Página 1 dos resultados de 434 itens digitais encontrados em 0.012 segundos

- Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
- Universidade Estadual Paulista
- Laboratório Nacional de Energia e Geologia
- Elsevier
- Springer
- Sociedade Brasileira de Pesquisa Operacional
- Brazilian Society of Chemical Engineering
- Curitiba
- Inst Engineering Technology-iet
- Universidade Cornell
- University of Cambridge; Department of Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology
- Rochester Instituto de Tecnologia
- Centro de Investigación en computación, IPN
- Mais Publicadores...

## A programação de produção em fundições de pequeno porte: modelagem matemática e métodos de solução; The production planning is small-driven foundries: mathematical modeling and solution methods

Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP

Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado
Formato: application/pdf

Publicado em 24/04/2007
PT

Relevância na Pesquisa

86.21%

#Lot-sizing problems#Mixed integer linear programming#Problemas de dimensionamento de lotes#Production planning in foundries#Programação da produção em fundições#Programação inteira mista

Este trabalho trata de um problema de programação da produção em fundições de pequeno porte, que consiste em programar as ligas que devem ser produzidas em cada período do planejamento e como tais ligas devem ser usadas para a produção de itens sob encomenda, de modo que atrasos e custos operacionais sejam minimizados. Devido à certa incerteza nos dados do problema, a estratégia de horizonte rolante foi empregada. Este problema é representado por um modelo matemático de programação linear inteira mista. Neste trabalho foi desenvolvida uma heurística do tipo residual para obter uma boa solução inteira factível do problema, partindo da solução contínua encontrada pelos métodos relaxe-e-fixe e busca local; This work addresses a planning production problem that arises in small market-driven foundries, which consists of programming a number of alloys that have to be produced in each period of the planning horizon and how these alloys should be used to producing ordered items, in such way that delays and operational costs are minimized. Due to uncertainties in the problem data, the strategy of rolling horizon was used. This problem is modeled as a mixed integer linear programe. In this work we developed a residual typed heuristic in order to obtain a good feasible integer solution of the problem...

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## Biodiesel: análise e dimensionamento da rede logística no Brasil usando programação linear.; Biodiesel: supply chain analyses and facilities location using mixed integer linear programming.

Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP

Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado
Formato: application/pdf

Publicado em 18/09/2008
PT

Relevância na Pesquisa

126.21%

#Alternative fuels#Biodiesel#Combustíveis alternativos#Facilities location#Logistics#Mixed integer linear programming#Programação linear

Neste trabalho foi desenvolvido um modelo de programação linear inteira mista para localização das instalações da rede logística do biodiesel no Brasil, de forma a que se possa, com sua aplicação, avaliar o potencial de produção de oleaginosas no país, assim como identificar as zonas mais promissoras para a localização dos diversos elos da cadeia do biodiesel, a partir da demanda gerada pela mistura de um percentual de biodiesel ao diesel fóssil. O modelo incorpora quatro elos da cadeia produtiva (fase agrícola, extração de óleo, produção de biodiesel e pontos de demanda). Os parâmetros do modelo foram estimados com base em informações reais de mercado disponíveis (base de dezembro/2007). Obteve-se com a aplicação do modelo a diversos cenários, os municípios mais indicados para produção das oleaginosas, as oleaginosas utilizadas, o volume de produção em cada local e, por fim, a localização e porte das fábricas de óleo e das usinas de biodiesel. Análises de sensibilidade de alguns parâmetros foram executadas para verificação do comportamento do modelo face a incertezas. O trabalho incorpora sugestões e recomendações para aprimoramento do modelo.; In this research a mixed integer linear programming model was developed to locate facilities related to the biodiesel supply chain in Brazil...

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## Optimal allocation of capacitors in radial distribution systems with distributed generation

Fonte: Universidade Estadual Paulista
Publicador: Universidade Estadual Paulista

Tipo: Conferência ou Objeto de Conferência

ENG

Relevância na Pesquisa

86.31%

#AMPL#CPLEX#Distribution system optimization#mixed-integer linear programming#optimal allocation of capacitors#Distribution systems#Mixed integer linear programming#Optimal allocation#Capacitors#Distributed power generation#Innovation

This paper presents a mixed-integer linear programming approach to solving the optimal fixed/switched capacitors allocation (OCA) problem in radial distribution systems with distributed generation. The use of a mixed-integer linear formulation guarantees convergence to optimality using existing optimization software. The results of one test system and one real distribution system are presented in order to show the accuracy as well as the efficiency of the proposed solution technique. © 2011 IEEE.

