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Trabalho e migração: estudo com jovens trabalhadores no corte da cana-de-açúcar na região de Ribeirão Preto - SP; Work and migration: study with young workers who cut cane in the region of Ribeirão Preto-SP.

Galiano, André de Mello
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 02/08/2010 PT
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45.63%
O desemprego de jovens com idade entre 16 e 24 anos no Brasil é preocupante já que os jovens desempregados nesta faixa etária no país chegam a 3,5 milhões, o que representa cerca de 45% da força de trabalho nacional. Além da preocupação com o fato de haver, ou não, oportunidades de emprego para este contingente de jovens, é necessário saber que tipo de trabalho será destinado a este grupo da população. A migração de jovens de regiões pobres do país, em especial de alguns Estados da região Nordeste, em busca de emprego na região Sudeste, tem sido uma constante na história do Brasil. Mas nas últimas décadas tem crescido a migração de jovens do Estado do Maranhão e Piauí em busca de emprego na colheita de canade- açúcar na região de Ribeirão Preto (SP). É desta realidade que trata esta pesquisa, que objetivou compreender como os jovens migrantes foram atraídos para o corte da cana-deaçúcar, se este foi seu primeiro emprego e o que significou para eles deixar família, amigos, escola, sua terra natal e seus projetos de vida para trabalhar em um local distante e desconhecido. O estudo buscou também conhecer como este trabalho repercute na saúde física e psíquica destes jovens. A pesquisa, de abordagem qualitativa...

State-Dependent Decisions Cause Apparent Violations of Rationality in Animal Choice

Schuck-Paim, Cynthia; Pompilio, Lorena; Kacelnik, Alex
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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Normative models of choice in economics and biology usually expect preferences to be consistent across contexts, or “rational” in economic language. Following a large body of literature reporting economically irrational behaviour in humans, breaches of rationality by animals have also been recently described. If proven systematic, these findings would challenge long-standing biological approaches to behavioural theorising, and suggest that cognitive processes similar to those claimed to cause irrationality in humans can also hinder optimality approaches to modelling animal preferences. Critical differences between human and animal experiments have not, however, been sufficiently acknowledged. While humans can be instructed conceptually about the choice problem, animals need to be trained by repeated exposure to all contingencies. This exposure often leads to differences in state between treatments, hence changing choices while preserving rationality. We report experiments with European starlings demonstrating that apparent breaches of rationality can result from state-dependence. We show that adding an inferior alternative to a choice set (a “decoy”) affects choices, an effect previously interpreted as indicating irrationality. However...

The dilemma of physician shortage and international recruitment in Canada

Islam, Nazrul
Fonte: Kerman University of Medical Sciences Publicador: Kerman University of Medical Sciences
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 29/05/2014 EN
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45.44%
The perception of physician shortage in Canada is widespread. Absolute shortages and relative discrepancies, both specialty-wise and in urban-rural distribution, have been a daunting policy challenge. International Medical Graduates (IMGs) have been at the core of mitigating this problem, especially as long as shortage of physicians in rural areas is concerned. Considering such recruitment as historical reality is naïve annotation, but when it is recommended per se, then the indication of interest overweighs the intent of ethically justified solution. Such a recommendation has not only invited policy debate and disagreement, but has also raised serious ethical concerns. Canadian healthcare policy-makers were put into a series of twisting puzzles—recruiting IMGs in mitigating physician shortage was questioned by lack of vision for Canada’s self-sufficiency. In-migration of IMGs was largely attributed to Canada’s point-based physician-friendly immigration system without much emphasizing on IMGs’ home countries’ unfavorable factors and ignoring their basic human rights and choice of livelihood. While policy-makers’ excellence in integrating the already-migrated IMGs into the Canadian healthcare is cautiously appraised, its logical consequence in passively drawing more IMGs is loudly criticised. Even the passive recruitment of IMGs raised the ethical concern of source countries’ (which are often developing countries with already-compromised healthcare system) vulnerability. The current paper offers critical insights juxtaposing all these seemingly conflicting ideas and interests within the scope of national and transnational instruments.

