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Minority language television as a mechanism of language policy: a comparative study of the Irish and Basque sociolinguistic contexts

Moriarty, Máiréad
Fonte: University of Limerick Publicador: University of Limerick
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/doctoralThesis; all_ul_research; ul_published_reviewed; ul_theses_dissertations
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.51%
peer-reviewed; The present study brings together the disciplines of sociolinguistics and media studies. In recent years, the availability of media in minority languages has become an area subject to some research within the area of media sociolinguistics. It is widely accepted that the existence of minority language media is important for such languages, but exactly how important the availability of such media is to the efforts to revitalise minority languages has remained relatively unexplored. The current study seeks to compensate for this gap in the research by investigating to what extent minority language television functions as an effective mechanism of language policy. Drawing on the most recent theoretical thinking within the discipline of language policy studies put forward by Spolsky (2004) and Shohamy (2006), this thesis will investigate whether minority language television can function as a mechanism of language policy. The research focuses on university students between the ages of 18 and 25, who are not first language-speakers of two particular minority languages, Irish and Basque. The case research was conducted at the University of Limerick and at the University of the Basque Country and involved the use of both quantitative and qualitative research methods. These included a questionnaire stage...

Minority Status and Labor Market Outcomes : Does India Have Minority Enclaves?

Das, Maitreyi Bordia
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.37%
This paper uses data from the 61st Round of the National Sample Survey to understand the employment outcomes of Dalit and Muslim men in India. It uses a conceptual framework developed for the US labor market that states that ethnic minorities skirt discrimination in the primary labor market to build successful self-employed ventures in the form of ethnic enclaves or ethnic labor markets. The paper uses entry into self-employment for educated minority groups as a proxy for minority enclaves. Based on multinomial logistic regression, the analysis finds that the minority enclave hypothesis does not hold for Dalits but it does overwhelmingly for Muslims. The interaction of Dalit and Muslim status with post-primary education in urban areas demonstrates that post-primary education confers almost a disadvantage for minority men: it does not seem to affect their allocation either to salaried work or to non-farm self-employment but does increase their likelihood of opting out of the labor force - and if they cannot afford to drop out...

Increasing Social Inclusion through Social Guarantees : A Policy Note

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.14%
This policy note seeks to contribute to the consideration of social guarantees as tools for the design and/or monitoring of social policy and service delivery. It proposes a range of options to improve the delivery of and access to social services that can further social inclusion and democratic governance. The application of a social guarantee framework to social policy could significantly enhance the effectiveness of policy implementation in Latin America and the Caribbean, and can have a direct and positive impact on poor and vulnerable groups. This policy note is not intended as a blueprint for developing a social guarantee approach to social policy design and service delivery. Rather, it discusses the principles that could guide such undertaking, and it provides examples of how different countries have developed and implemented social programs using this approach. Social policy plays a critical role in promoting inclusion and strengthening democratic governance. As such, it contributes to the realization of normative human rights commitments. This document suggests that a social guarantee approach can be used to strengthen the delivery and monitoring of social programs. It highlights the importance of understanding and building upon the existing socio-political context of each country. This policy notes suggests that a system of social guarantees provides a way of addressing these concerns by enabling the state to provide: a) clarity of minimum standards...

Diagnostics and Policy Advice for Supporting Roma Inclusion in Romania

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.28%
Romanian Roma families today constitute a large, young, and extremely poor ethnic minority group, facing exclusion from markets and services. Investments in Roma inclusion are essential for Romania to achieve its Europe 2020 social inclusion goals, and the considerable returns on such investments will lay a more solid foundation for achieving sustained, shared prosperity across Romanian society. Therefore, Roma inclusion is not only a moral imperative, but also smart economics for Romania. This report discusses what it will take for Romania to achieve the socioeconomic inclusion of its Roma population. The report identifies the most important socioeconomic achievement gaps of Romanian Roma. It identifies obstacles to Roma inclusion and examines the relevant institutional framework. It draws policy recommendations based on the observed gaps in outcomes and policies, informed by evidence on what works from international experience. These recommendations focus on providing support and enhancing opportunities for the next generation of Roma while helping to improve the living conditions of the current generation. In this context...

