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Do colapso à reconstrução: estados falidos, operações de nation-building e o caso do Afeganistão no pós Guerra Fria; From the collapse to the reconstruction: failed states, Nation-Building operations and the Afghan case in the post Cold War

Gomes, Aureo de Toledo
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 25/06/2008 PT
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Após os atentados terroristas de Onze de setembro de 2001 os Estados Falidos passaram a ser considerados uma das principais ameaças à paz e segurança internacional. A maior parte dos estudos sobre o tema argumenta que a melhor maneira para se lidar com esta ameaça são as chamadas operações de Nation-Building, lideradas por agentes externos e cujos objetivos principais são reconstruir as instituições políticas, promover eleições democráticas e consolidar uma economia de mercado no país alvo. Assim sendo, na primeira parte do trabalho, intitulada O Colapso, esta dissertação almeja analisar as características do conceito de Estado Falido à luz do caso do Afeganistão. Na segunda parte, intitulada A Reconstrução, ambicionamos entender o que são e como são levadas a cabo as operações de Nation- Building, analisando as missões lideradas pela ONU e pelos EUA e realizando um estudo da atual operação no Afeganistão.; After the September 11th, 2001 terrorist attacks, Failed States have been considered one of the greatest threats to peace and international security. The great majority of the studies about this theme argue that one of the best ways to cope with this threat are the so-called Nation-Building operations...

Tentativas de enraizamento: arquitetura brasileira e formação nacional; Attempts at rooting: Brazilian architecture and nation-building

Trajano Filho, Francisco Sales
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 18/06/2010 PT
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Esse estudo se configura como um intento de deslindar uma mirada sobre a arquitetura brasileira a partir das estratégias discursivas postas em curso no processo de sua objetivação. Mais especificamente, nos interessa problematizar os discursos e representações que entre meados do século XIX e a década de 1930 se elaboraram em torno do tópico da identidade arquitetônica, inextricável das questões de formação nacional no sentido mais amplo dessa ideia, cultural, racial e histórica, e que se apresentaram em dados momentos e sob certas contingências como interpretações legítimas do que seria nacional, brasileiro, próprio e peculiar em arquitetura, buscando assim assegurar-lhes um lugar privilegiado de enunciação. Para tanto, consideramos oportuna e profícua uma aproximação dos debates no campo arquitetônico àqueles conduzidos em torno da questão da nação e da identidade nacional, na perspectiva da investigação dos diálogos, deslizamentos conceituais e imbricações entre arquitetura e pensamento social brasileiro em temas como nação, identidade, influência do meio, raça, herança portuguesa, etc., e seu sentido formativo nas representações da arquitetura brasileira, arranjados no esforço de fixação de uma feição peculiarmente brasileira na arquitetura.Operando de forma produtiva uma investigação assente no reconhecimento das imbricações...

O colapso e a reconstrução: uma análise do discurso sobre Estados falidos e reconstrução de Estados; Collapse and Reconstruction: a Discourse Analysis of Failed States and Nation-Building

Gomes, Aureo de Toledo
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 23/08/2012 PT
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Mediante a teoria do discurso de Ernesto Laclau, a tese analisa as concepções de Estados Falidos e nation-building presentes em documentos produzidos durante a administração George W. Bush. Almejamos entender como o fracasso estatal foi concebido como um evento eminentemente doméstico, assim como as ideias de que a democracia liberal é a melhor instituição para os Estados Falidos, e que os EUA possuem capacidade reconhecida para reconstruir Estados. Nossas hipóteses são as seguintes: primeiramente, por meio de premissas do institucionalismo da escolha racional, a história dos Estados Falidos é vista de maneira pejorativa, julgada à luz do desenvolvimento político e econômico ocidental. Em segundo lugar, a democracia é aqui compreendida como um significante vazio, visto que, seria não apenas o melhor e mais justo sistema político e econômico, mas também aquele que permitiria que países executassem de maneira mais eficiente funções estatais consideradas essenciais. Finalmente, com base em uma série de estudos de casos, os documentos apresentam uma visão dos EUA enquanto país historicamente engajado em nation-building, começando com as intervenções na Alemanha e no Japão ao final da Segunda Guerra Mundial...

