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Reconciling incongruous qualitative and quantitative findings in mixed methods research: exemplars from research with drug using populations

Wagner, Karla D.; Davidson, Peter J.; Pollini, Robin A.; Strathdee, Steffanie A.; Washburn, Rachel; Palinkas, Lawrence A.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.85%
Mixed methods research is increasingly being promoted in the health sciences as a way to gain more comprehensive understandings of how social processes and individual behaviours shape human health. Mixed methods research most commonly combines qualitative and quantitative data collection and analysis strategies. Often, integrating findings from multiple methods is assumed to confirm or validate the findings from one method with the findings from another, seeking convergence or agreement between methods. Cases in which findings from different methods are congruous are generally thought of as ideal, while conflicting findings may, at first glance, appear problematic. However, the latter situation provides the opportunity for a process through which apparently discordant results are reconciled, potentially leading to new emergent understandings of complex social phenomena. This paper presents three case studies drawn from the authors’ research on HIV risk among injection drug users in which mixed methods studies yielded apparently discrepant results. We use these case studies (involving injection drug users [IDUs] using a needle/syringe exchange program in Los Angeles, California, USA; IDUs seeking to purchase needle/syringes at pharmacies in Tijuana...

Mixing a Grounded Theory Approach with a Randomized Controlled Trial Related to Intimate Partner Violence: What Challenges Arise for Mixed Methods Research?

Catallo, Cristina; Jack, Susan M.; Ciliska, Donna; MacMillan, Harriet L.
Fonte: Hindawi Publishing Corporation Publicador: Hindawi Publishing Corporation
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.76%
Little is known about how to systematically integrate complex qualitative studies within the context of randomized controlled trials. A two-phase sequential explanatory mixed methods study was conducted in Canada to understand how women decide to disclose intimate partner violence in emergency department settings. Mixing a RCT (with a subanalysis of data) with a grounded theory approach required methodological modifications to maintain the overall rigour of this mixed methods study. Modifications were made to the following areas of the grounded theory approach to support the overall integrity of the mixed methods study design: recruitment of participants, maximum variation and negative case sampling, data collection, and analysis methods. Recommendations for future studies include: (1) planning at the outset to incorporate a qualitative approach with a RCT and to determine logical points during the RCT to integrate the qualitative component and (2) consideration for the time needed to carry out a RCT and a grounded theory approach, especially to support recruitment, data collection, and analysis. Data mixing strategies should be considered during early stages of the study, so that appropriate measures can be developed and used in the RCT to support initial coding structures and data analysis needs of the grounded theory phase.

Creating and Supporting a Mixed Methods Health Services Research Team

Bowers, Barbara; Cohen, Lauren W; Elliot, Amy E; Grabowski, David C; Fishman, Nancy W; Sharkey, Siobhan S; Zimmerman, Sheryl; Horn, Susan D; Kemper, Peter
Fonte: Blackwell Science Inc Publicador: Blackwell Science Inc
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
75.73%
Objective. To use the experience from a health services research evaluation to provide guidance in team development for mixed methods research.

Interdisciplinary Mixed Methods Research with Structurally Vulnerable Populations: Case Studies of Injection Drug Users in San Francisco

Lopez, Andrea; Bourgois, Philippe; Wenger, Lynn; Lorvick, Jennifer; Martinez, Alexis; Kral, Alex H.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.8%
Research with injection drug users (IDUs) benefits from interdisciplinary theoretical and methodological innovation because drug use is illegal, socially sanctioned and often hidden. Despite the increasing visibility of interdisciplinary, mixed methods research projects with IDUs, qualitative components are often subordinated to quantitative approaches and page restrictions in top addiction journals limit detailed reports of complex data collection and analysis logistics, thus minimizing the fuller scientific potential of genuine mixed methods. We present the methodological logistics and conceptual approaches of four mixed-methods research projects that our interdisciplinary team conducted in San Francisco with IDUs over the past two decades. These projects include combinations of participant-observation ethnography, in-depth qualitative interviewing, epidemiological surveys, photo-documentation, and geographic mapping. We adapted Greene et al.’s framework for combining methods in a single research project through: data triangulation, methodological complementarity, methodological initiation, and methodological expansion. We argue that: (1) flexible and self-reflexive methodological procedures allowed us to seize strategic opportunities to document unexpected and sometimes contradictory findings as they emerged to generate new research questions...

