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The Economic anI Racial Implications of the Globalization of Knowledge by Catholic Missionaries in Portuguese India, 16th-18th Centuries

Souza, Teotónio R. de
Fonte: Repositório Científico Lusófona Publicador: Repositório Científico Lusófona
Tipo: Conferência ou Objeto de Conferência
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.19%
The European Missionaries benefitted from the native Asian sources and knowledge providers much more than it is honestly acknowledged.

Missionaries, environmentalists, and the Maisin, Papua New Guinea

Barker, John
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Working/Technical Paper Formato: 868676 bytes; 355 bytes; application/pdf; application/octet-stream
EN_AU
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.71%
The arrival of Anne Marie Tietjen and myself in Uiaku village in Oro Province, Papua New Guinea, in November 1981 triggered a great deal of speculation. I had made contact with the local priest and village leaders through the good offices of the Anglican Church and some of the people who met us were clearly familiar with the odd pursuits of researchers. Some fifteen years later, I learned that some of the older people had speculated that we were returning ancestors who would hopefully rejuvenate the fortunes of the Maisin people. Others, perhaps more in tune with the national times, hoped that we would draw upon our vast business connections in “America” to bring development to the Maisin. These reactions were the kind we expected in light of what we had read and heard about New Guinea. What we did not expect was that the majority of villagers had already decided that we were missionaries. Anthropologists working in Papua New Guinea expect to encounter “strange” customs and “exotic” beliefs, by which we mean phenomena that we assume to be indigenous in origin, that make sense within the distinctive logic of a cultural “Other”. We tend to be decidedly less impressed by things that look familiar – churches, schools...

Converting salvation : protestant missionaries in Central Australia, 1930s-40s

Trudinger, David
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Thesis (PhD); Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)
EN_AU
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.36%
Using the intellectual, political and discursive ‘construction’ of Presbyterian mission site, Ernabella, in Central Australia during the 1930s and 40s, and against the background of the established and iconic Lutheran mission at Hermannsburg, missionary discourse on Indigenous Australians is examined, particularly the discourse in which significant Presbyterian missionary JRB Love and his fellow churchman Dr Charles Duguid participated. Discursive and political interactions between these two and missionaries such as FW Albrecht of Hermannsburg and John Flynn of the AIM are utilized to explore the fraught and fragmented nature of the missionary discourse in Central Australia in relation to issues such as rationing and feeding, curing indigenous illnesses, ‘half-castes’ and the removal of children, work and education issues, language and translation, and the christianization, conversion and ‘civilising of indigenous people. Missionary discourse and praxis is approached through a provocative reading of the French Jewish philosopher Emmanuel Levinas whose delineation of the face to face encounter with the other, where responsibility is taken for ‘men dispossessed and without food’, is posited as having some relevance and resonance to and within the mission site itself. While conflict...

Evangelical missionaries in the South Seas 1797-1860

Gunson, W.N.
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Thesis (PhD); Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)
EN_AU
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.62%
The work of missionaries has an important place in the history of the South Seas. Missions have played a significant role in directing much of the current thinking of the South Sea islanders, and the traditions of Christian teaching have become as fully a part of the ideological background as the traditions of their own culture Although the degree to which Christianity has affected the traditional ways of life varies from group to group, and from island to island, the total effect of Christianity has been to minimise the sanctions of the past, even if at times it has failed to exalt the spiritual authority of Christ. The historian is not necessarily concerned with the moral problem of the" rightness" of missionaries being sent to non-Christian countries. He is more concerned with the success or failure of the missionaries to do what they set out to do, and with their management of the problems arising from their contact with other peoples and other ways of life. He must, before all, record change. The change that had taken place before 1860, in eastern Polynesia, was in most cases only half a change. A new culture had been grafted on to the old, but in other instances it appeared that a reorientation had simply been given to the old ways. It is the purpose of this study to show something of the mentality of the missionaries who sought to change the social systems of the South Seas. The Evangelical missionary emerges as a special type of actor in the account of the relations between Europeans and native peoples. If...

