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Influência do CO2 via água de irrigação e da cobertura plástica no solo na Abobrinha; Influence of CO2 applied with the irrigation water and plastic mulch on Summer Squash

ARAÚJO, Wellington Farias; BOTREL, Tarlei Ariel
Fonte: Universidade Federal do Ceará Publicador: Universidade Federal do Ceará
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.6%
O experimento foi realizado em Piracicaba, SP, com o objetivo de avaliar os efeitos de doses de CO2 aplicadas via água de irrigação associadas ou não a cobertura plástica do solo na produção da abobrinha cultivada em campo aberto. O delineamento foi em blocos completos ao acaso, em esquema de parcelas subdivididas, com o fator CO2 na parcela e o fator cobertura nas subparcelas. Os tratamentos foram constituídos das seguintes doses de CO2 aplicados via água de irrigação: 0; 59; 148 e 274 kg ha-1 de CO2. O sistema de irrigação foi por gotejamento com reposição diária de água, baseada no tanque classe A. As variáveis analisadas foram: área foliar por planta (cm²), número de frutos por planta e produtividade (kg ha-1). A interação entre os fatores doses de CO2 e a cobertura do solo apresentaram efeito significativo sobre as variáveis analisadas. A maior produtividade de abobrinha foi de 15.433 kg ha-1 obtida com o uso de 58,6 kg ha-1 de CO2 associado à cobertura plástica.; The experiment was carried out in Piracicaba, SP, in order to evaluate the effects of different carbon dioxide levels applied with irrigation water, associated or not to the mulch plastic, on yield of summer squash. The experimental design was in random blocks in split plot design...

Dinâmica populacional de plantas daninhas, desenvolvimento, estado nutricional e produção de citros em função da associação de adubos verdes, cobertura morta e herbicidas; Population dynamics of weeds, development, nutrition and citros production in function of association of cover crops, mulch and herbicides

Bremer Neto, Horst
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 29/01/2007 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.84%
O presente trabalho teve o objetivo de avaliar os efeitos da vegetação intercalar composta por gramíneas e leguminosas perenes e da cobertura morta, obtida pelo manejo mecânico da vegetação intercalar, e herbicidas aplicados em pós-emergência, na linha da cultura, sobre a população de plantas daninhas, características químicas do solo, estado nutricional, desenvolvimento vegetativo e produção de citros. O experimento foi conduzido, durante as safras 2004/2005 e 2005/2006, na Fazenda São Judas, Lucianópolis - SP, em um pomar de laranja Pêra (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck.), plantado em outubro de 2002. O delineamento utilizado foi o de blocos ao acaso, com parcelas subdivididas sendo 7 tratamentos e 2 subtratamentos, com 4 repetições. Os tratamentos foram: 1) vegetação intercalar de Brachiaria ruziziensis R. Germ. & Evrard, sem cobertura morta na linha da cultura; 2) vegetação intercalar de B. ruziziensis, com cobertura morta1 na linha da cultura; 3) vegetação intercalar de B. ruziziensis e Arachis pintoi Krap. & Greg com cobertura morta1 na linha da cultura; 4) vegetação intercalar de B. ruziziensis e Stylosantes spp. com cobertura morta1 na linha da cultura; 5) vegetação intercalar composta por Brachiaria plantagineacom cobertura morta1 na linha da cultura 6) vegetação intercalar de Arachis pintoi com cobertura morta1 na linha da cultura; 7) vegetação intercalar de estilosantes 'mineirão' (Stylosathes macrocephala (25%)...

Effects of Different Periods of Clomazone plus Hexazinona Permanence in Soil and Sugarcane Mulch before the Occurrence of Rain on Weed Control Efficacy

