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Jactatio capitis nocturna with persistence in adulthood: case report

ALVES,ROSANA S.C.; ALÓE,FLÁVIO; SILVA,ADEMIR B.; TAVARES,STELLA M.
Fonte: Academia Brasileira de Neurologia - ABNEURO Publicador: Academia Brasileira de Neurologia - ABNEURO
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/09/1998 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.15%
Rhythmic movement disorder, also known as jactatio capitis nocturna, is an infancy and childhood sleep-related disorder charactherized by repetitive movements occurring immediately prior to sleep onset and sustained into light sleep. We report a 19-year-old man with a history of headbanging and repetitive bodyrocking since infancy, occurring on a daily basis at sleep onset. He was born a premature baby but psychomotor milestones were unremarkable. Physical and neurological diagnostic workups were unremarkable. A hospital-based sleep study showed: total sleep time: 178 min; sleep efficiency index 35.8; sleep latency 65 min; REM latency 189 min. There were no respiratory events and head movements occurred at 4/min during wakefulness, stages 1 and 2 NREM sleep. No tonic or phasic electromyographic abnormalities were recorded during REM sleep. A clinical diagnosis of rhythmic movement disorder was performed on the basis of the clinical and sleep studies data. Clonazepam (0.5 mg/day) and midazolam (15 mg/day) yielded no clinical improvement. Imipramine (10 mg/day) produced good clinical outcome. In summary, we report a RMD case with atypical clinical and therapeutical features.

Stereotyped movement disorder in ICD-11

Stein,Dan J.; Woods,Douglas W.
Fonte: Associação Brasileira de Psiquiatria - ABP Publicador: Associação Brasileira de Psiquiatria - ABP
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2014 EN
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66.34%
According to current proposals for ICD-11, stereotyped movement disorder will be classified in the grouping of neurodevelopmental disorders, with a qualifier to indicate whether self-injury is present, similar to the classification of stereotypic movement disorder in DSM-5. At the same time, the WHO ICD-11 Working Group on the Classification of Obsessive-Compulsive and Related Disorders has proposed a grouping of body-focused repetitive behavior disorders within the obsessive-compulsive and related disorders (OCRD) cluster to include trichotillomania and skin-picking disorder. DSM-5 has taken a slightly different approach: trichotillomania and excoriation (skin picking) disorder are included in the OCRD grouping, while body-focused repetitive behavior disorder is listed under other specified forms of OCRD. DSM-5 also includes a separate category of nonsuicidal self-injury in the section on “conditions for further study.” There are a number of unresolved nosological questions regarding the relationships among stereotyped movement disorder, body-focused repetitive behavior disorders, and nonsuicidal self-injury. In this article, we attempt to provide preliminary answers to some of these questions as they relate to the ICD-11 classification of mental and behavioral disorders.

A defect in pyruvate decarboxylase in a child with an intermittent movement disorder

Blass, John P.; Avigan, Joel; Uhlendorf, B. William
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /03/1970 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.11%
A patient with an intermittent movement disorder has been found to have an inherited defect in pyruvate decarboxylase ((2-oxo-acid carboxy-lyase, E.C. 4.1.1.1.). The patient is a 9 yr old boy who since infancy has had repeated episodes of a combined cerebellar and choreoathetoid movement disorder. He has an elevated level of pyruvic acid in his blood, an elevated urinary alanine content, and less marked elevations in blood alanine and lactate.

Deprivation of pantothenic acid elicits a movement disorder and azoospermia in a mouse model of pantothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration

Kuo, Y. M.; Hayflick, S. J.; Gitschier, J.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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46.28%
We asked whether a movement disorder could be elicited by deprivation of pantothenic acid (PA; vitamin B5), the substrate for the enzyme pantothenate kinase 2 (PANK2), which is deficient in the inherited neurological disorder PKAN (pantothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration formerly called Hallervorden–Spatz syndrome). This study was undertaken because mice made null for Pank2 failed to show the neurological manifestations of the human disease. Wild-type and Pank2 mutant mice were fed pantothenic acid-deficient diets and were monitored for general health, fertility and movement compared with animals on control diets over time. Mice of both genotypes on PA-deficient diets exhibited poor grooming, greying of fur and decreased body weight. With PA deprivation, wild-type mice manifested azoospermia (a phenotype also seen in Pank2 mice) as well as a movement disorder with a low-lying pelvis and slow steps. Rear limbs appeared to drag and occasionally extended into unnatural postures for 16–17 s duration, possibly indicative of dystonia. Movement disruption probably also occurs in PA-deprived Pank2 mutant mice, but they died precipitously before undergoing detailed analysis. Remarkably, restoration of dietary PA led to recovery of general health and grooming...

Association of Idiopathic Rapid Eye Movement Sleep Behavior Disorder in an Adult with Persistent, Childhood Onset Rhythmic Movement Disorder

Xu, Zheyu; Anderson, Kirstie N.; Shneerson, John M.
Fonte: American Academy of Sleep Medicine Publicador: American Academy of Sleep Medicine
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 15/08/2009 EN
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46.15%
We present a case of a 41-year-old man with the association of REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD) and rhythmic movement disorder (RMD). The RMD had a childhood onset and persisted into adulthood. The RMD worsened with the development of RBD and has persisted despite successful treatment of RBD. However, the pathogenesis of RMD remains unclear and the movements have been suggested to play a maturational role as part of psychomotor development by stimulating the vestibular apparatus. Current models underlying the control of REM sleep may need to be refined to explain the observed association of RBD and RMD.

Movement disorder and neuronal migration disorder due to ARFGEF2 mutation

de Wit, M. C. Y.; de Coo, I. F. M.; Halley, D. J. J.; Lequin, M. H.; Mancini, G. M. S.
Fonte: Springer-Verlag Publicador: Springer-Verlag
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.15%
We report a child with a severe choreadystonic movement disorder, bilateral periventricular nodular heterotopia (BPNH), and secondary microcephaly based on compound heterozygosity for two new ARFGEF2 mutations (c.2031_2038dup and c.3798_3802del), changing the limited knowledge about the phenotype. The brain MRI shows bilateral hyperintensity of the putamen, BPNH, and generalized atrophy. Loss of ARFGEF2 function affects vesicle trafficking, proliferation/apoptosis, and neurotransmitter receptor function. This can explain BPNH and microcephaly. We hypothesize that the movement disorder and the preferential damage to the basal ganglia, specifically to the putamen, may be caused by an increased sensitivity to degeneration, a dynamic dysfunction due to neurotransmitter receptor mislocalization or a combination of both.

Periodic Limbic Movement Disorder during Sleep as Diabetes-Related Syndrome? A Polysomnographic Study

Rizzi, M.; Barrella, M.; Kotzalidis, G. D.; Bevilacqua, M.
Fonte: International Scholarly Research Network Publicador: International Scholarly Research Network
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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46.11%
Introduction. Periodic limb movements during sleep (PLMs) is common in the elderly. When quality-of-life drops due to sleep disturbances, we speak about periodic limb movement disorder during sleep (PLMD). Another similar disorder, restless legs syndrome (RLS), is considered to be related to diabetes; RLS and PLMDs are genetically related. Our aim was to detect PLMDs in a population of diabetic patients and identify them as possible hallmarks of these autonomic disorders. Material and Methods. We selected 41 type-2 diabetics with no sleep comorbidity, and compared them with 38 healthy matched volunteers. All participants underwent the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) and polysomnography (PSG). A periodic limb movement (PLM) index >5, that is, the higher number of PLMs/sleep hour for the entire night, was considered as abnormal. Results. Diabetics showed lower sleep efficiency than controls on the ESS, lower proportions of REM and non-REM sleep, and higher arousal and PLM indexes, as assessed through PSG. PLMDs were diagnosed in 13 of 41 diabetic patients (31%); the latter showed lower sleep efficiency, lower non-REM slow-wave sleep, and increased arousal and PLM indexes. Conclusion. The relationship between PLMs-related sleep fragmentation and endocrine carbohydrate metabolism regulation might be casual or genetically determined. This deserves further investigations.