Nation-building e segurança internacional: Um debate em construção

Gomes,Aureo de Toledo
Fonte: Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio de Janeiro, Instituto de Relações Internacionais Publicador: Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio de Janeiro, Instituto de Relações Internacionais
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/08/2009 PT
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Este artigo almeja analisar as operações de nation-building, que, desde os atentados terroristas de 11 de setembro de 2001, são consideradas uma das maneiras para se lidar com as novas ameaças de segurança internacional, principalmente os ditos Estados Falidos. Assim sendo, revisaremos a bibliografia sobre o tema, procurando identificar as origens destas operações, assim como as definições utilizadas pelos principais autores e os problemas que elas possam apresentar.

Coping with "traditions": the analysis of East-Timorese nation building from the perspective of a certain anthropology made in Brazil

Silva,Kelly; Simião,Daniel
Fonte: Associação Brasileira de Antropologia (ABA) Publicador: Associação Brasileira de Antropologia (ABA)
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/06/2012 EN
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The purpose of this essay is twofold. First, we explore the extent to which certain practices in urban East Timor perceived as traditional may be associated to different ways of negotiating individual and collective identities while uncovering dilemmas of nation building and state formation. To this effect, we take into account specific variations of current practices in marriage negotiations in Dili, considering their structural role in forging local sociality. Based on repeated field trips, we contend that different discourses about "tradition" can be related to different ways in which one is positioned vis-à-vis the multiple symbolic elements available in current East-Timorese public spaces. As these different meanings of "tradition" also challenge public policies, their application may uncover different ideas about what a nation ought to be. Second, we ponder on the extent to which our specific focus is due to our background as Brazilian anthropologists, built around our dialogue with certain anthropological lines of analysis in Brazil, particularly those related to interethnic friction and the place of indigenous peoples in the national imagination, as well as those dedicated to such themes as cultural diversity, citizenship...

Diversity and Knowledge in the Age of Nation-Building: Space and Time in the Thought of Yanagita Kunio

Kojima, Takehiko
Fonte: FIU Digital Commons Publicador: FIU Digital Commons
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
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The study examines the thought of Yanagita Kunio (1875-1962), an influential Japanese nationalist thinker best known as a founder of the discipline of Japanese folklore (minzokugaku). The purpose of the study is to bring into light an unredeemed potential of his intellectual and political project as a critique of the way in which modern politics and knowledge systematically suppresses global diversity. The study reads his texts against the backdrop of the modern understanding of space and time and its political and moral implications and traces the historical evolution of his thought that culminates in the establishment of minzokugaku. My reading of Yanagita’s texts draws on three interpretive hypotheses. First, his thought can be interpreted as a critical engagement with John Stuart Mill’s philosophy of history, as he turns Mill’s defense of diversity against Mill’s justification of enlightened despotism in non-Western societies. Second, to counter Mill’s individualistic notion of progressive agency, he turns to a Marxian notion of anthropological space, in which a laboring class makes history by continuously transforming nature, and rehabilitates the common people (jōmin) as progressive agents. Third, in addition to the common people...

Natural Disasters and Comparative State-Formation and Nation-Building: Earthquakes in Argentina and Chile (1822-1939)

Dauer, Quinn
Fonte: FIU Digital Commons Publicador: FIU Digital Commons
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
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Natural disasters in Argentina and Chile played a significant role in the state-formation and nation-building process (1822-1939). This dissertation explores state and society responses to earthquakes by studying public and private relief efforts reconstruction plans, crime and disorder, religious interpretations of catastrophes, national and transnational cultures of disaster, science and technology, and popular politics. Although Argentina and Chile share a political border and geological boundary, the two countries provide contrasting examples of state formation. Most disaster relief and reconstruction efforts emanated from the centralized Chilean state in Santiago. In Argentina, provincial officials made the majority of decisions in a catastrophe’s aftermath. Patriotic citizens raised money and collected clothing for survivors that helped to weave divergent regions together into a nation. The shared experience of earthquakes in all regions of Chile created a national disaster culture. Similarly, common disaster experiences, reciprocal relief efforts, and aid commissions linked Chileans with Western Argentine societies and generated a transnational disaster culture. Political leaders viewed reconstruction as opportunities to implement their visions for the nation on the urban landscape. These rebuilding projects threatened existing social hierarchies and often failed to come to fruition. Rebuilding brought new technologies from Europe to the Southern Cone. New building materials and systems...