La question de la sécession du Québec après l’avis consultatif de la CIJ du 22 juillet 2010 relative au Kosovo.

Mabilat, Julie
Fonte: Université de Montréal Publicador: Université de Montréal
Tipo: Thèse ou Mémoire numérique / Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
FR
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55.75%
Cette recherche aborde la question de l’avis consultatif de la CIJ sur la conformité au droit international de la déclaration unilatérale d’indépendance relative au Kosovo du 22 juillet 2010 et ses possibles incidences sur la question de la sécession du Québec. Plus précisément, ce mémoire traite de la migration des idées constitutionnelles au sujet des questions d’autodétermination dans les cas kosovar et québécois, en effectuant une analyse comparative des deux situations. Le présent mémoire conclut tout d’abord à un respect du droit international public par la CIJ dans son avis, le Kosovo remplissant les conditions de mise en oeuvre de la sécession remède. Néanmoins, notre recherche conduit à affirmer une impossibilité de transposition de solution du cas kosovar à la problématique québécoise, mais à une possible migration des influences, qui assouplirait la position prise ces dernières années par le Canada, notamment avec la Loi sur la clarté.; This research studies the ICJ advisory opinion on the accordance with international law of the unilateral declaration of independence in respect of Kosovo delivered on 22 July 2010 and its probable impacts on the question of Quebec’s secession. Specifically...

Preparando a los padres ante el proceso migratorio Ideas y recomendaciones cartilla final

Venegas Holguín, Jorge Leonardo
Fonte: Pontifícia Universidade Javeriana Publicador: Pontifícia Universidade Javeriana
Tipo: bachelorThesis; Trabajo de Grado Pregrado Formato: Pdf
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Objetivo General: Diseñar y elaborar un material educativo que prepare a los padres que tienen la intención de migrar, acerca de cómo manejar y vivir la separación con sus hijos. Objetivo Específico: Realizar una evaluación de la cartilla (EEC), junto con personas que han vivido el proceso migratorio para realizar cambios y adiciones al contenido de la cartilla. Materiales y Métodos: Se realizó un Material Educativo tipo cartilla cuyo contenido está dirigido a los padres y/o madres que tengan la intención migrar para tener ideas y recomendaciones sobre la preparación para el proceso migratorio y la separación con sus hijos. Para la elaboración de este trabajo se utilizaron herramientas de tipo cualitativos como la entrevista estructurada con guía, transcripción de entrevistas, categorización y codificación de la información. Resultados: Finalmente se obtiene un producto final (cartilla), que previamente fue evaluado por expertos y en este trabajo es evaluado por población migrante. Hecho el proceso evaluativo, se adicionan a la cartilla tres páginas más, con las recomendaciones de las personas que han vivido el proceso migratorio. Conclusiones: Los participantes de esta tesis, manifestaron sus ideas y recomendaciones ante la cartilla. Plasmar las recomendaciones de la población migrante en la cartilla refleja la inclusión de la población objeto en proyectos que tienen que ver con su problemática.; General Objective: To design and develop educational material to prepare parents who intend to migrate...

Measuring Skilled Migration Rates : The Case of Small States

Docquier, Frederic; Schiff, Maurice
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
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35.7%
Recent changes in information and communication technologies have contributed to a dramatic increase in the degree of integration and interdependency of countries, markets, and people. Against this background, one aspect of particular concern for small states is the international movement of people. This paper focuses on this particularly important aspect of globalization, with emphasis on the movement of skilled people and its relationship with country size. In addition to overall skilled migration, it provides evidence that controls for migration age in order to distinguish between those educated in the home country and those educated abroad. The authors discuss the growth implications of the brain drain from small countries and policies that may help control it.