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## Domain reduction using GRASP construction phase for transmission expansion planning problem

Fonte: Universidade Estadual Paulista
Publicador: Universidade Estadual Paulista

Tipo: Conferência ou Objeto de Conferência
Formato: 87-98

ENG

Relevância na Pesquisa

86.16%

#GRASP-CP#MILP#TM-TEP#Branch and bounds#Combinatorial search#Construction phase#Fast heuristic algorithms#Greedy randomized adaptive search procedure#Integer variables#Local optimal solution#Mixed-integer linear programming

This paper proposes a new strategy to reduce the combinatorial search space of a mixed integer linear programming (MILP) problem. The construction phase of greedy randomized adaptive search procedure (GRASP-CP) is employed to reduce the domain of the integer variables of the transportation model of the transmission expansion planning (TM-TEP) problem. This problem is a MILP and very difficult to solve specially for large scale systems. The branch and bound (BB) algorithm is used to solve the problem in both full and the reduced search space. The proposed method might be useful to reduce the search space of those kinds of MILP problems that a fast heuristic algorithm is available for finding local optimal solutions. The obtained results using some real test systems show the efficiency of the proposed method. © 2012 Springer-Verlag.

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## Optimal conductor size selection and reconductoring in radial distribution systems using a mixed-integer LP approach

Fonte: Universidade Estadual Paulista
Publicador: Universidade Estadual Paulista

Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Formato: 10-20

ENG

Relevância na Pesquisa

106.35%

#Distribution system optimization#Mixed-integer linear programming#Optimal conductor size selection#Distribution systems#Linear expression#Mixed integer linear programming#Mixed-integer#Objective functions#Optimality#Optimization software#Pareto front

This paper presents a mixed-integer linear programming model to solve the conductor size selection and reconductoring problem in radial distribution systems. In the proposed model, the steady-state operation of the radial distribution system is modeled through linear expressions. The use of a mixed-integer linear model guarantees convergence to optimality using existing optimization software. The proposed model and a heuristic are used to obtain the Pareto front of the conductor size selection and reconductoring problem considering two different objective functions. The results of one test system and two real distribution systems are presented in order to show the accuracy as well as the efficiency of the proposed solution technique. © 1969-2012 IEEE.

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## A mixed-integer LP model for the reconfiguration of radial electric distribution systems considering distributed generation

Fonte: Universidade Estadual Paulista
Publicador: Universidade Estadual Paulista

Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Formato: 51-60

ENG

Relevância na Pesquisa

106.39%

#Active power losses reduction#Distributed generation#Mixed-integer linear programming#Reconfiguration of electric distribution systems#Active power loss#Classical optimization#Conventional methods#Distribution systems#Electric distribution systems#Imaginary parts#Linear approximations

The problem of reconfiguration of distribution systems considering the presence of distributed generation is modeled as a mixed-integer linear programming (MILP) problem in this paper. The demands of the electric distribution system are modeled through linear approximations in terms of real and imaginary parts of the voltage, taking into account typical operating conditions of the electric distribution system. The use of an MILP formulation has the following benefits: (a) a robust mathematical model that is equivalent to the mixed-integer non-linear programming model; (b) an efficient computational behavior with exiting MILP solvers; and (c) guarantees convergence to optimality using classical optimization techniques. Results from one test system and two real systems show the excellent performance of the proposed methodology compared with conventional methods. © 2012 Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

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## A mixed-integer LP model for the optimal allocation of voltage regulators and capacitors in radial distribution systems

Fonte: Universidade Estadual Paulista
Publicador: Universidade Estadual Paulista

Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Formato: 123-130

ENG

Relevância na Pesquisa

106.35%

#Distribution system optimization#Mixed-integer linear programming#Optimal allocation of voltage regulators and capacitor#Allocation problems#Distribution systems#Linear expression#Mixed integer linear programming#Mixed-integer#Multi objective#Optimal allocation#Optimality

