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Mutation accumulation in Tetrahymena

Brito, Patrícia H.; Guilherme, Elsa; Soares, Helena; Gordo, Isabel
Fonte: BioMed Central Publicador: BioMed Central
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /11/2010 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.14%
Background - The rate and fitness effects of mutations are key in understanding the evolution of every species. Traditionally, these parameters are estimated in mutation accumulation experiments where replicate lines are propagated in conditions that allow mutations to randomly accumulate without the purging effect of natural selection. These experiments have been performed with many model organisms but we still lack empirical estimates of the rate and effects of mutation in the protists. Results - We performed a mutation accumulation (MA) experiment in Tetrahymena thermophila, a species that can reproduce sexually and asexually in nature, and measured both the mean decline and variance increase in fitness of 20 lines. The results obtained with T. thermophila were compared with T. pyriformis that is an obligate asexual species. We show that MA lines of T. thermophila go to extinction at a rate of 1.25 clonal extinctions per bottleneck. In contrast, populations of T. pyriformis show a much higher resistance to extinction. Variation in gene copy number is likely to be a key factor in explaining these results, and indeed we show that T. pyriformis has a higher mean copy number per cell than T. thermophila. From fitness measurements during the MA experiment...

Deleterious mutation accumulation and the regeneration of genetic resources

Schoen, Daniel J.; David, Jacques L.; Bataillon, Thomas M.
Fonte: National Academy of Sciences Publicador: National Academy of Sciences
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 06/01/1998 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.19%
The accumulation of mildly deleterious mutations accompanying recurrent regeneration of plant germ plasm was modeled under regeneration conditions characterized by different amounts of selection and genetic drift. Under some regeneration conditions (sample sizes ≥75 individuals and bulk harvesting of seed) mutation accumulation was negligible, but under others (sample sizes <75 individuals or equalization of seed production by individual plants) mutation numbers per genome increased significantly during 25–50 cycles of regeneration. When mutations also are assumed to occur (at elevated rates) during seed storage, significant mutation accumulation and fitness decline occurred in 10 or fewer cycles of regeneration regardless of the regeneration conditions. Calculations also were performed to determine the numbers of deleterious mutations introduced and remaining in the genome of an existing variety after hybridization with a genetic resource and subsequent backcrossing. The results suggest that mutation accumulation has the potential to reduce the viability of materials held in germ plasm collections and to offset gains expected by the introduction of particular genes of interest from genetic resources.

Metapopulation extinction caused by mutation accumulation

Higgins, Kevin; Lynch, Michael
Fonte: The National Academy of Sciences Publicador: The National Academy of Sciences
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.09%
Theory suggests that the risk of extinction by mutation accumulation can be comparable to that by environmental stochasticity for an isolated population smaller than a few thousand individuals. Here we show that metapopulation structure, habitat loss or fragmentation, and environmental stochasticity can be expected to greatly accelerate the accumulation of mildly deleterious mutations, lowering the genetic effective size to such a degree that even large metapopulations may be at risk of extinction. Because of mutation accumulation, viable metapopulations may need to be far larger and better connected than would be required under just stochastic demography.

Behavioral Degradation Under Mutation Accumulation in Caenorhabditis elegans

Ajie, Beverly C.; Estes, Suzanne; Lynch, Michael; Phillips, Patrick C.
Fonte: Genetics Society of America Publicador: Genetics Society of America
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /06/2005 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.09%
Spontaneous mutations play a fundamental role in the maintenance of genetic variation in natural populations, the nature of inbreeding depression, the evolution of sexual reproduction, and the conservation of endangered species. Using long-term mutation-accumulation lines of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, we estimate the rate and magnitude of mutational effects for a suite of behaviors characterizing individual chemosensory responses to a repellant stimulus. In accordance with evidence that the vast majority of mutations are deleterious, we find that behavioral responses degrade over time as a result of spontaneous mutation accumulation. The rate of mutation for behavioral traits is roughly of the same order or slightly smaller than those previously estimated for reproductive traits and the average size of the mutational effects is also comparable. These results have important implications for the maintenance of genetic variation for behavior in natural populations as well as for expectations for behavioral change within endangered species and captive populations.