Compulsory acquisition of minority shareholdings

Spender, Peta
Fonte: Thomson Reuters; http://thomsonreuters.com/ Publicador: Thomson Reuters; http://thomsonreuters.com/
Tipo: Journal article; Published Version Formato: 19 pages
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.25%
The House of Representatives Standing Committee on Legal and Constitutional Affairs, in its report of November 1991, recommended that the Companies and Securities Advisory Committee investigate ways in which protection against compulsory acquisition on unfair terms be made consistently available for minority shareholders. The Australian Securities Commission in its submission to the Committee, stated that ss 701 and 702 provided elaborate safeguards for minority interests. In this article it is argued that the compulsory acquisition provisions in Ch. 6, Corporations Law, though elaborate, may not in fact provide an adequate safe-guard for minority shareholders. In Anglo-Australian jurisprudence the law of compulsory acquisition of minority shares following a takeover evolved from a premise which greatly favoured the majority shareholder. This favouritism has intensified as the law has evolved to the extent that it is now almost impossible for the minority to resist acquisition of its shares. Since compulsory acquisition involves the forcible expropriation of a property right, the reasons for the expropriation must be justified. Minority rights and the development of policy in this context have been swamped by an assumption that takeovers are desirable and that compulsory acquisition is necessary to facilitate them. It is therefore important that this distortion be recognised and a critical evaluation of the efficacy of the rights of the minority be made.

Singapore’s foreign policy: beyond realism.

Ting, Ming Hwa
Fonte: Universidade de Adelaide Publicador: Universidade de Adelaide
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Publicado em //2010
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.29%
This thesis argues that Singapore’s foreign policy seeks to maximise order, and not power. Hence, it proposes that the English School theory, with its focus explaining why a high degree of substantive order exists in an anarchical context is therefore a more appropriate tool to analyse Singapore’s foreign policy. To substantiate this point, this thesis examines Singapore’s foreign policy towards Malaysia, Indonesia, China, and India to show how this city–state has managed to conduct its relations with them within the framework of an international society. Japan is excluded because this thesis focuses on states that have the greatest potential to affect Singapore by virtue of three main considerations – geographical distance, future impact on regional geopolitical developments, and ethnicity. Due to their geographical proximity, Malaysia and Indonesia are arguably the states most important to Singapore. China and India, as the rising powers, constitute unknown variables since the nature and effects of their rise are still not clear, and Singapore’s foreign policy needs to be sensitive towards developments there. At the same time, Singapore is a predominantly ethnic Chinese state with a sizeable Malay minority that constitutes the majority in the region as well as a significant Indian minority...

Legacies and incentives: A comparative analysis of post-communist minority policy in Poland, the Czech Republic, Slovakia and Hungary

RYZNER, Janusz
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: Paper
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.55%
The study attempts to fill a gap in the research on the legacies and incentives of minority policies in four Central Eastern European countries by comprehensively examining post-communist minority policy developments from the perspective of internal factors as well as external impacts. The main objective of the study, which encompasses four countries - the Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland and Slovakia - is to identify policy incentives and historical legacies that influenced the current minority policies. In addition, it also aspires to adjust existing typological theories which aim to explain the development of minority policies in the four countries after 1989. By comparing minority policies in the light of three hypotheses on their main factors, namely the historical, international and domestic, it is argued that in spite of different initial policy directions, the minority policies in the four countries gradually converged. The early post-1989 minority polices were shaped primarily by historical legacies and domestically conceptualised strategies, which reflected the importance of both domestic minority issues and kin nationals in neighbouring states. Together with the appearance of stronger international incentives (particularly the Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities (FCNM) and the European Union assessment during the accession processes)...