Discovering the effect Christianity, by way of missions and missionaries, has had on Aboriginal communities of the Northern Territory and North East Western Australia

Heise, Amy
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Relatório
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.81%
Religion is a major force in the world. Every continent, every nation has some form of religion and religious belief, from Christianity, Islam, Buddhism , and the list continues. The Aborigines of Australia had their own religious belief as well. It has been called by scholars as the "Dreamtime" or the "Dreaming". It is a belief in ancestral creatures that shaped the face of the earth and left behind laws for the inhabitants of the earth to follow. The Aborigines were following this ancient belief system when colonization began in 1770. European missionaries were sent to first, convert the convict masses sent to Australia and then the Aborigines. The missionaries, wanting to help and protect the original inhabitants of Australia from genocide being carried out by zealous settlers, so they established missions all across Australia and began a life-long journey to . convert Aborigines to Christianity. What started out with the best on intensions quickly became a war on Aboriginal culture. The missionaries, while defending Aboriginal intelligence and beauty to non believers, still thought of the Aborigines they encountered as inferior and unable to truly comprehend religious belief because they saw no evidence of any in Aboriginal culture. We now know this to be untrue...

Resilience in re-entering missionaries: why do some do well?

Selby, S.; Braunack-Mayer, A.; Moulding, N.; Jones, A.; Clark, S.; Beilby, J.
Fonte: Routledge Publicador: Routledge
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2009 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.36%
Re-entry to their country of origin is a significant disruption for a number of sojourners including missionaries. Although missionary re-entry has been studied in depth for over 20 years, little is known about what makes a missionary resilient to the challenges experienced in the stressful re-entry environment. Research suggests there are psychological, social, spiritual, and biological constructs connected with resilience. The aim of this paper is to answer the question ‘‘Why do some re-entering missionaries do well while others do not?’’ Fifteen adult Australian Christian cross-cultural missionary workers from four interdenominational Australian evangelical mission organisations completed semi-structured interviews and a survey. Results were analysed in two stages using modified consensual qualitative research methods. Links were established between resilience on re-entry and flexibility, expectancy, self-determination, denial using minimisation, mental health, social support, reintegration and personal spiritual connection with God. Implications for missionary care are discussed with suggestions for further research.; Susan P. Selby, Annette Braunack-Mayer, Nicole Moulding, Alison Jones, Sheila Clark and Justin Beilby

Cross-cultural re-entry for missionaries: A new application for the dual process model

Selby, S.; Clark, S.; Braunack-Mayer, A.; Jones, A.; Moulding, N.; Beilby, J.
Fonte: Baywood Publ Co Inc Publicador: Baywood Publ Co Inc
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2010 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.19%
Nearly half a million foreign aid workers currently work worldwide, including over 140,000 missionaries. During re-entry these workers may experience significant psychological distress. This article positions previous research about psychological distress during re-entry, emphasizing loss and grief. At present there is no identifiable theoretical framework to provide a basis for assessment, management, and prevention of re-entry distress in the clinical setting. The development of theoretical concepts and frameworks surrounding loss and grief including the Dual Process Model (DPM) are discussed. All the parameters of the DPM have been shown to be appropriate for the proposed re-entry model, the Dual Process Model applied to Re-entry (DPMR). It is proposed that the DPMR is an appropriate framework to address the processes and strategies of managing re-entry loss and grief. Possible future clinical applications and limitations of the proposed model are discussed. The DPMR is offered for further validation and use in clinical practice.; Susan Selby, Sheila Clark, Annette Braunack-Mayer, Alison Jones, Nicole Moulding, Justin Beilby

Latin missionaries and Catholics in Constantinople 1650-1760 : between local religious culture and confessional determination