International Migration, Economic Development and Policy

Özden, Çağlar; Schiff, Maurice
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank and Palgrave Macmillan Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank and Palgrave Macmillan
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45.72%
This volume reflects the expansion of the World Bank Research Program on International Migration and Development into new substantive and geographic areas. It presents a new global migration database and includes studies of the determinants and impact of return and circular migration, the impact of the flow of ideas on fertility, host country policies and their impact on immigrants, and the impact of international migration and remittances on poverty and other development indicators. The studies cover countries from Latin America, North Africa, South Asia, the South Pacific, and Western Europe, and show that the impact of migration on education and health tends to benefit girls more than boys, that its impact on labor force participation tends to be stronger for women than men, that return migrants tend to do better than non-migrants, and that fertility has tended to decline in countries whose migration has been to the West and has failed to do so in countries whose migration has been to the Gulf. The purpose of the case studies is to illustrate and clarify many theoretical mechanisms and to advance understanding of the impact of different migration policies...

Globalization for Development : Trade, Finance, Aid, Migration, and Policy

Goldin, Ian; Reinert, Kenneth
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank and Palgrave Macmillan Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank and Palgrave Macmillan
EN_US
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45.59%
Globalization and its relation to poverty reduction and development are not well understood. The book identifies the ways in which globalization can overcome poverty or make it worse. The book defines the big historical trends, identifies main global flows-trade, finance, aid, migration, and ideas-and examines how each can contribute to undermine economic development. By considering what helps and what does not, the book presents policy recommendations to make globalization more effective as a vehicle for shared growth and prosperity.

Globalization and changes in Australian international migration

Hugo, G.
Fonte: Australian Population Association Publicador: Australian Population Association
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2006 EN
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35.7%
Australian international migration has undergone a massive transformation in the last decade, in part as a result of globalization. Although Australia has long been a country of immigration with a relatively high proportion of its residents foreign-born, the nature of international migration shaping the country has undergone profound change in the era of globalization. This paper outlines some of the major dimensions of this change in international migration. The links between globalization and migration are complex and two-way but there can be no doubt that processes which have accelerated international exchanges of goods, information, ideas, trade and finance and led to an internationalization of labour markets have been associated with shifts in Australian migration. This change has had a number of components which have increased the complexity of the international migration influencing Australia. The changes examined include the increasing significance of skill-related migration compared with other forms, increasing non-permanent migration, the increasing nexus between temporary and permanent migration, the increasing movement of Australians out of the country, the significance of student migration and the increasing significance of migration in influencing Australia’s relationship with its Asia-Pacific neighbours. These changes have profound implications for Australia’s contemporary and future demography.; Graeme Hugo; © 2006 by Journal of Population Research

National Equality Institutions and the Domestication of EU Non-Discrimination Law

DE WITTE, Bruno
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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45.44%
The recent evolution of European Union equality law, and the equality law of European countries more generally, is marked by the increased attention given to the procedural and institutional preconditions for the effective protection of equal treatment. The creation of public bodies, specifically tasked with the advancement of equality law and equality policies (equality institutions), is an important element of this evolution. Within Europe, they were first experimented with in the United Kingdom and then gradually adopted in a small number of other countries. In 2000 and subsequent years, though, the creation of equality institutions was imposed on all EU Member States by means of three anti-discrimination Directives. The concrete shape and scope of activity of those institutions is still very different from country to country, though. The development of new equality institutions in Europe was facilitated by other legal traditions and processes: the separate ombudsman tradition developed in Scandinavia but with a strong influence also in Southern Europe; the international movement towards the creation of national human rights institutions; and endogenous developments of EU law, such as its increased concern for the institutional dimension of the effective application of EU law...