Rethinking militias recognizing the potential of militia groups in nation-building

Thomas, Glenn R.
Fonte: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: xii, 63 p. : ill. (some col.) ;
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Recent media, political, and military consideration regarding the use of militias has been almost totally negative. This conceptual bias against militias is somewhat misguided, and can lead to disastrously counterproductive situations. Conceivably, militias can play a role in building a functioning state, and can support immediate and long-term U.S. and host nation government efforts in these situations. Stability, Security, Transition, and Reconstruction (SSTR) has become a mainstay of current U.S. strategy, but little effort is dedicated to developing options that deal specifically with the inclusion of irregular forces outside the control of a central government. This thesis seeks to counter the conceptual bias against militia groups, and provides a framework for analyzing militias' potential to assist with the establishment of governance in weak and failing states. Second, it analyzes a series of examples and arrays them along a spectrum that can be used to better define militias' characteristics and intents. The third aim of this thesis is to offer a set of strategy options the U.S. might apply in its efforts to deal with militias in its nation-building efforts.; US Army (USA) author.

Winning bodies and souls state building and the necessity of nationalism

Adams, Jonathan M.
Fonte: Monterey California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey California. Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: xii, 74 p. : ill. ;
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This thesis argues the obvious, but still widely neglected point that for successful state building to occur in the post-Cold War era, nationalism remains a necessary but not sufficient condition for the emergence of a stable modern nation-state. Nationalism is both the key to state building and the central element in any explanation of the limitations of the modern nation-state and the system of sovereign nation-states in the early 21st century. Without a genuinely unifying nationalism and a strong sense of national identity, underpinned by the provision of goods and services, a modern nation-state is nothing but an ineffective bureaucratic edifice masquerading as a modern sovereign nation-state. Despite the post- Cold War resurgence in the theory and practice of state building (or nation building), the crucial role of nationalism receives virtually no attention. The term nationalism is used here in the deepest sense possible: it is not being used to describe a superficial agreement that 'we are all Iraqis now' or 'all Afghanis now' because 'we' elected a new government, usually under the auspices of the United Nations and ostensibly responsible for the 'national' territory within which 'we' live. The central point of this thesis is that despite its apparent obviousness...

Culture and Imperialism in a 'Backward' Nation? the Prima-Guerra-D'Africa (1885-96) in Italian Primary Schools

FINALDI, Giuseppe
Fonte: Routledge Taylor & Francis Ltd Publicador: Routledge Taylor & Francis Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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This article attempts to tackle the problem of how a colonial culture that was elaborated through the written word may have impacted on an Italian society that was significantly more 'backward' than its western European counterparts. The Prima Guerra d'Africa (1885-96) has often been seen as a military campaign desired exclusively by an isolated Italian government in a society that was incapable of using the occasion to develop cultural themes that impacted on the desires and aspirations of the 'real' Italy. This supposed societal dysfunction meant that Italy failed to create a 'culture of Imperialism' in the years of the Scramble for Africa in a way that has now come to be considered of such central importance for the histories of France, Britain or even Germany. Through an analysis of the role played primary schools in Italian culture in these years, this article attempts to reverse this view, arguing that even taking into consideration Italy's 'backwardness' there was not only a great awareness of what Italy was supposedly doing in Africa but also a serious attempt to load the events that occurred there with a meaning that had a much more intimate relationship with Italy's population. Although defeat in Africa meant a major setback in this process...