Minority Voices: The Representational Roles of African American and Latino Legislators during State Legislative Deliberations

Miller, Renita
Fonte: Universidade Rice Publicador: Universidade Rice
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.58%
In this dissertation I systematically examine African-American and Latino legislator behavior in a legislative setting. The project specifically examines whether and how minority legislators represent and influence African American and Latino policy interests during the legislative process. I perform an analysis of minority legislator participation rates on bills and develop an original measure of substantive representation using patterns in legislative speech of state representatives’ language during committee hearings. I build on existing theory in the representation literature and offer new hypotheses for expanding the scope of how substantive representation is defined and investigated, namely through an empirical investigation of the link between deliberation and descriptive representation. Second, I collect an original data set and develop an original measure of substantive representation to test these hypotheses with participation rates and a linguistic frame based content analysis approach of minority and non-minority representatives’ language on bills for racial perspectives during state legislative committee hearings on several policy issue areas including, but not limited to education, healthcare, and immigration. Third...

Analysis of the U.S. Navy Office of Women’s Policy Facebook use; Analysis of the U.S. Navy Office of Women’s Policy Facebook use

Allert, Emily C.
Fonte: Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.23%
Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited; The use of social media within the workplace as a tool for communication among employees is increasing at an astounding rate. The implications for such use, however, are widely unknown. This case study aims to increase the understanding of enterprise social media (ESM) and computer-mediated social support (CMSS) use within the Department of Defense (DOD) by examining three Facebook (FB) groups developed by the Navy’s Office of Women’s Policy (OWP). The research utilizes interviews and data collected from the FB groups to identify the purpose, content trends, and availability of social support. The analyses of the interviews and FB data are subsequently used to assess the groups’ effectiveness as platforms for ESM and CMSS. Results show that the FB groups are an effective resource for CMSS with complementary managerial benefits. The study implies that FB groups could be used to provide social support for other military members, especially those who are considered minority groups. Additionally, a richer understanding of the groups’ strengths and weaknesses will allow the OWP to develop a more succinct purpose and strategy for administering these FB groups.; The use of social media within the workplace as a tool for communication among employees is increasing at an astounding rate. The implications for such use...

The role of personality type on minority attrition at the U.S. Naval Academy

Burkins, Carl A.
Fonte: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: x, 67 p. : col. ill. ;
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.22%
Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited; The attrition rate at the Naval Academy is higher for minority vs. non-minority students. This thesis examines the predictors of minority attrition at the Naval Academy. Three categories of predictor variables are examined: gender, academic measures, and MBTI personality type. Specifically, the study focuses on the theories of college student attrition based on data from Historically Black Colleges and Universities, as well as traditional civilian universities. Data obtained from the Naval Academy's Institutional Research were analyzed. Results of the quantitative analysis show that the standardized test used in the admissions process (SAT) held little predictive value when examining minority attrition. A major finding drawn from Chi Square analysis of the Myers-Briggs Personality Type Indicator revealed that several active personality types did better in terms of persistence at the Naval Academy. Recommendations addressed several areas of possible improvement and proposed further research regarding minority attrition.; Lieutenant Commander, United States Navy

Analysis of minority officer recruiting in the U.S. Marine Corps

Sandstrom, Michael R.
Fonte: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: xviii, 123 p. : ill. ;
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.27%
Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.; Marine Corps Recruiting Command administers minority officer recruiting, the brunt of which is the responsibility of Officer Selection Officers. Currently, minority officer accessions fail to reflect the demographic composition of the nation's college market. To increase minority rates, MCRC must align minority officer applicant submission goals with the population of eligible, test-score-qualified, male, baccalaureate degree-seeking students. The purpose of this thesis is to analyze whether current minority applicant submission goals are reasonably allocated. The first phase develops a propensity-weighted Qualified Candidate Population (PW-QCP) model to provide college market estimates. Phase 2 compares these PW-QCP estimates with five-year minority officer applicant trends and minority submission goals. The third phase builds a probit model to predict the probability of accession based on applicant characteristics. The results show that submission goals should be modified to reflect the changing demographics of the nation and that the probability of minority accession is dependent on qualification characteristics that exceed those of the average applicant. The findings suggest that increasing minority representation depends on: (1) submission goals that align approximately with PW-QCP estimates; (2) submission goals that are met by Marine Corps Districts; and (3) minority applicants who can meet or exceed average eligibility requirements.