Achieving Integration in Mixed Methods Designs—Principles and Practices

Fetters, Michael D; Curry, Leslie A; Creswell, John W
Fonte: Blackwell Science Inc Publicador: Blackwell Science Inc
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
75.82%
Mixed methods research offers powerful tools for investigating complex processes and systems in health and health care. This article describes integration principles and practices at three levels in mixed methods research and provides illustrative examples. Integration at the study design level occurs through three basic mixed method designs—exploratory sequential, explanatory sequential, and convergent—and through four advanced frameworks—multistage, intervention, case study, and participatory. Integration at the methods level occurs through four approaches. In connecting, one database links to the other through sampling. With building, one database informs the data collection approach of the other. When merging, the two databases are brought together for analysis. With embedding, data collection and analysis link at multiple points. Integration at the interpretation and reporting level occurs through narrative, data transformation, and joint display. The fit of integration describes the extent the qualitative and quantitative findings cohere. Understanding these principles and practices of integration can help health services researchers leverage the strengths of mixed methods.

A brief measure of attitudes toward mixed methods research in psychology

Roberts, Lynne D.; Povee, Kate
Fonte: Frontiers Media S.A. Publicador: Frontiers Media S.A.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 12/11/2014 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.9%
The adoption of mixed methods research in psychology has trailed behind other social science disciplines. Teaching psychology students, academics, and practitioners about mixed methodologies may increase the use of mixed methods within the discipline. However, tailoring and evaluating education and training in mixed methodologies requires an understanding of, and way of measuring, attitudes toward mixed methods research in psychology. To date, no such measure exists. In this article we present the development and initial validation of a new measure: Attitudes toward Mixed Methods Research in Psychology. A pool of 42 items developed from previous qualitative research on attitudes toward mixed methods research along with validation measures was administered via an online survey to a convenience sample of 274 psychology students, academics and psychologists. Principal axis factoring with varimax rotation on a subset of the sample produced a four-factor, 12-item solution. Confirmatory factor analysis on a separate subset of the sample indicated that a higher order four factor model provided the best fit to the data. The four factors; ‘Limited Exposure,’ ‘(in)Compatibility,’ ‘Validity,’ and ‘Tokenistic Qualitative Component’; each have acceptable internal reliability. Known groups validity analyses based on preferred research orientation and self-rated mixed methods research skills...

Mixed Methods Research in Music Therapy Research

Bradt, Joke; Burns, Debra S.; Creswell, John W.
Fonte: Oxford University Press Publicador: Oxford University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.9%
Background: Music therapists have an ethical and professional responsibility to provide the highest quality care possible to their patients. Much of the time, high quality care is guided by evidence-based practice standards that integrate the most current, available research in making decisions. Accordingly, music therapists need research that integrates multiple ways of knowing and forms of evidence. Mixed methods research holds great promise for facilitating such integration. At this time, there have not been any methodological articles published on mixed methods research in music therapy. Objective: The purpose of this article is to introduce mixed methods research as an approach to address research questions relevant to music therapy practice. Methods: This article describes the core characteristics of mixed methods research, considers paradigmatic issues related to this research approach, articulates major challenges in conducting mixed methods research, illustrates four basic designs, and provides criteria for evaluating the quality of mixed methods articles using examples of mixed methods research from the music therapy literature. Conclusions: Mixed methods research offers unique opportunities for strengthening the evidence base in music therapy. Recommendations are provided to ensure rigorous implementation of this research approach.

Evaluating the impact of Mexico’s drug policy reforms on people who inject drugs in Tijuana, B.C., Mexico, and San Diego, CA, United States: a binational mixed methods research agenda

Robertson, Angela M; Garfein, Richard S; Wagner, Karla D; Mehta, Sanjay R; Magis-Rodriguez, Carlos; Cuevas-Mota, Jazmine; Moreno-Zuniga, Patricia Gonzalez; Strathdee, Steffanie A
Fonte: BioMed Central Publicador: BioMed Central
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
75.79%
Background: Policymakers and researchers seek answers to how liberalized drug policies affect people who inject drugs (PWID). In response to concerns about the failing “war on drugs,” Mexico recently implemented drug policy reforms that partially decriminalized possession of small amounts of drugs for personal use while promoting drug treatment. Recognizing important epidemiologic, policy, and socioeconomic differences between the United States—where possession of any psychoactive drugs without a prescription remains illegal—and Mexico—where possession of small quantities for personal use was partially decriminalized, we sought to assess changes over time in knowledge, attitudes, behaviors, and infectious disease profiles among PWID in the adjacent border cities of San Diego, CA, USA, and Tijuana, Baja California, Mexico. Methods: Based on extensive binational experience and collaboration, from 2012–2014 we initiated two parallel, prospective, mixed methods studies: Proyecto El Cuete IV in Tijuana (n = 785) and the STAHR II Study in San Diego (n = 575). Methods for sampling, recruitment, and data collection were designed to be compatible in both studies. All participants completed quantitative behavioral and geographic assessments and serological testing (HIV in both studies; hepatitis C virus and tuberculosis in STAHR II) at baseline and four semi-annual follow-up visits. Between follow-up assessment visits...