Unsettling the White Noise: Deconstructing the Nation-Building Project of CBC Radio One’s Canada Reads

Burns, EMILY
Fonte: Quens University Publicador: Quens University
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
EN; EN
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The Canadian Broadcasting Corporation’s Canada Reads program, based on the popular television show Survivor, welcomes five Canadian personalities to defend one Canadian book, per year, that they believe all Canadians should read. The program signifies a common discourse in Canada as a nation-state regarding its own lack of coherent and fixed identity, and can be understood as a nationalist project. I am working with Canada Reads as an existing archive, utilizing materials as both individual and interconnected entities in a larger and ongoing process of cultural production – and it is important to note that it is impossible to separate cultural production from cultural consumption. Each year offers a different set of insights that can be consumed in their own right, which is why this project is written in the present tense. Focusing on the first ten years of the Canada Reads competition, I argue that Canada Reads plays a specific and calculated role in the CBC’s goal of nation-building: one that obfuscates repressive national histories and legacies and instead promotes the transformative powers of literacy as that which can conquer historical and contemporary inequalities of all types. This research lays bare the imagined and idealized ‘communities’ of Canada Reads audiences that the CBC wishes to reflect in its programming...

'An Ancillary Weapon’: Cultural Diplomacy and Nation-building in Cold War Canada, 1945-1967

Miller, KAILEY
Fonte: Quens University Publicador: Quens University
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
EN; EN
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This dissertation is a study of Canada’s cultural approaches toward the Communist world – particularly in the performing arts – and the ways in which the public and private sectors sought to develop Canada’s identity during the Cold War. The first chapter examines how the defection of Igor Gouzenko in 1945 framed the Canadian state’s approach to the security aspects of cultural exchanges with the Soviet Union. Chapters 2 to 4 analyse the socio-economic, political, and international context that shaped Canada's music, classical theatre, and ballet exchanges with communist countries. The final chapter explores Expo ’67’s World Festival of Arts and Entertainment as a significant moment in international and domestic cultural relations. I contend that although focused abroad, Canada’s cultural initiatives served a nation-building purpose at home. For practitioners of Canadian cultural diplomacy, domestic audiences were just as, if not more, important as foreign audiences.; Thesis (Ph.D, History) -- Queen's University, 2015-09-20 15:02:46.022

A construção da nação no pensamento de Celso Furtado; The nation building of the Celso Furtado's thought

Wilson Vieira
Fonte: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp Publicador: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 12/03/2010 PT
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O tema que discutimos nesta tese - A Construção da Nação no Pensamento de Celso Furtado - tem como meta contribuir para o debate acerca da reflexão do referido cientista social sobre o tema da nação Brasil. E para que tal intento se realize, objetivamos: I) Analisar a trajetória intelectual de Furtado acerca da temática da construção da nação entre 1948 e 1964, período de suas primeiras elaborações teóricas e de ação pública intensa, bases para reflexões posteriores. II) Expor as influências teóricas recebidas por Furtado para a elaboração de sua reflexão sobre tal temática. III) Localizar Furtado no debate ocorrido no período sobre esse tema, a fim de se captar a originalidade de sua reflexão. IV) Captar as transformações de sua reflexão nesse período. Os objetivos acima expostos buscam contribuir para a discussão das seguintes questões: I) Qual a originalidade da reflexão de Celso Furtado sobre a construção da nação Brasil? II) Quem influenciou Furtado na sua reflexão sobre tal temática? III) Como Furtado participa do debate esse tema no período, tanto em nível nacional quanto internacional? IV) Quais as continuidades e mudanças na reflexão de Furtado sobre o tema da construção da nação? Trabalhamos com a hipótese de que Furtado reflete sobre a construção da nação de uma maneira original...