Carbonari, Caio Antonio; Velini, Edivaldo Domingues; Correa, M. R.; Negrisoli, E.; Rossi, C.; Oliveira, C. P.
Fonte: Univ Federal Vicosa Publicador: Univ Federal Vicosa
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 197-205
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.66%
The objective of this work was to evaluate the efficacy of the formulated mixture clomazone and hexazinone applied in soil or combined with sugarcane mulch, after different periods of permanence without the occurrence of rain. The experiment was carried out in vases under greenhouse conditions in Botucatu, São Paulo, Brazil. The weeds Brachiaria decumbens, Ipomoea grandifolia, Ipomoea hederifolia and Euphorbia heterophylla were sown and covered or not with sugarcane mulch. The experiment was arranged in a complete randomized design with four repetitions. The treatments were displaced in a 3x6 factorial scheme, with the factors being six periods without rain (0, 3, 7, 15, 30, and 60 days) and three modes of herbicide application(on the soil without sugarcane mulch, on and under sugarcane mulch). Control evaluations were carried out at 10, 21, 35 and 42 days after the occurrence of rain. The clomazone + hexazinone mixture promoted an excellent weed control for all the species studied when applied on, under, or without sugarcane mulch. However, the control levels tended to reduce for periods over 60 days without rain.

Mulching and soil tillage influence on the thermal behaviour of a Luvisol surfacel layer

Andrade, José; Alexandre, Carlos; Basch, Gottlieb
Fonte: Pribullovà, A., Bicárová, S. Publicador: Pribullovà, A., Bicárová, S.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.71%
Important energy exchanges at soil surface regulate the thermal environment within top soil layer and the boundary layer above it. By this reason, the application of mulches or the modelling of micro relief by soil tillage are common practises to modify the thermal regime of a soil. The aim of this study is to compare the effect on thermal behaviour of a Luvisol resulting of soil tillage and the application of stubble mulch and, different amounts of straw mulch. For this purpose, experiments were performed from January to May 2007 in a field sowed with winter wheat. Temperatures were measured with copper-constantan (Type T) thermocouples placed over straw and over stubble, at soil surface and at 2, 4 and 8 cm depth. Temperatures above canopy were also recorded. Daily mean temperatures and temperature amplitudes in the top soil layer covered by straw mulch were smaller than those verified either by stubble mulch or with soil tillage. Daily minimum temperatures in mobilized plots or covered by stubble mulch were smaller than those verified in plots covered by straw mulch, therefore being the former treatments more susceptible to frost than the later ones. Thermal differences between the four plots decreased significantly with wheat growth. Implications of these techniques of soil temperature control for crop growth are also discussed.

Mulching and soil tillage influence on the thermal behaviour of a Luvisol surface layer

Andrade, José; Alexandre, Carlos; Basch, Gottlieb
Fonte: Universidade de Évora Publicador: Universidade de Évora
Tipo: Aula
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.71%
Important energy exchanges at soil surface regulate the thermal environment within top soil layer and the boundary layer above it. By this reason, the application of mulches or the modelling of micro relief by soil tillage are common practises to modify the thermal regime of a soil. The aim of this study is to compare the effect on thermal behaviour of a Luvisol resulting of soil tillage and the application of stubble mulch and, different amounts of straw mulch. For this purpose, experiments were performed from January to May 2007 in a field sowed with winter wheat. Temperatures were measured with copper-constantan (Type T) thermocouples placed over straw and over stubble, at soil surface and at 2, 4 and 8 cm depth. Temperatures above canopy were also recorded. Daily mean temperatures and thermal amplitudes in the top soil layer covered by straw mulch were smaller than those verified either by stubble mulch or with soil tillage. Daily minimum temperatures in mobilized plots or covered by stubble mulch were smaller than those verified in plots covered by straw mulch, therefore being the former treatments more susceptible to frost than the later ones. Thermal differences between the four plots decreased significantly with wheat growth. Implications of these techniques of soil temperature control for crop growth are also discussed.

Avaliação do desempenho de diferentes plásticos biodegradáveis na cultura do morangueiro (Fragaria x ananassa Duch.)

Andrade, Maria Cláudia Pereira de Araújo Santos
Fonte: ISA/UTL Publicador: ISA/UTL
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado
Publicado em //2011 POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.71%
Mestrado em Engenharia do Ambiente - Instituto Superior de Agronomia; An enormous amount of plastic waste resulting from the agricultural activities is produced every year. Part of this plastic remains in the fields, while the other part is sent to recycling or landfill. The use of biodegradable mulch films can play an important role towards a sustainable development in agricultural sector. These plastics can be plugged in the soil, after its use, among the crop residues. The aim of this study was to compare the performance of three different biodegradable mulch films (P1, P2 and P3) against the conventional polyethylene mulch film (P4), in the production of strawberries, during the autumn-winter cycle. The parameters followed during the crop cycle were yield, plant growth, fruit quality and pests and diseases. The biodegradable mulch films had different behaviors during the crop cycle, P3 showing the best performance with 85% soil coverage at the end of the crop cycle, followed by P2 and P1 with 70% and 20%, respectively. The soil coverage of the conventional mulch film was 100%. Compared to conventional mulch film, biodegradable mulches led to a decrease in the yield and in the harvest index, while there was an increase in the total dry biomass of the plants. Results obtained also showed that overall quality of fruits was not affected by the type of plastic. As a conclusion...