GLUT1 deficiency syndrome as a cause of encephalopathy that includes cognitive disability, treatment-resistant infantile epilepsy and a complex movement disorder

Graham, John M.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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46.22%
Glucose transporter-1 (GLUT1) deficiency syndrome is caused by heterozygous mutations in the SLC2A1 gene, resulting in impaired glucose transport into the brain. It is characterized by a low glucose concentration in the cerebrospinal fluid (hypoglycorrhachia) in the absence of hypoglycemia, in combination with low to normal lactate in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). It often results in treatment-resistant infantile epilepsy with progressive developmental disabilities and a complex movement disorder. Recognizing GLUT1 deficiency syndrome is important, since initiation of a ketogenic diet can reduce the frequency of seizures and the severity of the movement disorder. There can be a considerable delay in diagnosing GLUT1 deficiency syndrome, and this point is illustrated by the natural history of this disorder in a 21-year-old woman with severe, progressive neurological disabilities. Her encephalopathy consisted of treatment-resistant seizures, a complex movement disorder, progressive intellectual disability, and deceleration of her head growth after late infancy. Focused evaluation at age 21 revealed GLUT1 deficiency caused by a novel heterozygous missence mutation in exon 7 (c.938C > A; p.Ser313Try) in SLC2A1 as the cause for her disabilities.

A 17-Year-Old Female with Systemic Lupus Presents with Complex Movement Disorder: Possible Relationship with Antiribosomal P Antibodies

Özcan, Muhammed Emin; Altınöz, Meriç Adil; Karadeli, Hasan Hüseyin; Asil, Talip; Koçer, Abdulkadir
Fonte: Hindawi Publishing Corporation Publicador: Hindawi Publishing Corporation
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.31%
Complex movement disorder is a relatively rare presentation of neurolupus. Antiphospholipid antibodies are associated with movement disorders likely via aberrant neuronal stimulation. Antiribosomal P antibodies have been previously associated with neuropsychiatric disorders but their correlation with movement disorder was not previously established. Our case report involves a 17-year-old Caucasian female patient positive for only antiribosomal P antibody and lupus anticoagulant who presented with a sudden onset of complex movement disorder. After complete cessation of physical signs with olanzapine, anticardiolipin and anti-β2 glycoprotein I antibodies became positive which indicates a likely discordance between movement disorder and antiphospholipid antibodies. This also indicates a potential causal role of antiribosomal P antibodies in inducing movement disorder.

Classic neuroimaging findings of nonketotic hyperglycemia on computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging with absence of typical movement disorder symptoms (hemichorea-hemiballism)

Hansford, Barry G.; Albert, Dara; Yang, Edward
Fonte: EduRad Publicador: EduRad
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 01/08/2013 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.15%
While there are broad differential diagnoses for either the clinical finding of hemichorea-hemiballism or the imaging finding of lateralizing/asymmetric basal ganglia lesions (hyperdense on computed tomography, hyperintense on T1 magnetic resonance imaging), the presence of both findings is highly suggestive of nonketotic hyperglycemia. We present an unusual case of a patient with vague stroke-like complaints and imaging findings notable for lateralizing basal ganglia lesions. Laboratory analysis revealed nonketotic hyperglycemia and neurologic exam failed to elicit any findings of movement disorder. As far as we know, this is the first published case of a patient with typical neuroimaging manifestations of nonketotic hyperglycemia without associated hemichorea-hemiballism (a disorder of abnormal movements comprised of more proximal, higher amplitude movements-ballismus and lower amplitude, more distal movements-chorea). This finding suggests that radiologists should be alert to the possibility of nonketotic hyperglycemia in patients with asymmetric/lateralizing basal ganglia lesions even in the absence of a movement disorder.