Design of an impact evaluation using a mixed methods model – an explanatory assessment of the effects of results-based financing mechanisms on maternal healthcare services in Malawi

Brenner, Stephan; Muula, Adamson S; Robyn, Paul Jacob; Bärnighausen, Till; Sarker, Malabika; Mathanga, Don P; Bossert, Thomas; De Allegri, Manuela
Fonte: BioMed Central Publicador: BioMed Central
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.78%
Background: In this article we present a study design to evaluate the causal impact of providing supply-side performance-based financing incentives in combination with a demand-side cash transfer component on equitable access to and quality of maternal and neonatal healthcare services. This intervention is introduced to selected emergency obstetric care facilities and catchment area populations in four districts in Malawi. We here describe and discuss our study protocol with regard to the research aims, the local implementation context, and our rationale for selecting a mixed methods explanatory design with a quasi-experimental quantitative component. Design: The quantitative research component consists of a controlled pre- and post-test design with multiple post-test measurements. This allows us to quantitatively measure ‘equitable access to healthcare services’ at the community level and ‘healthcare quality’ at the health facility level. Guided by a theoretical framework of causal relationships, we determined a number of input, process, and output indicators to evaluate both intended and unintended effects of the intervention. Overall causal impact estimates will result from a difference-in-difference analysis comparing selected indicators across intervention and control facilities/catchment populations over time. To further explain heterogeneity of quantitatively observed effects and to understand the experiential dimensions of financial incentives on clients and providers...

Using Mixed Methods in Monitoring and Evaluation : Experiences from International Development

Bamberger, Michael; Rao, Vijayendra; Woolcock, Michael
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.8%
This paper provides an overview of the various ways in which mixing qualitative and quantitative methods could add value to monitoring and evaluating development projects. In particular it examines how qualitative methods could address some of the limitations of randomized trials and other quantitative impact evaluation methods; it also explores the importance of examining "process" in addition to "impact", distinguishing design from implementation failures, and the value of mixed methods in the real-time monitoring of projects. It concludes by suggesting topics for future research -- including the use of mixed methods in constructing counterfactuals, and in conducting reasonable evaluations within severe time and budget constraints.

Vocabulary Learning through Use of the Picture-Word Inductive Model for Young English Learners in China: A Mixed Methods Examination Using Cognitive Load Theory

Jiang, Xuan
Fonte: FIU Digital Commons Publicador: FIU Digital Commons
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
Relevância na Pesquisa
75.7%
English has been taught as a core and compulsory subject in China for decades. Recently, the demand for English in China has increased dramatically. China now has the world’s largest English-learning population. The traditional English-teaching method cannot continue to be the only approach because it merely focuses on reading, grammar and translation, which cannot meet English learners and users’ needs (i.e., communicative competence and skills in speaking and writing). This study was conducted to investigate if the Picture-Word Inductive Model (PWIM), a new pedagogical method using pictures and inductive thinking, would benefit English learners in China in terms of potential higher output in speaking and writing. With the gauge of Cognitive Load Theory (CLT), specifically, its redundancy effect, I investigated whether processing words and a picture concurrently would present a cognitive overload for English learners in China. I conducted a mixed methods research study. A quasi-experiment (pretest, intervention for seven weeks, and posttest) was conducted using 234 students in four groups in Lianyungang, China (58 fourth graders and 57 seventh graders as an experimental group with PWIM and 59 fourth graders and 60 seventh graders as a control group with the traditional method). No significant difference in the effects of PWIM was found on vocabulary acquisition based on grade levels. Observations...

Pedagogical Perceptions of Classroom Performance in the Teacher Evaluative Process: A Mixed Methods Study

Pendleton, Kim Makeba Hinckson
Fonte: FIU Digital Commons Publicador: FIU Digital Commons
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
Relevância na Pesquisa
75.67%
This sequential explanatory, mixed methods research design examines the role teachers should enact in the development process of the teacher evaluation system in Louisiana. These insights will ensure teachers are catalysts in the classroom to significantly increase student achievement and allow policymakers, practitioners, and instructional leaders to direct as learned decision makers.