The Relative Roles of Three DNA Repair Pathways in Preventing Caenorhabditis elegans Mutation Accumulation

Denver, Dee R.; Feinberg, Seth; Steding, Catherine; Durbin, Matthew; Lynch, Michael
Fonte: Copyright © 2006 by the Genetics Society of America Publicador: Copyright © 2006 by the Genetics Society of America
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /09/2006 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.18%
Mutation is a central biological process whose rates and spectra are influenced by a variety of complex and interacting forces. Although DNA repair pathways are generally known to play key roles in maintaining genetic stability, much remains to be understood about the relative roles of different pathways in preventing the accumulation of mutations and the extent of heterogeneity in pathway-specific repair efficiencies across different genomic regions. In this study we examine mutation processes in base excision repair-deficient (nth-1) and nucleotide excision repair-deficient (xpa-1) Caenorhabditis elegans mutation-accumulation (MA) lines across 24 regions of the genome and compare our observations to previous data from mismatch repair-deficient (msh-2 and msh-6) and wild-type (N2) MA lines. Drastic variation in both average and locus-specific mutation rates, ranging two orders of magnitude for the latter, was detected among the four sets of repair-deficient MA lines. Our work provides critical insights into the relative roles of three DNA repair pathways in preventing C. elegans mutation accumulation and provides evidence for the presence of pathway-specific DNA repair territories in the C. elegans genome.

The causes of mutation accumulation in mitochondrial genomes

Neiman, Maurine; Taylor, Douglas R.
Fonte: The Royal Society Publicador: The Royal Society
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.19%
A fundamental observation across eukaryotic taxa is that mitochondrial genomes have a higher load of deleterious mutations than nuclear genomes. Identifying the evolutionary forces that drive this difference is important to understanding the rates and patterns of sequence evolution, the efficacy of natural selection, the maintenance of sex and recombination and the mechanisms underlying human ageing and many diseases. Recent studies have implicated the presumed asexuality of mitochondrial genomes as responsible for their high mutational load. We review the current body of knowledge on mitochondrial mutation accumulation and recombination, and conclude that asexuality, per se, may not be the primary determinant of the high mutation load in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). Very little recombination is required to counter mutation accumulation, and recent evidence suggests that mitochondrial genomes do experience occasional recombination. Instead, a high rate of accumulation of mildly deleterious mutations in mtDNA may result from the small effective population size associated with effectively haploid inheritance. This type of transmission is nearly ubiquitous among mitochondrial genomes. We also describe an experimental framework using variation in mating system between closely related species to disentangle the root causes of mutation accumulation in mitochondrial genomes.

Analysis of the genome sequences of three Drosophila melanogaster spontaneous mutation accumulation lines

Keightley, Peter D.; Trivedi, Urmi; Thomson, Marian; Oliver, Fiona; Kumar, Sujai; Blaxter, Mark L.
Fonte: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press Publicador: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /07/2009 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.11%
We inferred the rate and properties of new spontaneous mutations in Drosophila melanogaster by carrying out whole-genome shotgun sequencing-by-synthesis of three mutation accumulation (MA) lines that had been maintained by close inbreeding for an average of 262 generations. We tested for the presence of new mutations by generating alignments of each MA line to the D. melanogaster reference genome sequence and then compared these alignments base by base. We determined empirically that at least five reads at a site within each line are required for accurate single nucleotide mutation calling. We mapped a total of 174 single-nucleotide mutations, giving a single nucleotide mutation rate of 3.5 × 10−9 per site per generation. There were no false positives in a random sample of 40 of these mutations checked by Sanger sequencing. Variation in the numbers of mutations among the MA lines was small and nonsignificant. Numbers of transition and transversion mutations were 86 and 88, respectively, implying that transition mutation rate is close to 2× the transversion rate. We observed 1.5× as many G or C → A or T as A or T → G or C mutations, implying that the G or C → A or T mutation rate is close to 2× the A or T → G or C mutation rate. The base composition of the genome is therefore not at an equilibrium determined solely by mutation. The predicted G + C content at mutational equilibrium (33%) is similar to that observed in transposable element remnants. Nearest-neighbor mutational context dependencies are nonsignificant...