Constitutional and judicial recognition of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples: the migration of foundational ideas from Canada to Australia

Parrott, Louise Elizabeth
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Thesis (PhD); Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)
EN_AU
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85.92%
Ideas that are migrating from Canada are already guiding advocates who seek greater judicial and constitutional recognition of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples. However, there is a need for a conceptual framework through which to approach the lessons that can be learned from Canada in this area. Inspired by The Migration of Constitutional Ideas, an edited work by Sujit Choudhry, in this thesis I argue that by thinking about the migration and transplantation of foundational ideas and by differentiating between four ‘modes’ of migration (arguments of counsel, judicial determinations, academic critique and constitutional reform deliberations), it is possible to better understand some of the processes that are at play. In particular, by adopting the terminology of the ‘migration’ and ‘transplantation’ of ‘foundational’ ideas, I aim to demonstrate that it is dangerous to transplant foundational ideas, whether derived from the common law or constitutional law, without other ideas (particularly in relation to implications) also migrating. This thesis is a response to two distinct but related topics: ‘Topic 1 — The Potential for Judicial Recognition of Indigenous Self-Government Rights: The Migration of Foundational Ideas from Canada to Australia’ and ‘Topic 2 — Constitutional Recognition of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples...

The Demographic Benefit of International Migration : Hypothesis and Application to Middle Eastern and North African Contexts

Fargues, Philippe
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
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35.8%
The view that international migration has no impact on the size of world population is a sensible one. But the author argues, migration from developing to more industrial countries during the past decades may have resulted in a smaller world population than the one which would have been attained had no international migration taken place for two reasons: most of recent migration has been from high to low birth-rate countries, and migrants typically adopt and send back to their home countries models and ideas that prevail in host countries. Thus, migrants are potential agents of the diffusion of demographic modernity, that is, the reduction of birth rates among nonmigrant communities left behind in origin countries. This hypothesis is tested with data from Morocco and Turkey where most emigrants are bound for the West, and Egypt where they are bound for the Gulf. The demographic differentials encountered through migration in these three countries offer contrasted situations-host countries are either more (the West) or less (the Gulf) advanced in their demographic transition than the home country. Assuming migration changes the course of demographic transition in origin countries, the author posits that it should work in two opposite directions-speeding it up in Morocco and Turkey and slowing it down in Egypt. Empirical evidence confirms this hypothesis. Time series of birth rates and migrant remittances (reflecting the intensity of the relationship kept by emigrants with their home country) are strongly correlated with each other. Correlation is negative for Morocco and Turkey...

Policy Research on Migration and Development

Ellerman, David
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
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35.8%
This is a survey and analysis-with commentary-of migration issues and the related development policies for the sending countries. "Migration and development" is considered an unsettled and unresolved area for good reason. The policy issues are surprisingly deep and run to basic issues such as the nature of development as opposed to simple poverty reduction. North-north migration (between industrial countries), south-south migration (between or within developing countries), and north-south migration (from developing to industrial countries) are all covered although the paper focuses on the north-south variety. Attention is paid to the question of the dynamic mechanism underlying migration being one of convergence or divergence. Very often the policy issues push one outside what would be narrowly considered as "migration studies." For example, policies to reduce the brain drain go directly to the issue of educational reform in developing countries while policies to increase the developmental impact of remittances quickly carry one into the nature of business development itself. Ronald Dore's ideas on educational reform are outlined as a policy approach to the brain drain problem. Jane Jacobs' ideas on development are outlined in greater length as they are little known in development economics and yet directly address the policy issues raised by migration and development.

Neutrophil transepithelial migration: role of toll-like receptors in mucosal inflammation

Reaves,Titus A; Chin,Alex C; Parkos,Charles A
Fonte: Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Ministério da Saúde Publicador: Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Ministério da Saúde
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/03/2005 EN
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45.65%
The symptomatic phases of many inflammatory diseases are characterized by migration of large numbers of neutrophils (PMN) across a polarized epithelium and accumulation within a lumen. For example, acute PMN influx is common in diseases of the gastrointestinal system (ulcerative colitis, Crohn's disease, bacterial enterocolitis, gastritis), hepatobiliary system (cholangitis, acute cholecystitis), respiratory tract (bronchial pneumonia, bronchitis, cystic fibrosis, bronchiectasis), and urinary tract (pyelonephritis, cystitis). Despite these observations, the molecular basis of leukocyte interactions with epithelial cells is incompletely understood. In vitro models of PMN transepithelial migration typically use N-formylated bacterial peptides such as fMLP in isolation to drive human PMNs across epithelial monolayers. However, other microbial products such as lipopolysaccharide (LPS) are major constituents of the intestinal lumen and have potent effects on the immune system. In the absence of LPS, we have shown that transepithelial migration requires sequential adhesive interactions between the PMN beta2 integrin CD11b/CD18 and JAM protein family members. Other epithelial ligands appear to be abundantly represented as fucosylated proteoglycans. Further studies indicate that the rate of PMN migration across mucosal surfaces can be regulated by the ubiquitously expressed transmembrane protein CD47 and microbial-derived factors...