What does sustainability mean? Knowledge gleaned from applying mixed methods research to wine grape growing

Santiago-Brown, I.; Jerram, C.; Metcalfe, A.; Collins, C.
Fonte: SAGE Publications Publicador: SAGE Publications
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2014 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
85.7%
We present outcomes from a mixed methods research project in agricultural sciences. An atypical methodology for sciences was developed as the only way to avoid embedded assumptions commonly seen in sustainability investigations. Eighty-three upper echelon participants from the wine grape industry participated in 14 focus groups in five countries: Australia, Chile, New Zealand, South Africa, and the United States. Quantitative measures were compared with results from qualitatively coded participant utterances using two content analysis software tools: Leximancer and NVivo. This article presents the strategies and method applied in this investigation to define sustainability. A consensual sustainability definition prior to the establishment of assessment systems is essential. The model developed seems to be viable for similar sustainability investigations of individual organizations.; Irina Santiago-Brown, Cate Jerram, Andrew Metcalfe and Cassandra Collins; Extent: 20 p.

A cross-cultural perspective on ageing well in Australia: a mixed methods approach to successful ageing and filial piety among Anglo-Australians and Chinese immigrants.

Soosai, Joanne Siu Chern Tan
Fonte: Universidade de Adelaide Publicador: Universidade de Adelaide
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Publicado em //2014
Relevância na Pesquisa
75.77%
Australia’s older population has become increasingly diversified in terms of country of origin and ethnicity. The overall aim of the thesis was to critically explore ageing well in an immigrant community by examining the intersection of the Western value system of successful ageing and the Eastern value system of filial piety through the lens of acculturation. In particular, the aim of the present research was to investigate attitudes and beliefs towards ageing and well-being within the context of successful ageing; and the needs and expectations within the context of filial piety among Anglo-Australians and Chinese immigrants. By focusing on the older Chinese community, an under-studied group that is emerging in contemporary Australia, the present research gave a voice to their values and what they perceived as appropriate and relevant as they age away from their country of origin. Using a mixed methods research design, the first phase comprised of a qualitative research component. Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA) was used to identify and explore themes gathered through semi-structured interviews with 21 participants, 11 Anglo-Australians and 10 Chinese-Australians, aged 55 to 78 years. The present research also explored the issue of establishing rigour in qualitative research within the context of IPA and noted that the use of inter-rater reliability is questionable because it does not consider researcher subjectivity...

Mixed-Methods Research in a Complex Multisite VA Health Services Study: Variations in the Implementation and Characteristics of Chiropractic Services in VA

Khorsan, Raheleh; Cohen, Angela B.; Lisi, Anthony J.; Smith, Monica M.; Delevan, Deborah; Armstrong, Courtney; Mittman, Brian S.
Fonte: Hindawi Publishing Corporation Publicador: Hindawi Publishing Corporation
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
75.8%
Maximizing the quality and benefits of newly established chiropractic services represents an important policy and practice goal for the US Department of Veterans Affairs' healthcare system. Understanding the implementation process and characteristics of new chiropractic clinics and the determinants and consequences of these processes and characteristics is a critical first step in guiding quality improvement. This paper reports insights and lessons learned regarding the successful application of mixed methods research approaches—insights derived from a study of chiropractic clinic implementation and characteristics, Variations in the Implementation and Characteristics of Chiropractic Services in VA (VICCS). Challenges and solutions are presented in areas ranging from selection and recruitment of sites and participants to the collection and analysis of varied data sources. The VICCS study illustrates the importance of several factors in successful mixed-methods approaches, including (1) the importance of a formal, fully developed logic model to identify and link data sources, variables, and outcomes of interest to the study's analysis plan and its data collection instruments and codebook and (2) ensuring that data collection methods...

A Methodology for Conducting Integrative Mixed Methods Research and Data Analyses

Castro, Felipe González; Kellison, Joshua G.; Boyd, Stephen J.; Kopak, Albert
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 20/09/2010 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.86%
Mixed methods research has gained visibility within the last few years, although limitations persist regarding the scientific caliber of certain mixed methods research designs and methods. The need exists for rigorous mixed methods designs that integrate various data analytic procedures for a seamless transfer of evidence across qualitative and quantitative modalities. Such designs can offer the strength of confirmatory results drawn from quantitative multivariate analyses, along with “deep structure” explanatory descriptions as drawn from qualitative analyses. This article presents evidence generated from over a decade of pilot research in developing an integrative mixed methods methodology. It presents a conceptual framework and methodological and data analytic procedures for conducting mixed methods research studies, and it also presents illustrative examples from the authors' ongoing integrative mixed methods research studies.