Accelerated Mutation Accumulation in Asexual Lineages of a Freshwater Snail

Neiman, Maurine; Hehman, Gery; Miller, Joseph T.; Logsdon, John M.; Taylor, Douglas R.
Fonte: Oxford University Press Publicador: Oxford University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.26%
Sexual reproduction is both extremely costly and widespread relative to asexual reproduction, meaning that it must also confer profound advantages in order to persist. One theorized benefit of sex is that it facilitates the clearance of harmful mutations, which would accumulate more rapidly in the absence of recombination. The extent to which ineffective purifying selection and mutation accumulation are direct consequences of asexuality and whether the accelerated buildup of harmful mutations in asexuals can occur rapidly enough to maintain sex within natural populations, however, remain as open questions. We addressed key components of these questions by estimating the rate of mutation accumulation in the mitochondrial genomes of multiple sexual and asexual representatives of Potamopyrgus antipodarum, a New Zealand snail characterized by mixed sexual/asexual populations. We found that increased mutation accumulation is associated with asexuality and occurs rapidly enough to be detected in recently derived asexual lineages of P. antipodarum. Our results demonstrate that increased mutation accumulation in asexuals can differentially affect coexisting and ecologically similar sexual and asexual lineages. The accelerated rate of mutation accumulation observed in asexual P. antipodarum provides some of the most direct evidence to date for a link between asexuality and mutation accumulation and implies that mutational buildup could be rapid enough to contribute to the short-term evolutionary mechanisms that favor sexual reproduction.

Contrasting Mutation Rates from Specific-Locus and Long-Term Mutation-Accumulation Procedures

Drake, John W.
Fonte: Genetics Society of America Publicador: Genetics Society of America
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 01/04/2012 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.22%
Until recently, the two predominant ways to estimate mutation rates were the specific-locus method and the mutation-accumulation (Bateman-Mukai) method. Both involve seeding a number of parallel lines from a small, genetically uniform population, growing as long as is feasible but not so long as to allow selection to perturb mutant frequencies, and sometimes using extreme bottlenecks to facilitate the retention of deleterious mutations. In the specific-locus method, mutations are selected according to their specific phenotypes and are confirmed by sequencing. In older versions of the mutation-accumulation method, the increase in variance of a quantitative fitness trait is measured and converted into a mutation rate. More recently, a variation on the mutation-accumulation method has become possible based on phenotype-blind genomic sequencing, which might (or might not) provide improved sampling breadth, usually at the expense of sample size. In a recent study, genomic sequencing was applied to Escherichia coli lines propagated for 40,000 generations and passaged daily via 5,000,000 cells. To mitigate the impact of selection, the only targets employed for rate calculations were putatively neutral synonymous mutations. The mutation rate estimate was about 6-fold lower than obtained previously with a robust specific-locus method. Here I argue that purifying selection acting to shape the strong codon preferences of E. coli is the probable cause of the lower estimate...

Whole Genome Sequencing of Mutation Accumulation Lines Reveals a Low Mutation Rate in the Social Amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum

Saxer, Gerda; Havlak, Paul; Fox, Sara A.; Quance, Michael A.; Gupta, Sharu; Fofanov, Yuriy; Strassmann, Joan E.; Queller, David C.
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 08/10/2012 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.12%
Spontaneous mutations play a central role in evolution. Despite their importance, mutation rates are some of the most elusive parameters to measure in evolutionary biology. The combination of mutation accumulation (MA) experiments and whole-genome sequencing now makes it possible to estimate mutation rates by directly observing new mutations at the molecular level across the whole genome. We performed an MA experiment with the social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum and sequenced the genomes of three randomly chosen lines using high-throughput sequencing to estimate the spontaneous mutation rate in this model organism. The mitochondrial mutation rate of 6.76×10−9, with a Poisson confidence interval of 4.1×10−9 − 9.5×10−9, per nucleotide per generation is slightly lower than estimates for other taxa. The mutation rate estimate for the nuclear DNA of 2.9×10−11, with a Poisson confidence interval ranging from 7.4×10−13 to 1.6×10−10, is the lowest reported for any eukaryote. These results are consistent with low microsatellite mutation rates previously observed in D. discoideum and low levels of genetic variation observed in wild D. discoideum populations. In addition, D. discoideum has been shown to be quite resistant to DNA damage...