Management of telecommunication systems design and development : learning from disruptive innovations in 3G mobile systems

Mochizuki, Yujiro, 1973-
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 112 leaves; 4349671 bytes; 4361112 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
ENG
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Disruptive innovations in network systems are forcing mobile carriers to manage difficult network software development. Within the limited development time, mobile carriers are required to develop large scale, high quality and robust network software, and accomplish smooth transition/upgrading. In the drastic transition of the network architecture, network carriers often fail to develop platform network software. Compared with KDDI, NTT DoCoMo (DoCoMo) has been coping with network migration problems. The critical difference in both mobile carriers is whether the platform-based approach was applied sufficiently in the network software development. DoCoMo's insufficient platform-based approach led to migration difficulties. On the other hand, the consistent platform-based approach allowed KDDI to enjoy successful migration. In order to identify the critical factors in network software development related to this problem, this thesis (1) explores the characteristics of network innovations and (2) analyzes the platform innovations in mobile network software. The ultimate goal of this thesis is to (3) suggest how incumbent mobile carriers can avoid the potential threats and develop the platform network software in future disruptive network innovations. In the future...

ADAM : a decentralized parallel computer architecture featuring fast thread and data migration and a uniform hardware abstraction

Huang, Andrew S. (Andrew Shane)
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 256 p.; 8574353 bytes; 8574153 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
ENG
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45.66%
The furious pace of Moore's Law is driving computer architecture into a realm where the the speed of light is the dominant factor in system latencies. The number of clock cycles to span a chip are increasing, while the number of bits that can be accessed within a clock cycle is decreasing. Hence, it is becoming more difficult to hide latency. One alternative solution is to reduce latency by migrating threads and data, but the overhead of existing implementations has previously made migration an unserviceable solution so far. I present an architecture, implementation, and mechanisms that reduces the overhead of migration to the point where migration is a viable supplement to other latency hiding mechanisms, such as multithreading. The architecture is abstract, and presents programmers with a simple, uniform fine-grained multithreaded parallel programming model with implicit memory management. In other words, the spatial nature and implementation details (such as the number of processors) of a parallel machine are entirely hidden from the programmer. Compiler writers are encouraged to devise programming languages for the machine that guide a programmer to express their ideas in terms of objects, since objects exhibit an inherent physical locality of data and code. The machine implementation can then leverage this locality to automatically distribute data and threads across the physical machine by using a set of high performance migration mechanisms.; (cont.) An implementation of this architecture could migrate a null thread in 66 cycles - over a factor of 1000 improvement over previous work. Performance also scales well; the time required to move a typical thread is only 4 to 5 times that of a null thread. Data migration performance is similar...

Global Spatio-Temporal Patterns in Human Migration: A Complex Network Perspective

Davis, Kyle F.; D'Odorico, Paolo; Laio, Francesco; Ridolfi, Luca
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 23/01/2013 EN
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45.67%
Migration is a powerful adaptive strategy for humans to navigate hardship and pursue a better quality of life. As a universal vehicle facilitating exchanges of ideas, culture, money and goods, international migration is a major contributor to globalization. Consisting of countries linked by multiple connections of human movements, global migration constitutes a network. Despite the important role of human migration in connecting various communities in different parts of the world, the topology and behavior of the international migration network and its changes through time remain poorly understood. Here we show that the global human migration network became more interconnected during the latter half of the twentieth century and that migrant destination choice partly reflects colonial and postcolonial histories, language, religion, and distances. From 1960 to 2000 we found a steady increase in network transitivity (i.e. connectivity between nodes connected to the same node), a decrease in average path length and an upward shift in degree distribution, all of which strengthened the ‘small-world’ behavior of the migration network. Furthermore, we found that distinct groups of countries preferentially interact to form migration communities based largely on historical...