Treatment of Movement Disorder Emergencies

Frucht, Steven J.
Fonte: Springer US Publicador: Springer US
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.25%
Movement disorder emergencies are defined as clinical scenarios where a movement disorder develops over hours to days, and in which morbidity and even mortality can result from failure to appropriately diagnose and manage the patient. The last decade has seen increasing recognition of various movement disorder emergencies, including acute parkinsonism, neuroleptic malignant syndrome, respiratory compromise in multiple system atrophy, dystonic storm, oculogyric crisis, and hemiballism, among others. This article will review the major movement disorder emergencies encountered in the hospital and office, emphasizing practical management and treatment.

A Case with Dopamine-Antagonist Responsive Repetitive Head Punching as Rhythmic Movement Disorder during Sleep

Lee, Sang Kun
Fonte: Korean Epilepsy Society Publicador: Korean Epilepsy Society
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 30/12/2013 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.12%
We reported a 17-year-ole male presented with repetitive head punching as rhythmic movement during sleep. Rhythmic movement disorder (RMD) during sleep refers to a number of activities characterized by repetitive stereotyped movements such as rhythmic oscillations of the head, limbs, or body. The repetitive movement like punching on the head in our case is a rare form. The patient’s symptom was dramatically aggravated by dopamine agonist and responded well to dopamine antagonist. It is the first case report of dopamine-antagonist responsive repetitive head punching as rhythmic movement during sleep.

Attention in Parkinson’s Disease Mimicking Suggestion in Psychogenic Movement Disorder

Baik, Jong Sam
Fonte: The Korean Movement Disorder Society Publicador: The Korean Movement Disorder Society
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.11%
The various reported psychogenic movement disorders (PMDs) include tremor, dystonia, myoclonus, gait disorder, Parkinsonism, tics, and chorea. Although it is not easy to diagnose PMDs, several features such as distractibility, entrainment, suggestion and placebo trial are quite helpful to diagnose. Especially, distractibility or suggestion is a good tool to do in outpatient clinic easily. We describe a patient with parkinsonian features which were improved by internal suggestion to focusing attention. Initially, we suspected her diagnosis as PMDs; however she was confirmed with organic Parkinson’s disease later.

Electrophysiologic Evaluation of Psychogenic Movement Disorders

Pal, Pramod Kumar
Fonte: The Korean Movement Disorder Society Publicador: The Korean Movement Disorder Society
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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56.23%
Psychogenic movement disorders (PMD) are a group of disorders which are in the border zone between neurology and psychiatry. All necessary laboratory investigations should be done to rule out an underlying organic disorder. While clinical acumen of a trained movement disorder specialist may be sufficient to diagnose most PMD, there are clinical situations where electrophysiological tests are required either to rule out an organic movement disorder or even diagnose a PMD. Current electrophysiological test are most useful for tremor, followed by jerks and least for spasms or dystonia. Commonly used electrophysiologic tests include multichannel surface electromyography (EMG), accelerometry, electroencephalography time locked with EMG, premovement potential (Bereitschaftspotential), and somatosensory evoked potentials. Psychogenic tremor is a low frequency tremor with variable frequency and duration of EMG bursts, entrainable, has a high coherence with voluntary movements, and presence of coactivation sign. Patients with psychogenic jerks have well organized triphasic pattern of activation of agonist and antagonist muscles. The jerks are associated with EMG bursts of long duration (usually > 70 ms), long and variable latencies in stimulus induced jerks...

Psychogenic Facial Movement Disorders: Clinical Features and Associated Conditions

Fasano, Alfonso; Valadas, Anabela; Bhatia, Kailash P; Prashanth, LK; Lang, Anthony E; Munhoz, Renato P; Morgante, Francesca; Tarsy, Daniel; Duker, Andrew P; Girlanda, Paolo; Bentivoglio, Anna Rita; Espay, Alberto J
Fonte: Wiley Subscription Services, Inc., A Wiley Company Publicador: Wiley Subscription Services, Inc., A Wiley Company
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.19%
The facial phenotype of psychogenic movement disorders has not been fully characterized. Seven tertiary-referral movement disorders centers using a standardized data collection on a computerized database performed a retrospective chart review of psychogenic movement disorders involving the face. Patients with organic forms of facial dystonia or any medical or neurological disorder known to affect facial muscles were excluded. Sixty-one patients fulfilled the inclusion criteria for psychogenic facial movement disorders (91.8% females; age: 37.0 ± 11.3 years). Phasic or tonic muscular spasms resembling dystonia were documented in all patients most commonly involving the lips (60.7%), followed by eyelids (50.8%), perinasal region (16.4%), and forehead (9.8%). The most common pattern consisted of tonic, sustained, lateral, and/or downward protrusion of one side of the lower lip with ipsilateral jaw deviation (84.3%). Ipsi- or contralateral blepharospasm and excessive platysma contraction occurred in isolation or combined with fixed lip dystonia (60.7%). Spasms were reported as painful in 24.6% of cases. Symptom onset was abrupt in most cases (80.3%), with at least 1 precipitating psychological stress or trauma identified in 57.4%. Associated body regions involved included upper limbs (29.5%)...