Metabolic Erosion Primarily Through Mutation Accumulation, and Not Tradeoffs, Drives Limited Evolution of Substrate Specificity in Escherichia coli

Leiby, Nicholas; Marx, Christopher J.
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.12%
Evolutionary adaptation to a constant environment is often accompanied by specialization and a reduction of fitness in other environments. We assayed the ability of the Lenski Escherichia coli populations to grow on a range of carbon sources after 50,000 generations of adaptation on glucose. Using direct measurements of growth rates, we demonstrated that declines in performance were much less widespread than suggested by previous results from Biolog assays of cellular respiration. Surprisingly, there were many performance increases on a variety of substrates. In addition to the now famous example of citrate, we observed several other novel gains of function for organic acids that the ancestral strain only marginally utilized. Quantitative growth data also showed that strains with a higher mutation rate exhibited significantly more declines, suggesting that most metabolic erosion was driven by mutation accumulation and not by physiological tradeoffs. These reductions in growth by mutator strains were ameliorated by growth at lower temperature, consistent with the hypothesis that this metabolic erosion is largely caused by destabilizing mutations to the associated enzymes. We further hypothesized that reductions in growth rate would be greatest for substrates used most differently from glucose...

An investigation of sex, mutation and longevity in Drosophila melanogaster

Bouchard, Jessica
Fonte: Quens University Publicador: Quens University
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 350884 bytes; application/pdf
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.25%
Though research on ageing and longevity has expanded considerably over the past decade, many questions still remain. Two remaining issues are the existence of age-specific effects of mutation, and the maintenance of high levels of genetic variation for longevity. Currently there are very few experimental data directly addressing these issues. Thus far, most experiments have used methods of mutation accumulation which involve inbreeding, which may confound the observed effects on longevity. In order to generate sex-specific data we will be using the model organism Drosophila melanogaster and a unique system called cytogenetic cloning. This system provides many benefits such as the ability to create mutation accumulation lines without inbreeding, and the ability to express cloned haploid genomes as males and females. Cytogenetic cloning allows us to measure the sex-specific effects of mutation directly, as well as to determine the intersexual genetic relationship for longevity. Longevity was measured for 20 pairs of mutation accumulation (MA) and control clone lines. In both control and MA clone lines mean female longevity was significantly greater than mean male longevity. Mutation accumulation caused a similar significant decline in mean longevity in both sexes. Males showed a significant increase in intrinsic mortality rate...

The effects of mutation accumulation on age-specific reproductive success in male and female Drosophila melanogaster

Hawryluk, Kelsey
Fonte: Quens University Publicador: Quens University
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.14%
The effects of spontaneous mutations have important ramifications in the genetic and phenotypic diversity of populations. Despite the importance of mutational effects on evolution, there is relatively little research on the effects of age-specific mutations on survival and reproductive success. The mutation accumulation protocols that have been used to-date vary from the middle class neighbourhood approach and balancer chromosome use to full-sibling mating systems. For this experiment, a cytogenetic cloning protocol was used that created clones of haploid genotypes comprised of all major chromosomes and allowed sampling of almost the entire Drosophila melanogaster genome. This allowed identical heterozygous mutations to be expressed in both males and females for the Mutation Accumulation (MA) population, which was compared to a matched Control. The mean reproductive success for both populations was measured at 1, 3 and 5 weeks of adult age. The mean reproductive success of the MA population was significantly lower than the Control population at weeks 1, 3 and 5 for males, and weeks 1 and 3 for females. The greatest difference in mean reproductive success between the MA and Control populations was at week 1 for both sexes, which may suggest that mutations with early-age expression had the greatest deleterious effects on reproductive success. There was also diversity in the level of the decline for each genotype...