Preventing ethnic conflict, securing ethnic justice? The Council of Europe, the EU and the OSCE high commissioner on national minorities' use of contested concepts in their responses to the Hungarian minority policies of Hungary, Romania and Slovakia

SKOVGAARD, Jakob
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: paper; application/pdf
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.38%
Defence date: 23 May 2007; Examining board: Prof. Michael Keating (EUI, supervisor) ; Prof. Frank Schimmelfennig (ETH Zürick)(External supervisor) ; Prof. Will Kymlicka (Quenn's University, Ontario) ; Prof. Rainer Bauböck (EUI); This thesis analyses the policies aimed at influencing the situation of the Hungarian minorities in Romania and Slovakia undertaken by three European organisations, the Council of Europe, the EU and the OSCE High Commissioner on National Minorities. The focus is on the way in which the organisations have conceptualised contested concepts concerning national minorities, minority rights and minority policy in general, when reacting to the policies of the Hungarian, Romanian and Slovak states that have been directed at the Hungarian minorities. Starting with the assumption that many of the concepts upon which minority policies are based are essentially contested, the thesis sets up a framework for analysing the use of specific interpretations of such concepts in argumentation. More specifically, the framework makes it possible to look at how specific interpretations or conceptualisations of such concepts have been used as implicit warrants. By analysing the use of warrants in the texts issued by the organisations in the arguments reacting to the Hungarian minority policies of the three organisations...

Turkey's Party System and the Paucity of Minority Policy Reform

LIARAS, Evangelos
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: application/pdf
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.59%
An earlier version of this paper was presented in Workshop 9: ‘Changing Party Political Constellations and Public Policy Reform in Southern Europe’ at the Tenth Mediterranean Research Meeting, Florence & Montecatini Terme, 25-28 March 2009, organised by the Mediterranean Programme of the Robert Schuman Centre for Advanced Studies at the European University Institute.; The purpose of this paper is to explore the question of small and incremental reform in Turkish minority policies over the last two decades, contrasting with the dramatic economic, social, and political changes that the country has experienced over the same period. The main focus will be on two partly overlapping groups living in Turkey (Alevis and Kurds); comparison with other Southern European countries will be made as background reference. The reason for this focus is analytical: these two groups are structurally different from minorities found in Italy or Greece in that they are both large enough to carry great electoral weight and politically salient enough to affect Turkey's EU accession prospects. Minority policy is an often overlooked realm of public policy, either because it is considered too sensitive or too case-specific, as opposed to fiscal...

Ethnic Minority Development in Vietnam : A Socioeconomic Perspective

Baulch, Bob; Thi Kim Chuyen, Truong; Haughton, Dominique; Haughton, Jonathan
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, D.C. Publicador: World Bank, Washington, D.C.
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.35%
The authors examine the latest quantitative evidence on disparities in living standards between and among different ethnic groups in Vietnam. Using data from the 1998 Vietnam Living Standards Survey and 1999 Census, they show that Kinh and Hoa ("majority") households have substantially higher living standards than "minority" households from Vietnam's other 52 ethnic groups. Subdividing the population into five broad categories, the authors find that while the Kinh, Hoa, Khmer, and Northern Highland minorities have benefited from economic growth in the 1990s, the growth of Central Highland minorities has stagnated. Disaggregating further, they find that the same ethnic groups whose living standards have risen fastest are those that have the highest school enrollment rates, are most likely to intermarry with Kinh partners, and are the least likely to practice a religion. The authors then estimate and decompose a set of expenditure regressions which show that even if minority households had the same endowments as Kinh households...