RO1 Funding for Mixed Methods Research: Lessons learned from the Mixed-Method Analysis of Japanese Depression Project

Arnault, Denise Saint; Fetters, Michael D.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.81%
Mixed methods research has made significant in-roads in the effort to examine complex health related phenomenon. However, little has been published on the funding of mixed methods research projects. This paper addresses that gap by presenting an example of an NIMH funded project using a mixed methods QUAL-QUAN triangulation design entitled “The Mixed-Method Analysis of Japanese Depression.” We present the Cultural Determinants of Health Seeking model that framed the study, the specific aims, the quantitative and qualitative data sources informing the study, and overview of the mixing of the two studies. Finally, we examine reviewer's comments and our insights related to writing mixed method proposal successful for achieving RO1 level funding.

Mixed methods en la investigación de la actividad física y el deporte

Anguera Argilaga, María Teresa; Camerino i Foguet, Oleguer; Castañer Balcells, Marta; Sánchez Algarra, Pedro
Fonte: Universidade Autônoma de Barcelona Publicador: Universidade Autônoma de Barcelona
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2014 SPA
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.92%
La lógica del procedimiento científico se ha desarrollado tradicionalmente desde planteamientos dicotómicos, y uno de los más influyentes fue la radical oposición entre paradigma cuantitativo vs. paradigma cualitativo. A finales del siglo XX irrumpe con fuerza la corriente de mixed methods, que ya no podemos considerar emergente, a pesar de que sigue creciendo con fuerza, porque está ya estabilizada. Su avance ha sido desigual en función de los ámbitos de conocimiento, y en el de actividad física y deporte ha sido relativamente tardía, pero últimamente está dando magníficos frutos. En este articulo se presenta la panorámica actual relativa a las etapas del proceso de investigación, relativa a diseños, como planificación empírica estratégica del problema de estudio, recogida de datos, que abarca un arco de diferentes posibilidades que hasta hace poco se hallaban en liza, y de análisis de datos, que nos conducte a planteamientos no esperables hace pocos años. Nos hallamos en un momento de especial potencial de desarrollo metodológico en el marco de los mixed methods, y este articulo trata de impulsar las iniciativas en este sentido.; Scientific methods have traditionally been based on dichotomous approaches, one of the most influential being radical opposition between quantitative and qualitative paradigms. However...

Mixed methods research in The South African Journal of Economic and Management Sciences: An investigation of trends in the literature

Ngulube,Patrick; Ngulube,Beatrice
Fonte: South African Journal of Economic and Management Sciences Publicador: South African Journal of Economic and Management Sciences
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2015 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
85.75%
Mixed methods research (MMR), which is touted as a third methodological movement is increasingly becoming a popular approach in several fields as a result of the promise it holds to providing a better and balanced investigation of research problems in context. In spite of that, there is limited knowledge about its pervasiveness in economic and management sciences in South Africa. Based on a content analysis of 332 articles published in The South African Journal of Economic and Management Sciences from 2003 to 2011, the main purpose of this quantitative study is to explore the prevalence of MMR in SAJEMS. Although methodological advances have been made in the field of economic and management sciences as reflected in the articles in SAJEMS, the findings reveal that scholars employ quantitative and qualitative methodologies than MMR. Given the paucity of MMR in the field, this study underscores the potential benefits of embracing methodological pluralism as it offers methodological and theoretical benefits. First, the use of MMR provides the possibility for researchers to obtain a comprehensive picture of a phenomenon under investigation and achieve their research purpose effectively. Secondly, its utilisation may also contribute to theory development and the maturity of the field as reflected in SAJEMS.

The "movement" of mixed methods research and the role of educators

Creswell,John W.; Garrett,Amanda L.
Fonte: South African Journal of Education Publicador: South African Journal of Education
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/08/2008 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
85.91%
The landscape of research is continually evolving, enabling researchers to study increasingly complex phenomena. Educational researchers have propelled much of this forward progress and have developed novel methodologies to provide increasingly sound and complete evidence. Mixed methods research has emerged alongside quantitative and qualitative approaches as an important tool for researchers. In this article our overall aim is to better acquaint educational scholars with the mixed methods field by articulating the development of the mixed methods field and by citing current trends and issues. The role of educational researchers in the evolution of mixed methods research is high-lighted. The early and ongoing dialogue of mixed methods research is multi-disciplinary in nature with current writings across fields. The current debate over key aspects of mixed methods research is now in progress and is ripe for future contributions. Even the very nature of what constitutes mixed methods research is being discussed among scholars. Understanding and advancing the mixed methods field is an important goal for methodologists and researchers. With the increased interest and enthusiasm for mixed methods research, it is likely that the dialogue surrounding mixed methods approaches will thrive...