BINZ, Laura Elisabeth
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.55%
This thesis examines the actions of the Latin missionaries in the Latin Catholic community of Constantinople between 1650 and 1760. In Constantinople as well as in other mission territories, missionaries were constantly confronted with the universal claims of the post-Tridentine Catholic Church and the practical requirements of the local pluri-religious context. The main aim of this dissertation is to analyze how the missionaries acted within the local context of Constantinople. In terms of methodology, this study combines the approaches of recent research on Early Modern Catholicism after the Council of Trent, of closely related research on extra-European local Christianities and of recent social and cultural research on the Ottoman Empire. In order to work out the processes of negotiation and appropriation between the different actors, the thesis adopts a micro-historical approach and an actor-focused perspective. First, the thesis focuses on the institutional actors, as the representatives of the local Latin Catholics, the patriarchal vicars and missionaries as well as the ambassadors of the European powers. Secondly, the tensions between Roman standards and the local requirements are analyzed with regard to the Constantinopolitan sacramental practice regarding baptism...

The two kingdoms: Lutheran missionaries and the British civilizing mission in early South Australia.

Lockwood, Christine Joy
Fonte: Universidade de Adelaide Publicador: Universidade de Adelaide
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Publicado em //2014
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.74%
The establishment of South Australia in 1836 coincided with growing concern about the treatment of subject peoples in the British Empire. This fuelled demands that Indigenous peoples and their rights be protected. A conviction prevailed that the interests of Indigenous people as well as colonisers were best served by Europeanising the former and assimilating them as British subjects and ‘useful’ participants in colonial society. It was assumed Christian missionaries would play a key role in this ‘civilising mission.’ This led South Australian Company chairman George Fife Angas to recruit missionaries from the Evangelical Lutheran Mission Society in Dresden who worked among Aboriginal South Australians from 1838-53. This thesis challenges the historiography of Christian missions in Australia by illustrating the need to consider individual missionaries and mission societies and how they interacted with government, settler society, home mission societies as well as Aboriginal people. It further argues that a proper understanding of the Dresden Society’s missionaries in South Australia must take into account their confessional Lutheran background and origin in German states which at the time lacked an overseas empire or colonial ambitions. The Dresden Mission Society’s core objectives were to share the gospel of Christ and establish an Aboriginal Christian church. While its missionaries saw the need to broaden their activities to address the physical needs and injustices suffered by Aboriginal people...

Catholic and Methodist missionaries in the Milne Bay Province of Papua New Guinea, 1930-80

Mackay, Ross
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Thesis (PhD)
EN_AU
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.67%
This thesis is divided into four sections. The first focuses on the missionaries: who they were, the leaders under whom they worked, and how their labours succeeded. All white missionaries (except for a relative few in the Methodist Mission after 1968) were Australian, the Methodists predominantly middle class, the Catholics mostly from working class backgrounds. They brought with them aspects of the sectarian divide of their homeland. The period up to the mid-sixties was a time ofpo1arised and acrimonious sectarian division in Australia. Doctrines of papal infallibility and the sinlessness of Mary horrified many Protestants, and the foundational debate ofthe primacy of Scripture over that of the Church ensured a high level of argument and debate. While these debates did not take place among the missionaries in Papua, relations between the competing missionaries reflected the fact there was little fratemisation and dialogue, though there was no outright hostility or physical confrontation. When there was a problem it was usually a personality clash between individuals. The nature and details of the sectarian divide are dealt with in chapter one, as is the major political issue of separate spheres of influence. The second section examines the Catholic and Methodist Missions irom 1930 up to...

European missionaries in Papua, 1874-1914 : a group portrait

Langmore, Diane
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Thesis (PhD); Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)
EN_AU
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.76%
EUROPEAN missionaries, through their numerical strength, their geographical spread, their proximity to the people and, above all, their commitment to conversion, were significant agents of change in Papua, as elsewhere. Yet little is known of missionaries as a social group. Perceptions of them today, as in the past, are based on pervasive stereotypes rather than factual analysis. This thesis, by presenting a group-portrait of the 327 who served in Papua up to the First World War, examines the missionaries as a distinct social group. It attempts to analyse their origins, their style of living and working in the field, and their interactions with the Papuan people, their colleagues, their counterparts in other missions and colonial society at large. It concludes by considering the endurance of the missionaries in the field, the trials that beset them and the convictions that sustained them. The reality in the Papuan mission field was much richer and more multi-faceted than any stereotype could capture. The ethnic and Social origins of the missionaries were diverse, a majority being drawn, however, from the lower (though not the lowest) ranks of European, British and colonial society (Chapter l). Despite their social diversity...