Gender and the impact of mutation: autosomal mutation accumulation in Drosophila melanogaster and its implications for the evolution of sex.

Kwong, Jonathan
Fonte: Quens University Publicador: Quens University
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.09%
Sex specific mutational effects may be important in the evolution of sex because they have been suggested to affect the cost of sex itself. It has been proposed that if males experience greater net selection (comprised of natural and sexual selection) over females, they may aid in the purging of mutations within a population. Although the impact of selection on mutations has been studied on the X chromosome, analysis on the autosomes is direly needed due to the numerous differences that exist between the two categories of chromosomes. This study aims to measure the relative effects of autosomal mutations on adult reproductive fitness and to investigate the individual contributions of the X and autosomes in both sexes. Mutation accumulation (MA) experiments in Drosophila melanogaster have typically been used to test the effect of mutations on viability. However, in this experiment, 62 generations of MA were used to measure the effects of autosomal mutations on fitness in males and females in an outbred population of D. melanogaster. Through the use of a technique known as ‘cytogenic cloning’ a separate analysis of the X chromosome and autosomes was possible in this experiment. Both sexes showed a significant decline in relative fitness as a result of autosomal MA. However this effect was not significantly greater in males. Also...

Molecular Evolution and Mutation Accumulation Lines in the Nematode Pristionchus pacificus; Molekulare Evolution und Mutations-Anhäufungs-Linien in der Nematode Pristionchus pacificus

Molnar, Ruxandra
Fonte: Universidade de Tubinga Publicador: Universidade de Tubinga
Tipo: Dissertação
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.21%
The nematode Pristionchus pacificus has been established as a model system for modern evolutionary studies. Evolutionary reconstruction of the natural history of organisms requires knowledge about the development, ecology, and phylogeny of species. Mutations are the source of natural variation, hence studies of mutational processes improve the understanding of the natural history of an organism. Mutation accumulation (MA) lines experiments facilitate the study of spontaneous mutation rates over many generations and offer the possibility of inferring calibrated phylogenies for taxa that lack fossil records. In this study, we used the MA lines setup to calculate mutation rates at the level of the mitochondrial genome and microsatellite loci of the nuclear genome of P. pacificus. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) evolves rapidly in populations, is usually transmitted maternally without intermolecular recombination and has therefore been intensively used for phylogeographic studies. The P. pacificus mtDNA is 15; 955 bp in length and contains all the known mitochondrial genes. In the 142nd generation of the 82 MA lines, we found an overall mutation rate of 7.6e-8 per site per generation. The unusual presence of a suppressor transfer RNA for the codon UAA has...

Whole Genome Sequencing of Mutation Accumulation Lines Reveals a Low Mutation Rate in the Social Amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum

Saxer, Gerda; Havlak, Paul; Fox, Sara A.; Quance, Michael A.; Gupta, Shara; Fofanov, Yuriy; Strassmann, Joan E.; Queller, David C.
Fonte: Universidade Rice Publicador: Universidade Rice
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.12%
Spontaneous mutations play a central role in evolution. Despite their importance, mutation rates are some of the most elusive parameters to measure in evolutionary biology. The combination of mutation accumulation (MA) experiments and whole-genome sequencing now makes it possible to estimate mutation rates by directly observing new mutations at the molecular level across the whole genome. We performed an MA experiment with the social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum and sequenced the genomes of three randomly chosen lines using high-throughput sequencing to estimate the spontaneous mutation rate in this model organism. The mitochondrial mutation rate of 6.76×10(-9), with a Poisson confidence interval of 4.1×10(-9) - 9.5×10(-9), per nucleotide per generation is slightly lower than estimates for other taxa. The mutation rate estimate for the nuclear DNA of 2.9×10(-11), with a Poisson confidence interval ranging from 7.4×10(-13) to 1.6×10(-10), is the lowest reported for any eukaryote. These results are consistent with low microsatellite mutation rates previously observed in D. discoideum and low levels of genetic variation observed in wild D. discoideum populations. In addition, D. discoideum has been shown to be quite resistant to DNA damage...