Impact of direct seeding mulch-based cropping systems on soil nematodes in a long-term experiment in Madagascar

Villenave,Cécile; Rabary,Bodovololona; Chotte,Jean-Luc; Blanchart,Eric; Djigal,Djibril
Fonte: Embrapa Informação Tecnológica; Pesquisa Agropecuária Brasileira Publicador: Embrapa Informação Tecnológica; Pesquisa Agropecuária Brasileira
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/08/2009 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.71%
The objective of this work was to assess the effects of conventional tillage and of different direct seeding mulch-based cropping systems (DMC) on soil nematofauna characteristics. The long-term field experiment was carried out in the highlands of Madagascar on an andic Dystrustept soil. Soil samples were taken once a year during three successive years (14 to 16 years after installation of the treatments) from a 0-5-cm soil layer of a conventional tillage system and of three kinds of DMC: direct seeding on mulch from rotation soybean-maize residues; direct seeding of maize-maize rotation on living mulch of silverleaf (Desmodium uncinatum); direct seeding of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris)-soybean rotation on living mulch of kikuyu grass (Pennisetum clandestinum). The samples were compared with samples from natural fallows. The soil nematofauna, characterized by the abundance of different trophic groups and indices (MI, maturity index; EI and SI, enrichment and structure indices), allowed the discrimination of the different cropping systems. The different DMC treatments had a more complex soil food web than the tillage treatment: SI and MI were significantly greater in DMC systems. Moreover, DMC with dead mulch had a lower density of free-living nematodes than DMC with living mulch...

Soil microbial biomass under mulch types in an integrated apple orchard from Southern Brazil

Almeida,Denice de Oliveira; Klauberg Filho,Osmar; Almeida,Henrique Cesar; Gebler,Luciano; Felipe,Aline Franciane
Fonte: São Paulo - Escola Superior de Agricultura "Luiz de Queiroz" Publicador: São Paulo - Escola Superior de Agricultura "Luiz de Queiroz"
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/04/2011 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.4%
The use of mulching is an alternative to control weeds but there are few studies on its effect on soil quality. In this sense, this study aimed to evaluate the effect of types of mulching on the attributes of microbial carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus in a Typic Hapludox with production of integrated apples in southern Brazil. The experiment was conducted in randomized blocks in the Vacaria, state of Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil. The soil mulch types studied were: pine needle, sawdust, black plastic and a control. The soil samples were collected in February (summer) and August (winter) of 2006, and the attributes related to total organic and microbial carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus were determined. Organic mulchings (pine needle and sawdust) promoted lower soil temperature, and greater moisture, microbial carbon (Cmic), microbial nitrogen (Nmic), and the ratios Cmic:Corg, Nmic:Norg and microbial C:N than black plastic. Microbial phosphorus was greater in winter. Sawdust mulching promoted the best conditions to microbial biomass in winter. The mulch types increased the microbial compartment in winter as compared to the nonweeded control .

Water use and grain yield response of rainfed soybean to tillage-mulch practices in southeastern Nigeria