Information and Public Choice : From Media Markets to Policy Making

Islam, Roumeen
Fonte: Washington, DC : World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC : World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.31%
Contents of the report are: Overview : from media markets to policy; by Roumeen Islam. The media's influence on public policy decisions; by David Stromberg, and James M. Snyder Jr. National media and local political participation : the case of the New York Times; by Lisa M. George, and Joel Waldfogel. Minority-targeted local media and voter turnout : a summary; by Joel Waldfogel. I'm news, are you? Newspaper coverage of elected vs. appointed officials; by Riccardo Puglisi, and James M. Snyder Jr. The political impact of media bias; by Stefano DellaVigna, and Ethan Kaplan. Market forces and news media in Muslim countries; Matthew Gentzkow, and Jesse M. Shapiro. Political economy of media capture; by Maria Petrova. Fostering an independent media with a diversity of views; by Joseph Stiglitz. Media regulation in the United States; by Jonathan Levy. Aspects of two media models : France and the United Kingdom and European Union (EU) media governance; by Pierre-Yves Andrau. Three countries : three stories; by Edetaen Ojo...

Effective Discipline with Adequate Autonomy : The Direction for Further Reform of China's SOE Dividend Policy

Zhang, Chunlin; Wang, Lihong
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Policy Note; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.25%
This note explores the desirable direction for further reform of China's state-owned enterprise (SOE) dividend policy. This study represents an effort in exploring the desirable direction for further reform. It is an extension of the previous World Bank studies (World Bank, 2005, 2007) on this subject. It argues that a sound dividend policy must generate effective discipline against insiders and leave adequate managerial autonomy to them in the meantime. Considering China's current situation in light of relevant international experience, this study recommends three actions for the government to take to deepen the reform. The first is to raise the flexibility of SOE dividend ratio by adding a dividend ratio determination mechanism to the existing system of state ownership function. The second involves government monitoring and adjustment of the average dividend ratio of all central SOEs. The third is to start integrating state capital management budget (SCMB) with the general budget. The rest of the note is organized as follows. Section two discusses the nature of the issue and the criteria that a sound dividend policy must meet. Section three-five reviews payout practices of private sector firms (mainly publicly held companies but also include privately held firms)...

Linguistic policy and “minority” languages in the People's Republic of China : The case of the Tai Lue of Sipsong Panna

Casas, Roger
Fonte: Universidade Autônoma de Barcelona Publicador: Universidade Autônoma de Barcelona
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2011 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.19%
Este artículo ofrece una breve discusión de algunas de las contradicciones inherentes a las políticas lingüísticas puestas en práctica por el gobierno de la República Popular China (RPC) en áreas habitadas por las llamadas “minorías”, en teoría destinadas a preservar y promover el uso de lenguas no mayoritarias, a través del caso de los Tai Lue (clasificados oficialmente como Dai), en la provincia de Yunnan. Mientras el estado garantiza el derecho de todos los grupos étnicos reconocidos (minzu) en la RPC a utilizar y promocionar formas escritas y orales de sus lenguas, la inserción del Tai Lue y de otras lenguas “minoritarias” en una jerarquía simbólica dominada por la cultura de la mayoría Han legitima la exclusión de facto de dichas lenguas de los espacios públicos.; This paper offers a brief discussion of some of the contradictions informing linguistic policies implemented by the government of the People´s Republic of China (PRC) in “minority” areas, allegedly aimed at preserving and promoting non-Han languages, through the case of the Tai Lue (officially classified as Dai) in Yunnan province. It is argued that, while all (recognized) ethnic groups (minzu) in the PRC are granted the right to use and develop their own spoken and written languages by the state...