Latter-Day Saints and missionaries in Polynesia, 1844-1960

Douglas, Norman
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Thesis (PhD); Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)
EN_AU
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.55%
BECAUSE the Latter-day Saints Church was born in America, this study necessarily begins by examining the social and doctrinal bases of the church in its American context. Chapter One, therefore, shows the relationship of the Latter-day Saints to other American revivalists, and places Latter-day Saints doctrine in its appropriate historical setting. The growth of the church's missionary work is examined in Chapter Two. The Latter-day Saints missionary effort in the Pacific islands was both encouraged and limited by certain racial doctrines; these are discussed in Chapter Three. In Chapter Four, an outline of Latter-day Saints contact with various Polynesian islands is given, and various themes, to be discussed in depth later, are touched on. Chapter Five presents an examination of the qualities and abilities of Latter-day Saints missionaries in Polynesia, and gives an indication of the problems faced by the missionaries, and the methods employed by them. In Chapter Six the focus is on the missions as institutions, Rather than the missionaries as individuals. Mission attitudes to land acquisition and financial matters are especially examined in this chapter. An outstanding feature of Latter-day Saints history in the Pacific was the missionaries' rivalry with other mission organizations. This is discussed in some detail in Chapter Seven. The difficulties encountered by the missionaries in their contact with government officials and administrators in the islands is the subject of Chapter Eight. Chapter Nine presents aspects of the Latter-day Saints missionaries attitude to...

Latter-Day Saints and missionaries in Polynesia, 1844-1960

Douglas, Norman
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Thesis (PhD)
EN_AU
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.55%
BECAUSE the Latter-day Saints Church was born in America, this study necessarily begins by examining the social and doctrinal bases of the church in its American context. Chapter One, therefore, shows the relationship of the Latter-day Saints to other American revivalists, and places Latter-day Saints doctrine in its appropriate historical setting. The growth of the church's missionary work is examined in Chapter Two. The Latter-day Saints missionary effort in the Pacific islands was both encouraged and limited by certain racial doctrines; these are discussed in Chapter Three. In Chapter Four, an outline of Latter-day Saints contact with various Polynesian islands is given, and various themes, to be discussed in depth later, are touched on. Chapter Five presents an examination of the qualities and abilities of Latter-day Saints missionaries in Polynesia, and gives an indication of the problems faced by the missionaries, and the methods employed by them. In Chapter Six the focus is on the missions as institutions, rather than the missionaries as individuals. Mission attitudes to land acquisition and financial matters are especially examined in this chapter. An outstanding feature of Latter-day Saints history in the Pacific was the missionaries' rivalry with other mission organizations. This is discussed in some detail in Chapter Seven. The difficulties encountered by the missionaries in their contact with government officials and administrators in the islands is the subject of Chapter Eight. Chapter Nine presents aspects of the Latter-day Saints missionaries attitude to...

Indigenous-driven mission : reconstructing religious change in sixteenth-century Maluku

Baker, Brett Charles
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Thesis (PhD); Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)
EN_AU
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.62%
During the sixteenth century, tens of thousands of people in the region which the Europeans called Maluku embraced Christianity. Contemporary writers of both secular and mission chronicles celebrated this Christianisation as the work of Europeans, both colonial administrators and missionaries, who had won over the converts by persuasion, by godly attributes, and by military prowess. Though always focussed on European actors, these chroniclers also expected indigenous rulers to play a role in conversion. These kings and chiefs, once they had been persuaded by captains or missionaries to become Christians themselves, were understood to have the power to bring their subjects with them into the new faith in an effortless top-down process. Consequently, religious change was often reported as instances of passive and rather superficial 'mass conversion.' This representation of early Christianisation in Maluku has persisted in texts as divergent as reports written by seventeenth-century Dutch ministers, twentieth-century Catholic mission histories, and more recent works by secular scholars. During the past four decades, thousands of pages of contemporary letters and reports composed by colonial authorities, Portuguese merchants, and Jesuit missionaries have been published by the Portuguese Government and the Society of Jesus. Careful...