Religião e nação na Europa no século XIX: algumas notas comparativas; Religion and nation in Europe in the 19th century: some comparative notes

Haupt, Heinz-Gerhard
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Instituto de Estudos Avançados Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Instituto de Estudos Avançados
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; ; ; ; ; ; Formato: application/pdf; application/pdf
Publicado em 01/04/2008 POR; ENG
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Este ensaio procura analisar a relação ente nação e religião entre a segunda metade do século XIX e a primeira década do século XX, durante o processo Nation building que se verifica em várias nações européias. Propõe-se aqui uma análise comparada entre os casos de França, Itália, a parte checa do Império Austro-Húngaro e Alemanha. Dando conta das pesquisas mais recentes sobre a afirmação do nacionalismo nesse período, rebate-se a afirmação simplista de que o sucesso do nacionalismo dependeu do desmoronamento da religião do final do século XVIII.; This Essay aims to analyze the relation between nation and religion from the second half of the 19th century to the first decade of the 20th century, during the process of Nation building that could be observed in several European nations. We propose a comparative analysis of the following cases: France, Italy, the Czech part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, and Germany. Considering the recent researches on the affirmation of nationalism in that period, we respond to the simplistic statement that the success of nationalism depended on the ruin of religion after the end of the 18th century.

Soberania popular, cidadania, e nação na América Hispânica: a experiência republicana do século XIX; Soberanía popular, ciudadanía y nación en Hispanoamérica: la experiencia republicana del siglo XIX; Popular sovereignty, citizenship, and nation-building in nineteenth century Spanish America: the republican experiment

Sabato, Hilda
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Instituto de Estudos Brasileiros Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Instituto de Estudos Brasileiros
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; ; ; ; ; ; Formato: application/pdf; application/pdf
Publicado em 01/05/2009 POR; SPA
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Este ensaio analisa a mudança política de longo prazo que teve início com a revolução de independência na América Hispânica: a experiência republicana do século XIX. A adoção do princípio de soberania popular para fundar e legitimar o governo e a autoridade, comum para quase todas as tentativas de conformação de novas comunidades políticas após a ruptura da ordem monárquica espanhola, trouxe mudanças decisivas nas normas, nas instituições e nas práticas políticas. Para analisar tais mudanças, este ensaio recorre à categoria de "cidadania" como lente de observação que permite o questionamento sobre a participação política e as formas de inclusão/exclusão na república. Na base de uma ampla bibliografia disponível sobre o assunto, são explorados traços e tendências compartilhados em relação com a instituição da cidadania em três de suas fases mais estudadas até hoje: a eleitoral, a das armas e a que se refere à opinião pública.; Este ensayo reflexiona sobre el cambio político de largo plazo que se inaugura con la revolución de independencia en Hispanoamérica: la experiencia republicana del siglo XIX. La adopción del principio de la soberanía popular para fundar y legitimar el gobierno y la autoridad...

Islam and nation building in Southeast Asia: Malaysia and Indonesia in comparative perspective

Hamayotsu, Kikue
Fonte: UBC Press Publicador: UBC Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Since the onset of the financial crisis in 1997, political developments in the two largest Muslim-majority countries in Southeast Asia - Malaysia and Indonesia - have emphasized a recurrent theme that has lingered in both countries after independence: the uneasy relationship between Islam and nation building. It is, however, the markedly contrasting nation-building processes in the two neighboring countries that present a fundamental challenge to our conventional thinking on the relationship between Islam and nation building. Conventional wisdom contends that Islam is unfit to form the foundations of a modern nation-state that transcends parochial religious sentiments. The Indonesian case seems to confirm this claim: Islam did indeed prove to be a divisive force, reinforcing religious-oriented parochial sentiments. The rise of inter-religious hostility and violence, moreover, suggests that huge discrepancies in the people's perception of their national vision still remain. The Malaysian case, on the other hand, demonstrates that Islam can be compatible with the process of modern nation building. Despite undergoing a powerful surge of Islamisation, both at the state level as well as in society, Malaysia has witnessed a steadily growing "national" consciousness in the past decades. This paper seeks to explain this cross-national variation in outcomes by examining the way in which Islam has been embedded in the two respective states' projects of nation building. It draws special attention to the ideological dispositions of the states' leaders...