List of base-pair substitutions found in Mutation Accumulation lines of Escherichia coli K-12 PFM2 and its derivative strains (DNA repair)

Foster, Patricia L; Lee, Heewook; Popodi, Ellen M; Towns, Jesse P; Tang, Haixu
Fonte: Universidade de Indiana Publicador: Universidade de Indiana
Tipo: Relatório
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.09%
List of base-pair substitutions found in mutation accumulation of the following E. coli strains: 1. K12 PFM2 (LB) 2. K12 PFM2 (minimal) 3. ED1a 4. IAI1 5. PFM101 6. PFM133 7. PFM35 8. PFM40 9. PFM88 10. PFM180 11. PFM22 12. PFM91 13. PFM61 14. PFM6 15. PFM94; Multidisciplinary University Research Initiative Award W911NF-09-1-0444 from the US Army Research Office; Please refer to Foster et al. PNAS (2015); Microsoft Excel for Mac 2011 Version 14.3.8 (130913)

List of base-pair substitutions found in 38 mutation accumulation lines of Wild-type 3K (E. coli PFM2) from Lee et al. PNAS (2012) - doi:10.1073/pnas.1210309109

Lee, Heewook; Popodi, Ellen; Tang, Haixu; Foster, Patricia L
Fonte: Universidade de Indiana Publicador: Universidade de Indiana
Tipo: Relatório
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.09%
List of base-pair substitutions found in 38 mutation accumulation lines of Wild-type (E. coli PFM2); Multidisciplinary University Research Initiative Award W911NF-09-1-0444 from the US Army Research Office; Please refer to Lee et al. PNAS (2012) - doi:10.1073/pnas.1210309109; Excel file format (xlsx). Each row is associated with a recovered base-pair substitution. The first column indicates the name of the MA line. The second column is the position of the base-pair substitution. The third, fourth, and fifth columns are the reference base, consensus base, and observed base, respectively. The reference base is taken from the reference genome (Ecoli K-12 MG1655, NC_000913.2 from NCBI). The consensus base is the base of the starting strain determined by sequencing of all WT MA lines [refer to Lee et al. PNAS (2012) ]. The observed base is the mutated base observed in the MA line designated by column 1.

List of base-pair substitutions found in 34 mutation accumulation lines of MutL deficient (MutL-) strain of E. coli PFM2 from Lee et al. PNAS (2012) - doi:10.1073/pnas.1210309109

Lee, Heewook; Popodi, Ellen; Tang, Haixu; Foster, Patricia L
Fonte: Universidade de Indiana Publicador: Universidade de Indiana
Tipo: Relatório
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.09%
List of base-pair substitutions found in 34 mutation accumulation lines of MutL deficient (MutL-) strain of E. coli PFM2; Multidisciplinary University Research Initiative Award W911NF-09-1-0444 from the US Army Research Office; Excel file format (xlsx). Each row is associated with a recovered base-pair substitution. The first column indicates the name of the MA line. The second column is the position of the base-pair substitution. The third, fourth, and fifth columns are the reference base, consensus base, and observed base, respectively. The reference base is taken from the reference genome (Ecoli K-12 MG1655, NC_000913.2 from NCBI). The consensus base is the base of the starting strain determined by sequencing of all MutL- MA lines [refer to Lee et al. PNAS (2012) ]. The observed base is the mutated base observed in the MA line designated by column 1.

List of base-pair substitutions found in 21 mutation accumulation lines of Wild-type 6K (E. coli PFM2)

Lee, Heewook; Popodi, Ellen; Tang, Haixu; Foster, Patricia L
Fonte: Universidade de Indiana Publicador: Universidade de Indiana
Tipo: Relatório
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.09%
List of base-pair substitutions found in 21 mutation accumulation lines of Wild-type 6K (E. coli PFM2); Multidisciplinary University Research Initiative Award W911NF-09-1-0444 from the US Army Research Office; Please refer to Lee et al. PNAS (2012) - doi:10.1073/pnas.1210309109