Obalum,Sunday Ewele; Igwe,Charles Arizechukwu; Obi,Martin Eze; Wakatsuki,Toshiyuki
Fonte: São Paulo - Escola Superior de Agricultura "Luiz de Queiroz" Publicador: São Paulo - Escola Superior de Agricultura "Luiz de Queiroz"
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/10/2011 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.66%
Despite the agronomic, economic and food values of soybean (Glycine max L. Merrill), there is still dearth of information on the tillage need and the implications of surface mulch for the crop in the eastern part of the forest-savanna transition zone of Nigeria. This study was therefore carried out on a sandy loam Ultisol at Nsukka with a sub-humid climate, during 2006 and 2007 cropping seasons. Our objective was to devise an appropriate tillage method for the crop from evaluated effects of no-till (NT), conventional tillage (CT) and mulch on selected key agronomic indices. Each of the NT and the CT was either unmulched (U) or mulched (M) in a split-plot, giving four treatments/tillage methods (NTU, NTM, CTU and CTM) randomized in four blocks. Rainfall was more favorable in the first than in the second season. The mean seasonal soil water storage (range, 99-109 mm) within 0.5-m soil layer differed among the treatments (NTU < CTU < NTM = CTM). However, for the first and second seasons, both water use (582-616 and 667-709 mm respectively) and grain yield (0.71-0.81 and 1.22-1.91 Mg ha-1 respectively) were not different. Mulch lowered the crop water use but had no influence on grain yield. Water use efficiency was enhanced with mulch only in the second season. Although either of the two mulch treatments (NTM/CTM) would be suitable for growing soybean especially in years of unfavorably distributed rainfall...

Effect of plastic mulch on growth and yield of chilli (Capsicum annuum L.)

Ashrafuzzaman,M; Halim,M. Abdul; Ismail,Mohd Razi; Shahidullah,S.M; Hossain,M. Alamgir
Fonte: Instituto de Tecnologia do Paraná - Tecpar Publicador: Instituto de Tecnologia do Paraná - Tecpar
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/04/2011 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.52%
In this work a field study was conducted to evaluate the effect of coloured plastic mulch on growth and yield of chilli from October 2005 to April 2006. The plastic mulches were transparent, blue, and black and bare soil was the control. Different mulches generated higher soil temperature and soil moisture under mulch over the control. Transparent and blue plastic mulches encouraged weed population which were suppressed under black plastic. Plant height, number of primary branches, stem base diameter, number of leaves and yield were better for the plants on plastic. At the mature green stage, fruits had the highest vitamin-C content on the black plastic. Mulching produced the fruits with the highest chlorophyll-a, chlorophyll-b and total chlorophyll contents and also increased the number of fruits per plant and yield. However, mulching did not affect the length and diameter of the fruits and number of seeds per fruit. Plants on black plastic mulch had the maximum number of fruits and highest yield. Thus, mulching appears to be a viable tool to increase the chilli production under tropical conditions.

Effect of different mulch materials on winter wheat production in desalinized soil in Heilonggang region of North China*

Yang, Yan-min; Liu, Xiao-jing; Li, Wei-qiang; Li, Cun-zhen
Fonte: Zhejiang University Press Publicador: Zhejiang University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.87%
Freshwater shortage is the main problem in Heilonggang lower-lying plain, while a considerable amount of underground saline water is available. We wanted to find an effective way to use the brackish water in winter wheat production. Surface mulch has significant effect in reducing evaporation and decreasing soil salinity level. This research was aimed at comparing the effect of different mulch materials on winter wheat production. The experiment was conducted during 2002~2003 and 2003~2004. Four treatments were setup: (1) no mulch, (2) mulch with plastic film, (3) mulch with corn straw, (4) mulch with concrete slab between the rows. The result indicated that concrete mulch and straw mulch was effective in conserving soil water compared to plastic film mulch which increased soil temperature. Concrete mulch decreases surface soil salinity better in comparison to other mulches used. Straw mulch conserved more soil water but decreased wheat grain yield probably due to low temperature. Concrete mulch had similar effect with plastic film mulch on promoting winter wheat development and growth.

Colorado Potato Beetle (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) Population Development and Effects on Yield of Potatoes With and Without Straw Mulch

Zehnder, G. W.; Hough-Goldstein, J.
Fonte: Oxford University Press Publicador: Oxford University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.84%
Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say), population trends were monitored in potatoes, Solanum tuberosum L., grown in plots with and without straw mulch during 1988 and 1989 growing seasons in Virginia. An insecticide treatment was incorporated into a factorial experimental design (mulch × insecticide) in 1989 to evaluate effects of mulch on potato yield without Colorado potato beetle defoliation. Numbers of overwintered adult beetles, egg masses, and larvae were significantly lower in plots with mulch compared with those without. Soil temperature and moisture conditions were more favorable for potato plant growth in Virginia under straw mulch than in bare ground (no mulch) plots. Final tuber yields were significantly greater in mulched plots (with and without insecticides) compared with plots without mulch in both years of the study. Application of insecticides in 1989 also resulted in higher yields within each mulch treatment. In plots treated with insecticides, six spray applications were required to control Colorado potato beetle populations above economic thresholds in plots without mulch, compared with two applications in plots with mulch. The feasibility of the use of straw mulch in commercial potato production is discussed.