This paper presents a mixed-integer linear programming model to solve the problem of allocating voltage regulators and fixed or switched capacitors (VRCs) in radial distribution systems. The use of a mixed-integer linear model guarantees convergence to optimality using existing optimization software. In the proposed model, the steady-state operation of the radial distribution system is modeled through linear expressions. The results of one test system and one real distribution system are presented in order to show the accuracy as well as the efficiency of the proposed solution technique. An heuristic to obtain the Pareto front for the multiobjective VRCs allocation problem is also presented. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

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## A mixed-integer linear programming approach for optimal type, size and allocation of distributed generation in radial distribution systems

Fonte: Universidade Estadual Paulista
Publicador: Universidade Estadual Paulista

Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Formato: 133-143

ENG

Relevância na Pesquisa

126.38%

#Distributed generation#Mixed-integer linear programming#Optimal allocation#Radial distribution system#Short-circuit currents#Capability curves#Distributed generators#Linear expression#Linear formulation#Load levels#Mixed integer linear programming

This paper presents a mixed-integer linear programming approach to solving the problem of optimal type, size and allocation of distributed generators (DGs) in radial distribution systems. In the proposed formulation, (a) the steady-state operation of the radial distribution system, considering different load levels, is modeled through linear expressions; (b) different types of DGs are represented by their capability curves; (c) the short-circuit current capacity of the circuits is modeled through linear expressions; and (d) different topologies of the radial distribution system are considered. The objective function minimizes the annualized investment and operation costs. The use of a mixed-integer linear formulation guarantees convergence to optimality using existing optimization software. The results of one test system are presented in order to show the accuracy as well as the efficiency of the proposed solution technique.© 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

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## Bilevel approach for optimal location and contract pricing of distributed generation in radial distribution systems using mixed-integer linear programming

Fonte: Universidade Estadual Paulista
Publicador: Universidade Estadual Paulista

Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Formato: 724-734

ENG

Relevância na Pesquisa

116.23%

#Bi-level approaches#Bilevel programming problem#Distributed generators#Distribution companies#Mixed integer linear programming#Optimisation problems#Radial distribution systems#Wholesale energy market#Commerce#Distributed power generation#Linear programming

In this study, a novel approach for the optimal location and contract pricing of distributed generation (DG) is presented. Such an approach is designed for a market environment in which the distribution company (DisCo) can buy energy either from the wholesale energy market or from the DG units within its network. The location and contract pricing of DG is determined by the interaction between the DisCo and the owner of the distributed generators. The DisCo intends to minimise the payments incurred in meeting the expected demand, whereas the owner of the DG intends to maximise the profits obtained from the energy sold to the DisCo. This two-agent relationship is modelled in a bilevel scheme. The upper-level optimisation is for determining the allocation and contract prices of the DG units, whereas the lower-level optimisation is for modelling the reaction of the DisCo. The bilevel programming problem is turned into an equivalent single-level mixed-integer linear optimisation problem using duality properties, which is then solved using commercially available software. Results show the robustness and efficiency of the proposed model compared with other existing models. As regards to contract pricing, the proposed approach allowed to find better solutions than those reported in previous works. © The Institution of Engineering and Technology 2013.

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## Parametric programming technique for global optimization of wastewater treatment systems

Fonte: Laboratório Nacional de Energia e Geologia
Publicador: Laboratório Nacional de Energia e Geologia

Tipo: Conferência ou Objeto de Conferência

Publicado em 06/06/2010
ENG

Relevância na Pesquisa

96.12%

This paper presents a parametric programming technique for the optimal design of industrial wastewater treatment networks (WTN) featuring multiple contaminants. Inspired in scientific notation and powers of ten, the proposed approach avoids the non-convex bilinear terms through a piecewise decomposition scheme that combines the generation of artificial flowrate variables with a multi-parameterization of the outlet concentration variables. The general non-linear problem (NLP) formulation is replaced by a mixed-integer linear programming (MILP) model that is able to generate near optimal solutions, fast. The performance of the new approach is compared to that of global optimization solver BARON through the solution a few test cases.