Researching Changing Language Learning Identities for Ethnic Minority Education Policy Formulation: A Case Study of Macau S.A.R., China; Researching Changing Language Learning Identities for Ethnic Minority Education Policy Formulation: A Case Study of Macau S.A.R., China

Noronha, Manuel; Chaplin, Ian
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Filosofia, Letras e Ciências Humanas Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Filosofia, Letras e Ciências Humanas
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 04/12/2011 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.49%
 In this paper the authors discuss preliminary findings from research on language learning identities of ethnic minority groups for education policy formulation. The research aims to identify and interpret changing language identities, preferences, modes of learning, and discourse affected by the transformation of the economic, social, and cultural environment of Macau since the territory was designated as a Special Administrative Region (S.A.R.) following the return of sovereignty from Portugal to China in 1999. The research is particularly concerned with identifying the perceptions held by ethnic minorities of the determinants for achievement and success in an education system polarized by language preference and priority. The case of the cross-cultural identity of the ‘Macanese’ is presented as a preliminary study to inform education policy and advocate further research on ethnic minorities in Macau.; In this paper the authors discuss preliminary findings from research on language learning identities of ethnic minority groups for education policy formulation. The research aims to identify and interpret changing language identities, preferences, modes of learning, and discourse affected by the transformation of the economic...

Essays on Education Policy

Francis, Dania Veronica
Fonte: Universidade Duke Publicador: Universidade Duke
Tipo: Dissertação
Publicado em //2013
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.28%

This dissertation consists of three essays on the topic of education policy. In the first essay, I evaluate the impacts of a teacher quality equity law that was enacted in California in the fall of 2006 prohibiting superintendents from transferring a teacher into a school in the bottom three performance deciles of the state's academic performance index if the principal refuses the transfer. The primary mechanism through which the policy should affect student outcomes is through the mix of the quality of teachers in the school. Using publicly available statewide administrative education data, and two quasi-experimental methodologies, I assess whether the policy had an effect on the district-wide distribution of teachers with varying levels of experience, education and licensure and on student academic performance. I extend the analysis by examining whether the policy has differential effects on subgroups of schools classified as having high-poverty or high-minority student populations. I find that, as a result of the teacher quality equity law, low-performing schools experienced a relative increase in fully-credentialed teachers and more highly educated teachers, but that did not necessarily translate to an increase in academic performance. I also find evidence that the dimension along which the policy was most effective was in improving teacher pre-service qualifications in schools with high minority student populations.

In the second essay...

Limiting organisational rights of minority unions: POPCRU v Ledwaba 2013 11 BLLR 1137 (LC)

Cohen,T
Fonte: PER: Potchefstroomse Elektroniese Regsblad Publicador: PER: Potchefstroomse Elektroniese Regsblad
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2014 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.19%
The Labour Relations Act 66 of 1995 unequivocally promotes the policy choice of majoritarianism, in furtherance of orderly collective bargaining and the democratisation of the workplace. The majoritarian model aims to minimise the proliferation of trade unions in a single workplace and to encourage the system of a representative trade union. Section 18(1) of the Labour Relations Act enables majority unions to enter into collective agreements setting thresholds of representivity for the granting of access, stop-order and trade-union leave rights to minority unions. In furtherance of the majoritarian framework, collective agreements concluded between majority unions and employers can be extended to non-parties to the agreement in terms of section 23(1)(d) of the Labour Relations Act provided specified requirements are satisfied. In Police & Prisons Civil Rights Union v Ledwaba 2013 11 BLLR 1137 (LC) (POPCRU) the Labour Court was required to consider if the collective agreements concluded between the employer and the majority union could be relied upon to prohibit the minority union from securing organisational rights. In so doing, the Labour Court had to reconcile the fundamental principle of freedom of association and the right to fair labour practices (to organise and engage in unfettered collective bargaining) within the context of the majoritarian framework. The Labour Court in POPCRU held that the collective agreement concluded with the majority union must have preference over the organisational rights of minority unions...