Impact of direct seeding mulch-based cropping systems on soil nematodes in a long-term experiment in Madagascar.

VILLENAVE, C.; RABARY, B.; CHOTTE, J.-L.; BLANCHART, E.; DJIGAL, D.
Fonte: Pesquisa Agropecuária Brasileira, v. 44, n. 8, p. 949-953, ago. 2009. Publicador: Pesquisa Agropecuária Brasileira, v. 44, n. 8, p. 949-953, ago. 2009.
Tipo: Artigo em periódico indexado (ALICE)
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.71%
Abstract ? The objective of this work was to assess the effects of conventional tillage and of different direct seeding mulch-based cropping systems (DMC) on soil nematofauna characteristics. The long-term field experiment was carried out in the highlands of Madagascar on an andic Dystrustept soil. Soil samples were taken once a year during three successive years (14 to 16 years after installation of the treatments) from a 0?5-cm soil layer of a conventional tillage system and of three kinds of DMC: direct seeding on mulch from rotation soybean-maize residues; direct seeding of maize-maize rotation on living mulch of silverleaf (Desmodium uncinatum); direct seeding of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris)-soybean rotation on living mulch of kikuyu grass (Pennisetum clandestinum). The samples were compared with samples from natural fallows. The soil nematofauna, characterized by the abundance of different trophic groups and indices (MI, maturity index; EI and SI, enrichment and structure indices), allowed the discrimination of the different cropping systems. The different DMC treatments had a more complex soil food web than the tillage treatment: SI and MI were significantly greater in DMC systems. Moreover, DMC with dead mulch had a lower density of free-living nematodes than DMC with living mulch...

Mulches in smallholder maize systems in the Limpopo Province of South Africa: untangling the effects of N through experimentation and simulation.

Sasa, Seshuhla Rebinah
Fonte: Universidade de Adelaide Publicador: Universidade de Adelaide
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Publicado em //2010
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.84%
In Limpopo Province of South Africa, poor soil fertility and low crop yields are serious problems facing resource poor smallholder farmers. A survey of over 60 farmers in 2 villages (Gabaza and GaKgoroshi) found that most of the smallholder farmers were women (68%), elderly (50% above 68 years of age) and had not attended school or only attended up to the primary level (80%). Very few farmers kept livestock (usually in small numbers) and most grew cereal and legume crops (on 1ha of land) for home consumption and livestock feed, with legumes being planted on 13% of the land. The study showed that 80% of farmers were not fully aware of the benefits of legumes in fixing nitrogen (N) and improving yield. A field study at the survey village of Gabaza found that the application of fertiliser N and grass mulch combination and fertiliser N plus guarbean mulch significantly increased plant height and maize shoot growth at 4 and 8 weeks after planting. However, when grass mulch was without N fertiliser, there was no increase in maize growth relative to the control (0N). A farming systems simulation model (Agricultural Production Systems sIMulator - APSIM) was used to simulate this field study as well as over the long-term (1971 to 2008). Simulation analysis showed poor average maize yield (<3000 kg ha⁻ ¹) with the application of grass residues even when used with 30 kg N fertiliser. However...

Influência da intensidade de chuva em diferentes épocas e da palha de cana-de-açúcar sobre a eficácia de herbicidas aplicados em pré-emergência no controle da tiririca (Cyperus rotundus L.); Identification of proteins from the cambial region of Eucalyptus grandis by bidimensional electrophoresis and mass spectrometry

