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Location, Location, Location! Monotremes Provide Unique Insights into the Evolution of Sex Chromosome Silencing in Mammals

Daish, T.; Grutzner, F.
Fonte: Mary Ann Liebert Inc Publ Publicador: Mary Ann Liebert Inc Publ
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2009 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Platypus and echidnas are the only living representative of the egg-laying mammals that diverged 166 million years ago from the mammalian lineage. Despite occupying a key spot in mammalian phylogeny, research on monotremes has been limited by access to material and lack of molecular genetic resources. This has changed recently, and the sequencing of the platypus genome has promoted monotremes into a generally accessible tool in comparative genomics. The most extraordinary aspect of the monotreme genome is an amazingly complex sex chromosomes system that shares extensive homology with bird sex chromosomes and no homology with sex chromosomes of other mammals. This raises important questions about dosage compensation of the five pairs of sex chromosomes in females and meiotic silencing in males, and we are only beginning to unravel possible mechanisms and pathways that may be involved. The homology between monotreme and bird sex chromosomes makes comparison between those species worthwhile, also as they provide a well-defined example where the same sex chromosomes changed from female heterogamety (chicken) to male heterogamety (monotremes). We summarize recent research on monotreme and chicken sex chromosomes and discuss possible mechanisms that may contribute to sex chromosome silencing in monotremes.; Tasman Daish and Frank Grutzner; Copyright © Mary Ann Liebert...