waves independently. The new method is applied to sets of paths in the Australian region and provides stable measurements of multimode dispersion from a single seismogram. The multimode phase speeds measured using the NA inversion can be used to retrieve phase velocity maps as a function of frequency for higher-mode branches as well as the fundamental mode...

Seismic source characterization using a Neighbourhood Algorithm

Kennett, Brian; Marson-Pidgeon, K; Sambridge, Malcolm
Fonte: American Geophysical Union Publicador: American Geophysical Union
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.75%
The full characterization of a seismic source requires the specification of the hypocentre location and the source mechanism. The non-linear inversion is accomplished in two stages using the Neighbourhood Algorithm (NA), a direct search method in parameter space which is able to preferentially sample those regions with least data misfit; there are just two control parameters and no differentiation is employed. The first step is hypocentre location using a 4-D search space and a focussed search strategy. The second step is waveform inversion of the early part of P and S wavetrains to refine source depth and extract the source mechanism. With a moment tensor representation, this second stage explores an 8-D parameter space. For both the hypocentre and source mechanism inversion the NA method provides rapid and effective results with information from just a few stations, as illustrated with an event in southern Xinjiang.

A Neighbourhood Semantics for the Logic TK; A Neighbourhood Semantics for the Logic TK

Mortari, Cezar A.; Departamento de Filosofia Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina Campus Universitário – Trindade 88040-010 Florianópolis, SC; Feitosa, Hércules de Araújo; Departamento de Matemática Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP) Campus d
Fonte: Federal University of Santa Catarina – UFSC Publicador: Federal University of Santa Catarina – UFSC
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; ; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 24/02/2012 POR
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The logic TK was introduced as a propositional logic extending the classical propositional calculus with a new unary operator which interprets some conceptions of Tarski’s consequence operator. TK-algebras were introduced as models to TK. Thus, by using algebraic tools, the adequacy (soundness and completeness) of TK relatively to the TK-algebras was proved. This work presents a neighbourhood semantics for TK, which turns out to be deductively equivalent to the non-normal modal logic EMT4. DOI:10.5007/1808-1711.2011v15n2p287 ; A lógica TK foi introduzida como uma lógica proposicional estendendo o cálculo proposicional clássico com um novo operador unário que interpreta algumas concepções do operador de consequência de Tarski. TK-álgebras foram introduzidas como modelos para TK. Assim, usando ferramentas algébricas, foi demonstrada a adequação (correção e completude) de TK relativamente às TK-álgebras. Este trabalho apresenta uma semântica de vizinhanças para TK, lógica que resulta ser dedutivamente equivalente à lógica modal não normal EMT4. DOI:10.5007/1808-1711.2011v15n2p287 

Neighbourhood integration in european multi-ethnic cities. Evidence from the Geitonies project

Fonseca,Maria Lucinda; McGarrigle,Jennifer; Esteves,Alina
Fonte: Centro de Estudos Geográficos Publicador: Centro de Estudos Geográficos
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/06/2013 EN
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36.89%
This special issue of Finisterra is based on the findings of the GEITONIES project, and intends to shed some light on questions relating to ethnic diversity, social relations and participation in urban settings. The research was conducted in 6 European cities: Lisbon, Bilbao, Thessaloniki Rotterdam, Vienna and Warsaw and the neighbourhood context was adopted as the field of research. A random survey was implemented to 3600 residents in 18 neighbourhoods in the six cities. The papers included in this special issue of Finisterra - Revista Portuguesa de Geografia, focus on processes of change and social relations at the neighbourhood level and stress the role of place and time in the development of positive inter-group contacts, representations and integration.

Modes of neighbourhood embeddedness in three multi-ethnic neighbourhoods in Lisbon. An exploratory analysis

Fonseca,Maria Lucinda; McGarrigle,Jennifer
Fonte: Centro de Estudos Geográficos Publicador: Centro de Estudos Geográficos
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/06/2013 EN
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37.05%
The role of urban neighbourhoods in social cohesion has been extensively debated in recent times, both in academic and political circles. This paper explores different modes of coexistence and neighbourhood embeddedness in three multi-ethnic neighbourhoods in the Lisbon Metropolitan Area. Using factor and cluster analysis, with data collected in a survey of the native and immigrant population and drawing upon complementary qualitative data from focus groups with key actors in each neighbourhood, five modes of neighbourhood embeddedness are identified. These modes serve to enhance our understanding of the nature of social interactions and social networks between and within groups. A geographical perspective is adopted incorporating possible effects relating to the characteristics of the neighbourhood as well as the socio-ethnic and demographic profiles of the respondents.

Strong ties inside and outside the neighbourhood. An exploratory analysis of the spatial dimension of ego/alter relations in three urban settings in Vienna

Kohlbacher,Josef; Reeger,Ursula; Schnell,Philipp
Fonte: Centro de Estudos Geográficos Publicador: Centro de Estudos Geográficos
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/06/2013 EN
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37.13%
Regarding the spatial dimension of ego/alter relations, the fact whether egos and alters live within the same neighbourhood and the consequences thereof are heavily debated. Some authors argue that a network consisting mostly of people who live in the same urban area may result in lower socio-economic opportunities. Another strand of research emphasizes the importance of strong ties on the local level for neighbourhood embeddedness and social cohesion. In this article the role of the neighbourhood (a) in the formation of strong ties, (b) as the place where strong ties currently live and (c) as a meeting place for people sharing strong ties is investigated for three neighbourhoods in Vienna. In line with previous research results, it turns out that in the socially marginalized remote setting, strong ties are more often neighbourhood-based and less often interethnic. In the more affluent neighbourhood, strong ties are not so strongly bound to the neighbourhood, but are more spatially dispersed.

Fent barri: heritage tourism policy and neighbourhood scaling in Ciutat de Mallorca

Morell,Marc
Fonte: Centro em Rede de Investigação em Antropologia - CRIA Publicador: Centro em Rede de Investigação em Antropologia - CRIA
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/11/2009 EN
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37.13%
This paper explores the meanings of the local expression fer barri (neighbourhood making) in a gentrifying area located in the Historic Centre of Ciutat de Mallorca (Spain). After closely examining the relation of fer barri with tourism in Mallorca, I analyse the tensions between the urban planning schemes unleashed by the public authorities upon this heritage-loaded territory and the practices of its inhabitants. I argue that the concept of neighbourhood scaling best accounts for the social relations that this sub-urban context embodies, given the hierarchy of forces impinging on it (urban, regional, national, global). Urban policy plans and organised residents scale the neighbourhood in conflictual terms. Some follow a tourism-dependent logic and try to promote the neighbourhood along the lines of heritage, its centrality or by setting up large events. In addition to State-led policies, tourism businesses and real estate enterprises, urban movements often depicted as oppositional groups have their own understanding of fer barri. This is an understanding of contradictory kind since in their attempts to contest capital accumulation by placing a value on the neighbourhood, urban movements can also unintentionally pave the way for both renewal and gentrification. A thorough analysis of the local term fer barri therefore reveals contrasting projects of neighbourhood scaling.