Simoni, Fernanda de
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 22/05/2006 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.79%
O presente trabalho foi desenvolvido com o objetivo de avaliar os efeitos da intensidade de chuva e diferentes quantidades de palha de cana-de-açúcar sobre a eficácia de herbicidas aplicados em pré-emergência no controle da tiririca. Foram realizados dois experimentos, ambos conduzidos em casa-de-vegetação. O delineamento experimental adotado foi o de blocos casualizados, com 4 repetições, para os dois experimentos. No primeiro experimento os tratamentos foram distribuídos em um esquema fatorial 3 x 3 x 2 x 2, constituídos pela combinação entre quantidades de cobertura morta de palha de cana-de-açúcar que foram adicionadas à superfície do solo (0, 10, 20 t/ha), herbicidas aplicados em pré-emergência (sulfentrazone a 0,8 kg i.a./ha e imazapic a 147 g i.a./ha) e um tratamento sem aplicação de herbicida, intensidades de chuva (10 e 20 mm), e épocas em que foram simuladas chuvas após a aplicação dos herbicidas (24 e 168 horas). No segundo experimento os tratamentos foram distribuídos em um esquema fatorial 2 x 3 x 5, constituídos pela combinação entre quantidades de cobertura morta de palha de cana-de-açúcar (0, 15 t/ha), herbicidas aplicados em pré-emergência (sulfentrazone a 0,8 kg i.a./ha e imazapic a 147 g i.a./ha) e um tratamento sem aplicação de herbicida...

Effect of Mulch Surface Color on Root-knot of Tomato Grown in Simulated Planting Beds

Fortnum, B. A.; Kasperbauer, M. J.; Decoteau, D. R.
Fonte: Society of Nematologists Publicador: Society of Nematologists
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /03/2000 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.84%
The effect of different-colored polyethylene mulches on quantity and spectra of reflected light, plant morphology, and root-knot disease was studied in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) grown in simulated planting beds. Tomato plants were inoculated with Meloidogyne incognita at initial populations (Pi) of 0, 1,000, 10,000, or 50,000 eggs/plant, and grown in a greenhouse for 50 days over white, red, or black mulch. Soil temperature was kept constant among the mulch treatments by placing an insulation barrier between the colored mulch and the soil surface. Soil temperature varied less than 0.5 °C between soil chambers at solar noon. Tomatoes grown over white mulch received more reflected photosynthetic light and had greater shoot weights (27%), root weights (32%), and leaf area (20%) than plants grown over black mulch. Plants grown over red mulch received a higher far-red-to-red ratio in the reflected light. Mulch color altered the plant's response to root-knot nematode infection by changing the distribution of mass in axillary shoots. At high Pi, axillary leaf area and leaf weight were greater in tomato grown over white mulch than when grown over red mulch. The root-gall index was lower for plants grown over white mulch than similar plants grown over red mulch.

Controlling Weeds in Newly Planted Ground Covers with Herbicide - Mulch Combinations Using Activated Carbon as a Detoxifying Agent

Depoto, Edward
Fonte: University of Delaware Publicador: University of Delaware
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: Note: Except for the faculty signature page, which was not digitized, the entire thesis was scanned as formatted by the author.
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.6%
This study was initiated to determine the best chemical weed control method for us in establishing new plantings of ground covers. Varying levels of herbicides, different mulches, and activated carbon as a protectant were tested at Newark, Delaware during 1969 and 1970. The experimental design was a split plot, and was replicated three times. The ground cover plants studied were Aiuga reptans, Hedera helix, Pachysandra terminalis, and Vinca minor. Herbicides studied were simazine (4 lbs./A), dichlobenil (6 lbs./A), diphenamid (6 lbs./A), simazine (2 lbs./A) combined with diphenamid (4 lbs./A), and dichlobenil (4 lbs./A) combined with diphenamid (4 lbs./A). Mulches studied were licorice root (on-inch depth) and “FoliCote” (diluted in ater at a ratio of one to five). On half of all plant material was root-dipped in activated carbon. Herbicide toxicity to the ground cover was rated by a standard visual evaluation on a scale from one to five. Weed infestation was determined as stand (number of plants) and vigor (dry weight in grams). Growth of ground cover plants was measured by using a grid, and the percentage of ground covered by the plants within this grid was estimated. The stand (number of plants) and the vigor (fresh weight in grams) of the ground cover plants was also determined. With no mulch...