Censos e construção nacional no Brasil Imperial; Census and nation building in the Brazilian Empire

Botelho, Tarcisio R.
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Filosofia, Letras e Ciências Humanas Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Filosofia, Letras e Ciências Humanas
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; ; ; ; ; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 01/06/2005 POR
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Este artigo analisa como o tema "nação" se articulou, no século XIX, com as tentativas de realizar os primeiros levantamentos censitários brasileiros, especialmente em 1852 e em 1872. Traça-se um paralelo entre a necessidade sentida pela elite política nacional de realizar censos gerais e o processo de construção da nação, que acompanha o processo de construção do Estado. Identificando já no século XIX o início desse processo, procuro mostrar que os censos podem ser pensados como elementos articulados a ele. Da mesma forma, o Recenseamento Geral do Império de 1872 forneceu pela primeira vez um retrato da nação no que diz respeito ao povo que a constituía, realizando uma significativa representação da nação.; This article analyses the censuses in XIXth century Brazil, especially in 1852 and in 1872, as a part of the nation building process. I trace a parallel between the necessities of national censuses perceived by the national political elites and the processes of nation and state building. I show that censuses can be considered a part of this process, articulating bureaucratic necessities and symbolic dimensions for the nation building process. In this sense, the Imperial General Census of 1872 exhibited, for the first time...

A pictografia da tristesse: uma antropologia do nation-building nos trópicos

Velho, Otávio; Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro
Fonte: Programa de Pós-Graduação em Antropolgia Social da UFSC Publicador: Programa de Pós-Graduação em Antropolgia Social da UFSC
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; Avaliado por Pares; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 01/01/2003 POR
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O autor procura situar a antropologia que se pratica no Brasil no contexto do ´nation building´, lançando mão de outros casos e conceitos (como o de ´duplo vínculo´) para comparação. Busca mostrar a produtividade, mas também os limites desse enquadramento, explorando novos caminhos que podem se abrir.

Mobilising History for nation-building in South Africa: a decolonial perspective

Ndlovu,Morgan
Fonte: Yesterday and Today Publicador: Yesterday and Today
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/10/2013 EN
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One of the greatest challenges facing people in the process of becoming South Africans today is that of building a cohesive national identity out of diverse and competing national, cultural and ethnic aspirations and identities that were never imagined as belonging to a single nation-state. This challenge has been made worse by the fact that the advent of the post-apartheid dispensation came with liberal democratic values of diversity, tolerance and various forms of freedom such as those of choice, association and speech. All of these freedoms have brought about an impediment to the cultivation of the spirit of patriotism, common belonging and unity among the peoples meant to become South Africans. While a number of obstacles have been identified in the quest to develop a sense of common belonging among the peoples who occupy the cartographic space known as South Africa today, the question of knowledge production and its divisive role in the making of South Africa has not yet been comprehensively addressed. This gap needs to be addressed urgently with specific reference to the field of producing historical knowledge because the manner in which historical events and narratives are imagined and reconstructed in South Africa today has the potential to constrain and/or enhance common belonging. This article is a decolonial epistemic perspective on the production of historical knowledge in South Africa and it argues that a decolonised historical narrative can possibly lead to the emergence of a cohesive South African national identity.

History curriculum, nation-building and the promotion of common values in Africa: a comparative analysis of Zimbabwe and South Africa

Ndlovu,Morgan
Fonte: Yesterday and Today Publicador: Yesterday and Today
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2009 EN
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A challenge for Africa is how to derive common values from the values of diverse communities. The challenge becomes even more difficult in the face of notions such as autonomy, multiculturalism and respect for difference which are accompanying the emergence of neo-liberalism, globalisation and cosmopolitanism. While it is important to respect diversity in a post-colonial society, it is equally important that nation-building should strive for the promotion of common values among the citizenry. This article uses the example of Zimbabwe and South Africa as a comparative case study to investigate how the ruling elites in these two southern African countries have endeavoured to apply the curriculum for nation-building and the promotion of common citizenship by inculcating common values in young citizens. The article also explores the role of the curriculum from the perspective of social constructivism, where 'curriculum' is defined as an agency to foster social, cultural and political ideals in society. The academic discipline that is highly vulnerable to the imperatives of nation-building and the interests of the political elite is history, as it is prone to manipulation by political regimes in their hegemonic projects.