The distinctive movement disorder of ovarian teratoma-associated encephalitis

Kleinig, T.; Thompson, P.; Walid, M.; Duggins, A.; Kimber, T.; Morris, J.; Kneebone, C.; Blumbergs, P.
Fonte: Wiley-Liss Publicador: Wiley-Liss
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2008 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.25%
The movement disorder observed in four cases of ovarian teratoma associated encephalitis is described. The illness began with neuropsychiatric symptoms and was followed by prolonged unresponsiveness, respiratory failure, and autonomic instability. The movement disorder consisted of semirhythmic repetitive bulbar and limb movements and persisted during prolonged periods of unresponsiveness, diminishing as awareness returned. The characteristics of the movement disorder differed from recognized dyskinesias. It is suggested that interruption of forebrain corticostriatal inputs by anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antibodies removes tonic inhibition of brainstem pattern generators releasing primitive patterns of bulbar and limb movement. Recognition of the distinctive movements should prompt a search for an ovarian teratoma since the condition is responsive to tumor resection and immunomodulation.; Timothy J. Kleinig, Philip D. Thompson, Walid Matar, Andrew Duggins, Thomas E. Kimber, John G. Morris, Christopher S. Kneebone, Peter C. Blumbergs; The definitive version may be found at www.wiley.com

The role of Parietal Cortex in the Online Control of Hand Movement Trajectory: an Inactivation and a Case Report Study

FERRARI TONIOLO, SIMONE
Fonte: La Sapienza Universidade de Roma Publicador: La Sapienza Universidade de Roma
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.18%
The role of the Superior Parietal Lobule (SPL) of the primate brain in the control of hand and eye movements has been investigated through two experiments. In one experiment two macaque monkeys were trained to perform arm movements under two task conditions. In the first the animal performed direct reaches from a central location to one of 4 peripheral visual targets. In a second condition (50% of the trials) a sudden change of target location occurred, either during the hand reaction-time (RT) or at movement-time (MT) onset. The animals were required to adjust as fast as possible their hand trajectory to reach the second target location. A behavioral testing was performed before and after SPL inactivation. The inactivated area had previously been studied in the same task by recording the activity of 225 cells that showed modulation by hand position, speed and movement direction, as well as by saccadic signals. In separate sessions, unilateral and bilateral injections of the GABA-A agonist muscimol were performed within area 5 (PE/PEc) of the SPL. As control, physiological saline was injected in the same loci. Bilateral muscimol injections caused an increase of the hand RT and MT toward the first target in the direct reaches, and to both the first and second target in the corrected ones. In the latter...

Inhaled Hydrogen Sulfide Prevents Neurodegeneration and Movement Disorder in a Mouse Model of Parkinson's Disease