Matchmaker, Matchmaker, Make Me a Match: Migration of Populations via Marriages in the Past

Lee, Sang Hoon; Ffrancon, Robyn; Abrams, Daniel M.; Kim, Beom Jun; Porter, Mason A.
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.65%
The study of human mobility is both of fundamental importance and of great potential value. For example, it can be leveraged to facilitate efficient city planning and improve prevention strategies when faced with epidemics. The newfound wealth of rich sources of data---including banknote flows, mobile phone records, and transportation data---has led to an explosion of attempts to characterize modern human mobility. Unfortunately, the dearth of comparable historical data makes it much more difficult to study human mobility patterns from the past. In this paper, we present an analysis of long-term human migration, which is important for processes such as urbanization and the spread of ideas. We demonstrate that the data record from Korean family books (called "jokbo") can be used to estimate migration patterns via marriages from the past 750 years. We apply two generative models of long-term human mobility to quantify the relevance of geographical information to human marriage records in the data, and we find that the wide variety in the geographical distributions of the clans poses interesting challenges for the direct application of these models. Using the different geographical distributions of clans, we quantify the "ergodicity" of clans in terms of how widely and uniformly they have spread across Korea...

Transnational Advocacy Networks, Female Labor Migration and Trafficking in East and Southeast Asia: A Gendered Analysis of Opportunities and Obstacles

Piper, Nicola; Uhlin, Anders
Fonte: Scalabrini Migration Center Publicador: Scalabrini Migration Center
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.68%
The aim of this article is to advance political economy and politics into migration studies by analyzing the role of transnational advocacy networks working on issues of trafficking and labor migration in East and Southeast Asia. Drawing on some empirical research, but mainly offering conceptual ideas, we demonstrate the importance of gender not only in trafficking and labor migration but also in transnational advocacy. First, we contextualize trafficking and labor migration within a gendered international political economy, focusing on existing power relations between genders, between classes and between states. Second, we examine the role of transnational advocacy networks in this context. In particular, we argue that a broader understanding of political opportunities and obstacles is needed. Emphasizing the transnational context and the importance of gender, we outline different types of opportunities and obstacles to advocacy in this particular area.

The Transatlantic Invention and Reinventions of “Critical Theory”; A invenção e as reinvenções transatlânticas da “Critical Theory”

Jeanpierre, Laurent; l’Université de Paris VIII
Fonte: UFPR Publicador: UFPR
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 26/09/2011 POR
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55.45%
Where does the phrase “critical theory” that circulates on Americancampuses but has no equivalent in continental Europe come from? This article recounts the intellectual and social origins of the concept and labelcoined by the German philosopher Max Horkheimer, in 1937, during theexile of the Institut für Sozialforschung in America; and describes thecircumstances in which it was given up soon afterwards (and until 1968).The reasons for discontinuing the use of this term can only be understoodthrough a transnational analysis of an international academia wherequestions could arise about the conditions underlying an intermediateand intercultural position – and about the dual outsider status ofemigrants. The switch for thirty years in Adorno’s and Horkheimer’s selfpresentationwas the subjective price to pay in order to practice a socialgame that, accumulating the profits from both participation and criticism,maintained a personal status and identity despite the loss of positionduring exile and reclassification upon return. The subjective socialconditions of the “migration of concepts” and cultural globalization areimportant, especially for measuring asymmetries.; Qual seria a origem da expressão “Critical Theory” que circula pelasuniversidades norte-americanas...