Water use and grain yield response of rainfed soybean to tillage-mulch practices in southeastern Nigeria

Obalum, Sunday Ewele; Igwe, Charles Arizechukwu; Obi, Martin Eze; Wakatsuki, Toshiyuki
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; ; ; ; ; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 01/10/2011 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.66%
Despite the agronomic, economic and food values of soybean (Glycine max L. Merrill), there is still dearth of information on the tillage need and the implications of surface mulch for the crop in the eastern part of the forest-savanna transition zone of Nigeria. This study was therefore carried out on a sandy loam Ultisol at Nsukka with a sub-humid climate, during 2006 and 2007 cropping seasons. Our objective was to devise an appropriate tillage method for the crop from evaluated effects of no-till (NT), conventional tillage (CT) and mulch on selected key agronomic indices. Each of the NT and the CT was either unmulched (U) or mulched (M) in a split-plot, giving four treatments/tillage methods (NTU, NTM, CTU and CTM) randomized in four blocks. Rainfall was more favorable in the first than in the second season. The mean seasonal soil water storage (range, 99-109 mm) within 0.5-m soil layer differed among the treatments (NTU < CTU < NTM = CTM). However, for the first and second seasons, both water use (582-616 and 667-709 mm respectively) and grain yield (0.71-0.81 and 1.22-1.91 Mg ha-1 respectively) were not different. Mulch lowered the crop water use but had no influence on grain yield. Water use efficiency was enhanced with mulch only in the second season. Although either of the two mulch treatments (NTM/CTM) would be suitable for growing soybean especially in years of unfavorably distributed rainfall...

Biomassa microbiana do solo sob coberturas em pomar integrado de maçãs no Sul do Brasil; Soil microbial biomass under mulch types in an integrated apple orchard from Southern Brazil

Almeida, Denice de Oliveira; Klauberg Filho, Osmar; Almeida, Henrique Cesar; Gebler, Luciano; Felipe, Aline Franciane
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; ; ; ; ; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 01/04/2011 ENG
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The use of mulching is an alternative to control weeds but there are few studies on its effect on soil quality. In this sense, this study aimed to evaluate the effect of types of mulching on the attributes of microbial carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus in a Typic Hapludox with production of integrated apples in southern Brazil. The experiment was conducted in randomized blocks in the Vacaria, state of Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil. The soil mulch types studied were: pine needle, sawdust, black plastic and a control. The soil samples were collected in February (summer) and August (winter) of 2006, and the attributes related to total organic and microbial carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus were determined. Organic mulchings (pine needle and sawdust) promoted lower soil temperature, and greater moisture, microbial carbon (Cmic), microbial nitrogen (Nmic), and the ratios Cmic:Corg, Nmic:Norg and microbial C:N than black plastic. Microbial phosphorus was greater in winter. Sawdust mulching promoted the best conditions to microbial biomass in winter. The mulch types increased the microbial compartment in winter as compared to the nonweeded control .; O uso da cobertura do solo é alternativa para o controle de plantas daninhas. Entretanto há poucos estudos sobre seu efeito na qualidade do solo. Avaliou-se...

Short term effects of tillage-mulch practices under sorghum and soybean on organic carbon and eutrophic status of a degraded ultisol in southeastern Nigeria

Obalum,Sunday E.; Okpara,Ifeyinwa M; Obi,Martin E; Wakatsuki,Toshiyuki
Fonte: Universidad Autónoma de Yucatán, Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria Publicador: Universidad Autónoma de Yucatán, Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/08/2011 EN
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A key indicator of soil quality as organic carbon needs to be enhanced in the highly weathered soils predominant in southeastern Nigeria through appropriate tillage-mulch practices and cropping systems. We subjected a degraded Typic Paleustult (sandy loam) at Nsukka to no-till (NT) and conventional tillage (CT) and bare fallow (B) and mulch cover (M). This was duplicated with one sole-cropped to sorghum and the other to soybean as separate crop treatments during 2006 and 2007 growing seasons. The CT resulted in higher available P (Pav) (under soybean) and cation exchange capacity (CEC) (under both crops) than the NT. Mulch gave lower Pav under sorghum and vice versa under soybean. Exchangeable Ca was lowered while exchangeable acidity was enhanced with mulch under soybean. Overall, soil organic carbon and exchangeable Mg, Na and acidity were enhanced under soybean relative to sorghum; the reverse was the case for Pav. However, the soil's CEC indicated comparable values in both cropping systems. Our results suggest that cropping 'CT with M' soil to soybean could be a promising agronomic combination for enhancing the SOC and fertility status of the soil.