Kida, Kotaro; Yamada, Marina; Tokuda, Kentaro; Marutani, Eizo; Kakinohana, Manabu; Kaneki, Masao; Ichinose, Fumito
Fonte: Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. Publicador: Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 15/07/2011 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.11%
Parkinson's disease is one of the major neurodegenerative disorders. Neurotoxin 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) can cause Parkinson's disease–like symptoms and biochemical changes in humans and animals. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) has been shown to protect neurons. The goal of this study was to examine the effects of inhaled H2S in a mouse model of Parkinson's disease induced by MPTP. Male C57BL/6J mice received MPTP at 80 mg/kg and breathed air with or without 40 ppm H2S for 8 h/day for 7 days. Administration of MPTP induced movement disorder and decreased tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-containing neurons in the substantia nigra and striatum in mice that breathed air. Inhalation of H2S prevented the MPTP-induced movement disorder and the degeneration of TH-containing neurons. Inhaled H2S also prevented apoptosis of the TH-containing neurons and gliosis in nigrostriatal region after administration of MPTP. The neuroprotective effect of inhaled H2S after MPTP administration was associated with upregulation of genes encoding antioxidant proteins, including heme oxygenase-1 and glutamate-cysteine ligase. These observations suggest that inhaled H2S prevents neurodegeneration in a mouse model of Parkinson's disease induced by MPTP...

The Movement Disorder Society Evidence-Based Medicine Review Update: Treatments for the Non-Motor Symptoms of Parkinson's Disease

Seppi, Klaus; Weintraub, Daniel; Coelho, Miguel; Perez-Lloret, Santiago; Fox, Susan H.; Katzenschlager, Regina; Hametner, Eva-Maria; Poewe, Werner; Rascol, Olivier; Goetz, Christopher G.; Sampaio, Cristina
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /10/2011 EN
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46.11%
The Movement Disorder Society (MDS) Task Force on Evidence-Based Medicine (EBM) Review of Treatments for Parkinson's Disease (PD) was first published in 2002 and was updated in 2005 to cover clinical trial data up to January 2004 with the focus on motor symptoms of PD. In this revised version the MDS task force decided it was necessary to extend the review to non-motor symptoms. The objective of this work was to update previous EBM reviews on treatments for PD with a focus on non-motor symptoms. Level-I (randomized controlled trial, RCT) reports of pharmacological and nonpharmacological interventions for the non-motor symptoms of PD, published as full articles in English between January 2002 and December 2010 were reviewed. Criteria for inclusion and ranking followed the original program outline and adhered to EBM methodology. For efficacy conclusions, treatments were designated: efficacious, likely efficacious, unlikely efficacious, non-efficacious, or insufficient evidence. Safety data were catalogued and reviewed. Based on the combined efficacy and safety assessment, Implications for clinical practice were determined using the following designations: clinically useful, possibly useful, investigational, unlikely useful, and not useful. Fifty-four new studies qualified for efficacy review while several other studies covered safety issues. Updated and new efficacy conclusions were made for all indications. The treatments that are efficacious for the management of the different non-motor symptoms are as follows: pramipexole for the treatment of depressive symptoms...

Plasma Urate in REM Sleep Behavior Disorder

Juri, Carlos; Salazar Rivera, Julio; Godoy Fern, Jaime; Santín Martínez, Julia; López Illanes, Felipe; Venegas Francke, Pablo Andrés; Gazmuri Jones, Alex; Uribe San Mart, Reinaldo
Fonte: Movement Disorder Society Publicador: Movement Disorder Society
Tipo: Artículo de revista
EN
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56.11%
Artículo de publicación ISI; Background: Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (RBD) is associated with a high risk of developing Parkinson’s disease (PD). Higher urate levels are associated with a lower risk of PD. We conducted a study to evaluate plasma urate levels in patients with RBD and their role in the development of PD. Methods: We evaluated plasma urate levels in a cohort of 24 patients with idiopathic RBD. Patients were divided into 2 groups according to the presence or absence of PD. Other known markers of the risk of developing PD, such as olfaction testing, and substantia nigra (SN) hyperechogenicity, were evaluated in the 2 groups. Results: No differences were observed regarding age, years of evolution of the RBD, SN hyperechogenicity, or plasma urate levels between the 2 groups. In patients without PD, there was a positive correlation between years of evolution of RBD and the levels of uric acid (R250.88). Patients without PD and those who had more than 5 years of RBD exhibited higher levels of uric acid than patients with PD (P50.02). Conclusions: Higher levels of plasma urate were associated with a longer duration of RBD without converting to PD. Future prospective studies would be needed to confirm this finding. Disorder Society.