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## Univariate parameterization for global optimization of mixed-integer polynomial problems

Fonte: Elsevier
Publicador: Elsevier

Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica

Publicado em //2013
ENG

Relevância na Pesquisa

96.29%

This paper presents a new relaxation technique to globally optimize mixed-integer polynomial programming problems that arise in many engineering and management contexts. Using a bilinear term as the basic building block, the underlying idea involves the discretization of one of the variables up to a chosen accuracy level (Teles, J.P., Castro, P.M., Matos, H.A. (2013). Multiparametric disaggregation technique for global optimization of polynomial programming problems. J. Glob. Optim.
55, 227–251), by means of a radix-based numeric representation system, coupled with a residual variable to effectively make its domain continuous. Binary variables are
added to the formulation to choose the appropriate digit for each position together with new sets of continuous variables and constraints leading to the transformation of
the original mixed-integer non-linear problem into a larger one of the mixed-integer linear programming type. The new underestimation approach can be made as tight as desired and is shown capable of providing considerably better lower bounds than a widely used global optimization solver for a specific class of design problems involving bilinear terms.

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## Optimality-based bound contraction with multiparametric disaggregation for the global optimization of mixed-integer bilinear problems

Fonte: Springer
Publicador: Springer

Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica

Publicado em //2014
ENG

Relevância na Pesquisa

96.18%

#Global optimization#Mixed-integer nonlinear programming#Mixed-integer linear programming#Scheduling#Hydroelectric system

We address nonconvex mixed-integer bilinear problems where the main challenge is the computation of a tight upper bound for the objective function to be maximized. This can be obtained by using the recently developed concept of multiparametric disaggregation following the solution of a mixed-integer linear relaxation of the bilinear problem. Besides showing that it can provide tighter bounds than a commercial global optimization solver within a given computational time, we propose to also take advantage of the relaxed formulation for contracting the variables domain and further reduce the optimality gap. Through the solution of a real-life case study from a hydroelectric power system, we show that this can be an efficient approach depending on the problem size. The relaxed formulation from multiparametric formulation is provided for a generic numeric representation system featuring a base between 2 (binary) and 10 (decimal).

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## Application of mixed-integer linear programming in a car seats assembling process

Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira de Pesquisa Operacional
Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira de Pesquisa Operacional

Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Formato: text/html

Publicado em 01/12/2011
EN

Relevância na Pesquisa

126.19%

In this paper, a decision problem involving a car parts manufacturing company is modeled in order to prepare the company for an increase in demand. Mixed-integer linear programming was used with the following decision variables: creating a second shift, purchasing additional equipment, determining the required work force, and other alternatives involving new manners of work distribution that make it possible to separate certain operations from some workplaces and integrate them into others to minimize production costs. The model was solved using GAMS. The solution consisted of programming 19 workers under a configuration that merges two workplaces and separates some operations from some workplaces. The solution did not involve purchasing additional machinery or creating a second shift. As a result, the manufacturing paradigms that had been valid in the company for over 14 years were broken. This study allowed the company to increase its productivity and obtain significant savings. It also shows the benefits of joint work between academia and companies, and provides useful information for professors, students and engineers regarding production and continuous improvement.

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## A Mixed-Integer convex formulation for production optimization of gas-lifted oil fields with routing and pressure constraints

Fonte: Brazilian Society of Chemical Engineering
Publicador: Brazilian Society of Chemical Engineering

Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Formato: text/html

Publicado em 01/06/2014
EN

Relevância na Pesquisa

96.25%

Production optimization of gas-lifted oil fields under facility, routing, and pressure constraints has attracted the attention of researchers and practitioners for its scientific challenges and economic impact. The available methods fall into one of two categories: nonlinear or piecewise-linear approaches. The nonlinear methods optimize simulation models directly or use surrogates obtained by curve fitting. The piecewise-linear methods represent the nonlinear functions using a convex combination of sample points, thereby generating a Mixed-Integer Linear Programming (MILP) problem. The nonlinear methods rely on compact models, but can get stuck in local minima, whereas the piecewise-linear methods can reach globally optimal solutions, but their models tend to get very large. This work combines these methods, whereby piecewise-linear models are used to approximate production functions, which are then composed with convex-quadratic models that approximate pressure drops. The end result is a Mixed-Integer Convex Programming (MICP) problem which is more compact than the MILP model and for which globally optimal solutions can be reached.