Relações intergeracionais e envelhecimento ativo: narrativas de vida de missionários séniores

Fernandes, Ana Paula Chastres
Fonte: Instituto Universitário de Lisboa Publicador: Instituto Universitário de Lisboa
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado
Publicado em //2014 POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.47%
Mestrado em Psicologia Social e das Organizações / PsycINFO Classification Categories and Codes: 2860 Gerontology, 3000 Social Psychology, 3020 Group & Interpersonal Processes; As relações intergeracionais e o envelhecimento ativo estão presentes ao longo do ciclo de vida do ser humano, influenciando-o física e psicologicamente. Conhecer as relações intergeracionais e o envelhecimento ativo de missionários séniores, que regressaram ao seu país de origem ao fim de 20 ou mais anos de missão no exterior, foi o objetivo desta investigação. Estas temáticas foram analisadas para melhor compreensão do ciclo de vida dos missionários séniores, no sentido de um melhor acompanhamento às gerações futuras. Neste estudo qualitativo, a informação foi recolhida através de narrativas de vida, no qual participaram 8 missionários séniores portugueses. Nas entrevistas foi utilizado um guião semiestruturado, com 13 dimensões, permitindo estabelecer uma conversa cronológica entre o participante e o entrevistador. Os resultados demonstram que foram estabelecidas relações intergeracionais criando confiança, segurança e bem-estar através da transmissão de conhecimentos, ao nível escolar e do ensino de regras básicas de saúde às comunidades de acolhimento. O desenvolvimento de múltiplas atividades...

Missionários de letras e virtudes : a pedagogia moral dos franciscanos em Alagoas nos séculos XVIII e XIX.; Missionaries of letteres and virtues: the moral pedagogic from the franciscans on Alagoas in the century s XVIII and XIX.

Santos, Mônica Costa
Fonte: Universidade Federal de Alagoas; BR; Educação brasileira; Programa de Pós-Graduação em Educação; UFAL Publicador: Universidade Federal de Alagoas; BR; Educação brasileira; Programa de Pós-Graduação em Educação; UFAL
Tipo: Dissertação Formato: application/pdf
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.47%
The present study considered the reconstitution of the educative action developed by the missionaries Franciscans north-eastern Brazilian, in the century s XVIII and XIX, for of the itinerant s missions and the convents of the Order distributed by the region. Our study it was turned, in special, toward the work carried through educative missionary and in the south part of the captainship of Pernambuco, over all from the construction of the two Franciscans convents in the alagoano territory, that had started to serve of base structural for the action of the missionaries. Carriers of a long religious and intellectual tradition, integrated to the colonial context, the Franciscans intended to evangelizer and to civilize the local population and of regions proximal, by means of its moral pedagogic, the end to make data profile of behavior, based on religious beliefs and civilized values. In this direction, faith and reason converged in one same direction, therefore at the same time where religious rules make themselves, also searched to still harmonize, to moralizer and to instruct members of a society in formation. For the elaboration of this study, in we support them in the consultation of works produced for the proper missionaries, the Acts Capitulates of the Franciscan Province of San Anthony of the Brazil (1649-1893) and Books of Chronicles of the Convents of Penedo/Alagoas (1903-1930; 1907-1920)...

The cultural contribution of British Protestant missionaries to China's national development during the 1920s.