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## Mixed integer linear programming and constraint logic programming : towards a unified modeling framework

Fonte: Curitiba
Publicador: Curitiba

Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Formato: 1,54 MB

POR

Relevância na Pesquisa

106.22%

#Programação (Matemática)#Programação linear#Programação inteira#Otimização combinatória#Agenda de execução (Administração)#Restrições (Inteligência artificial)#Simulação (Computadores)#Mathematical programming#Linear programming#Integer programming#Combinatorial optimization

The struggle to model and solve Combinatorial Optimization Problems (COPs) has challenged the development of new approaches to deal with COPs. In one of the front lines of such approaches, Operational Research (OR) and Constraint Programming (CP) optimization techniques are beginning to converge, despite their very different origins. More specifically, Mixed Integer Linear Programming (MILP) and Constraint Logic Programming (CLP) are at the confluence of the OR and the CP fields. This thesis summarizes and contrasts the essential characteristics of MILP and CLP, and the ways that they can be fruitfully combined. Chapters 1 to 3 sketch the intellectual background for recent efforts at integration and the main results achieved. In addition, these chapters highlight that CLP is known by its reach modeling framework, and the MILP modeling vocabulary is just based on inequalities, which makes the modeling process hard and error-prone. Therefore, a combined CLP-MILP approach suffers from this MILP inherited drawback. In chapter 4, this issue is addressed, and some "high-level" MILP modeling structures based on logical inference paradigms are proposed. These structures help the formulation of MILP models, and can be seen as a contribution towards a unifying modeling framework for a combined CLP-MILP approach. In addition...

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## Short-term expansion planning of radial electrical distribution systems using mixed-integer linear programming

Fonte: Inst Engineering Technology-iet
Publicador: Inst Engineering Technology-iet

Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Formato: 256-266

ENG

Relevância na Pesquisa

126.27%

#Linear programming#Integer programming#Power capacitors#Voltage regulators#Radial electrical distribution systems#Mixed-integer linear programming

Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq); Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (FAPESP); This study presents a mixed-integer linear programming (MILP) model to solve the short-term expansion planning problem of radial electrical distribution systems. The proposed model defines the construction of new circuits, the reconductoring of existing circuits, the allocation of capacitor banks (as well as the type and the number of units in operation) and the allocation of voltage regulators to minimise the total annualised investment and operation costs. In the proposed formulation, the steady-state operation of the radial distribution system is mathematically modelled through linear expressions. The use of an MILP model guarantees convergence to optimality by using existing classical optimisation tools. The model was implemented in the mathematical modelling language AMPL and solved using the commercial solver CPLEX. A 54-node test system and 201-node real distribution system were used to demonstrate the accuracy of the mathematical model, as well as the efficiency of the proposed solution technique.

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## Multi-Vehicle Cooperative Control Using Mixed Integer Linear Programming

Fonte: Universidade Cornell
Publicador: Universidade Cornell

Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica

Publicado em 30/01/2005

Relevância na Pesquisa

86.19%

#Computer Science - Robotics#Computer Science - Artificial Intelligence#Computer Science - Multiagent Systems#I.2.9#I.2.8#I.2.11

We present methods to synthesize cooperative strategies for multi-vehicle
control problems using mixed integer linear programming. Complex multi-vehicle
control problems are expressed as mixed logical dynamical systems. Optimal
strategies for these systems are then solved for using mixed integer linear
programming. We motivate the methods on problems derived from an adversarial
game between two teams of robots called RoboFlag. We assume the strategy for
one team is fixed and governed by state machines. The strategy for the other
team is generated using our methods. Finally, we perform an average case
computational complexity study on our approach.; Comment: 12 pages, 13 figures, submitted to IEEE Transactions on Robotics, for
associated web page see http://control.mae.cornell.edu/earl/milp1

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## Application of mixed-integer programming in chemical engineering

Fonte: University of Cambridge; Department of Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology
Publicador: University of Cambridge; Department of Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology

Tipo: Thesis; doctoral; PhD

EN

Relevância na Pesquisa

86.26%

#Chemical engineering#Mixed-integer programming#Travelling salesman problem#Heat exchanger#Optimisation#Scheduling

Mixed-Integer Programming has been a vital tool for the chemical engineer
in the recent decades and is employed extensively in process design and control.
This dissertation presents some new Mixed-Integer Programming formulations
developed for two well-studied problems, one with a central role in the area of
Optimisation, the other of great interest to the chemical industry. These are the
Travelling Salesman Problem and the problem of scheduling cleaning actions for
heat exchanger networks subject to fouling.
The Travelling Salesman Problem finds a plethora of applications in many
scientific disciplines, Chemical Engineering included. None of the mathematical
programming formulations proposed for solving the problem considers fewer than
O(n^2) binary degrees of freedom. The first part of this dissertation introduces a
novel mathematical description of the Travelling Salesman Problem that succeeds
in reducing the binary degrees of freedom to O(nlog2(n)). Three Mixed-Integer
Linear Programming formulations are developed and the computational performance
of these is tested through computational studies.
Sophisticated methods are now available for scheduling the cleaning actions
for networks of heat exchangers subject to fouling. In the majority of these...

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## Mixed-integer linear programming approach to U-line balancing with objective of achieving proportional throughput per worker in a dynamic environment

Fonte: Rochester Instituto de Tecnologia
Publicador: Rochester Instituto de Tecnologia

Tipo: Tese de Doutorado

EN_US

Relevância na Pesquisa

96.05%

#Line balancing#Linearity#Linear programming#Mathematical model#U-line#Walk-path#HD9720.5 .E74 2007#Manufacturing industries--Management--Mathematical models#Industrial productivity#Just-in-time systems

One of the major challenges of manufacturing companies is to remain competitive in a very dynamic environment dictated by fluctuations in production rate and customer demand. These challenges may be attributed to frequent changes in customer expectations, unsteady economic conditions or failure to reach the projected throughput due to inefficiencies in production systems.
Survival in such a dynamic environment is contingent on implementing manufacturing systems that are able to adapt to change quickly and economically. The U-Shaped production cell is considered to be one of the most flexible techniques for changing the number of workers in the cell to match cell cycle time to planned cycle time. However, companies currently use a trial-and-error method to develop walk-paths. It is a very iterative and time consuming process that does not always guarantee an optimal solution.
Walk-paths need to be performed for all possible number of workers. Fluctuations are adapted to by altering only the number of workers and the worker’s walk-path without changing the number of stations and task allocations. Selecting the best configuration (i.e. optimal number of stations and task allocation) is dependant upon the linearity metric i.e. the measurement of the proportional throughput per worker. Designing the production cell by considering the linearity helps to keep direct labor costs per unit at a minimum for any number of workers employed.
This thesis proposes a mixed integer linear model for U-shaped lines that determines the best cell configuration for various number of workers with the objective function of achieving proportional throughput per worker and decreasing the iteration time. The problem originated at Delphi Corporation but has been generalized to be applicable to other Lean systems. The model has been constructed using OPL Studio 3.7.

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## On Multicriteria Mixed Integer Linear Programming Based Tools for Location Problems-An Updated Critical Overview Illustrated with a Bicriteria DSS

Fonte: Centro de Investigación en computación, IPN
Publicador: Centro de Investigación en computación, IPN

Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Formato: text/html

Publicado em 01/12/2008
EN

Relevância na Pesquisa

106.1%

#Multicriteria Location#Mixed Integer Linear Programming#Interactive Approaches#Decision Support Systems

Location problems are, in general, multidimensional in nature, particularly if sustainable development planning is required. So, multicriteria approaches seem adequate in many situations. Nevertheless, only a very small percentage of the publications in this area concern multicriteria models or tools. Generally, the different criteria are formulated as constraints imposing some minimum or maximum value, or are addressed by a surrogate criterion (like distance) on a single objective structure. In this paper we outline the more relevant multicriteria mixed-integer location models and approaches taking into account several issues. The adequacy of the available models to reality is discussed. We also put in evidence the importance of interactive approaches, namely, discussing a decision support tool in which we are co-authors.

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