Dan, Cui
Fonte: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis Publicador: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis
Tipo: Thesis; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //1996 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.47%
During the period 1920-1930, British Protestant missionaries engaged in many cultural activities in China. This study is designed to analyze their special role in China's national development and modernization. The opening chapter mainly introduces the significance of the missionary social gospel and describes its theological tenets. It also examines the origins of the movement for cooperation among the Protestant missions and the features of the main British missions. The thesis then turns to the areas in which the missions displayed their leading social concerns, deriving from their policies. Chapters 2 & 3 describe the major contributions of the missionary medical services, analysing both primary medical work (direct medical care) and secondary medical work (education, research, translations and publications, public health). During the 1920s the Protestant missions were the most important force in medicine in China. Chapter 4 assesses the educational activities of British missionaries and their importance in the circumstances of China in the 1920s in triggering and moulding social change. Above all, the missionaries helped China to perfect her modem educational system and to understand Western learning and culture to much higher standards than previously. The following two chapters analyse the missionaries' role as social welfare workers and social reformers. Their work in this field included popular education...

Congo, de missie en de literatuur: over David van Reybrouck, J. G. Schoup en Amaat Vyncke

Bel,Jacqueline
Fonte: Tydskrif vir Letterkunde Publicador: Tydskrif vir Letterkunde
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2009 AF
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.55%
Missionaries played an important role in the colonisation of the Congo. They brought Christianity and "civilisation" to the new colony in central Africa, which was ruled over by the Belgian King Leopold II from 1885 to 1908 and by the Belgian government from 1908 to 1960. Missionaries were active in the field of education, but they also left their mark on colonial literature, both as authors and as protagonists. This article explores the traces of the missionaries in the literature on the Congo. Father Amaat Vyncke was an early example of a missionary and author, just as Father Garmijn and Father Constant de Deken. These missionaries provided a positive assessment on the colonial system in their writings. Writers like Ad. Verreet and J. G. Schoup used missionaries as protagonists in their novels. Schoup portrayed a sympathetic missionary who sharply criticised the colonial system. After the colonial period Jef Geeraerts painted a very negative image of the missionary in his Gangreen novels. However, the travel books written by Lieve Joris and Bart Castelein and the play Missie (Mission) written by David van Reybrouck (2007) sketched a positive and nostalgic image of the missionary.

Did Prince Cetshwayo read the Old Testament in 1859? The role of the Bible and the art of reading in the interaction between Norwegian missionaries and the Zulu elite in the mid-19th century

Holter,Knut
Fonte: Old Testament Essays Publicador: Old Testament Essays
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2009 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.47%
The context of this essay is the celebration of 150 years of theological - including Old Testament - studies in South Africa, commemorating the establishing of a theological seminary in Stellenbosch in 1859. The essay discusses another but simultaneous incident reflecting the early interface between South Africa and the Bible. In late 1859, the Zulu Prince (later King) Cetshwayo approached Norwegian missionaries operating at the border between Natal and Zululand, expressing his wish to learn to read. The missionaries saw this as a God-given opportunity to expose the prince to the Word of God, and Moses, a Christian Zulu, was put in charge of the instruction. Based on Norwegian (and to some extent British: Colenso) missionary sources, the essay discusses this incident in 1859 from the perspective that the Bible is perceived by both missionaries and Zulus as a particular object of power, within the more general exchange of goods and services between the missionaries and the Zulu elite.

Challenges and opportunities for Korean missionaries in Southern Africa

Oh,Kyung H.; Meiring,Piet G.J.
Fonte: HTS Theological Studies Publicador: HTS Theological Studies
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2009 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.62%
This article describes the history of missions in Korea as well as the challenges and opportunities for Korean missionaries in Southern Africa. The most significant problems encountered by Korean missionaries include understanding local context, language and culture acquisition, and meeting the expectations of local people and local churches as well as those of sending churches in Korea. On a personal level, missionaries have to cope with family concerns, maintaining their spiritual life, health problems, financial concerns, frustrations and unfulfilled ideals. Korean missionaries in Southern Africa do, however, have a unique opportunity to serve the Church in its mission and, above all, to serve the Lord of the Church in His mission, although there are indeed difficulties to overcome and challenges to face.