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Leveraging Migration for Africa : Remittances, Skills, and Investments

Ratha, Dilip; Mohapatra, Sanket; Ozden, Caglar; Plaza, Sonia; Shaw, William; Shimeles, Abebe
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.54%
International migration has profound implications for human welfare, and African governments have had only a limited influence on welfare outcomes, for good or ill. Improved efforts to manage migration will require information on the nature and impact of migratory patterns. This book seeks to contribute toward this goal, by reviewing previous research and providing new analyses (including surveys and case studies) as well as by formulating policy recommendations that can improve the migration experience for migrants, origin countries, and destination countries. The book comprises this introduction and summary and four chapters. Chapter one reviews the data on African migration and considers the challenges African governments face in managing migration. Chapter two discusses the importance of remittances, the most tangible link between migration and development; it also identifies policies that can facilitate remittance flows to Africa and increase their development impact. Chapter three analyzes high-skilled emigration and analyzes policies that can limit adverse implications and maximize positive implications for development. Chapter four considers ways in which Africa can leverage its diaspora resources to increase trade...

Impact of Migration on Economic and Social Development : A Review of Evidence and Emerging Issues

Ratha, Dilip; Mohapatra, Sanket; Scheja, Elina
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.53%
This paper provides a review of the literature on the development impact of migration and remittances on origin countries and on destination countries in the South. International migration is an ever-growing phenomenon that has important development implications for both sending and receiving countries. For a sending country, migration and the resulting remittances lead to increased incomes and poverty reduction, and improved health and educational outcomes, and promote economic development. Yet these gains might come at substantial social costs to the migrants and their families. Since many developing countries are also large recipients of international migrants, they face challenges of integration of immigrants, job competition between migrant and native workers, and fiscal costs associated with provision of social services to the migrants. This paper also summarizes incipient discussions on the impacts of migration on climate change, democratic values, demographics, national identity, and security. In conclusion...

Where on Earth is Everybody? The Evolution of Global Bilateral Migration 1960–2000

Ozden, Caglar; Parsons, Christopher R.; Schiff, Maurice; Walmsley, Terrie L.
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
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36.53%
Global matrices of bilateral migrant stocks spanning 1960 2000 are presented, disaggregated by gender and based primarily on the foreign-born definition of migrants. More than one thousand census and population register records are combined to construct decennial matrices corresponding to the five census rounds between 1960 and 2000. For the first time, a comprehensive picture of bilateral global migration over the second half of the 20th century emerges. The data reveal that the global migrant stock increased from 92 million in 1960 to 165 million in 2000. Quantitatively, migration between developing countries dominates, constituting half of all international migration in 2000. When the partition of India and the dissolution of the Soviet Union are accounted for, migration between developing countries is remarkably stable over the period. Migration from developing to developed countries is the fastest growing component of international migration in both absolute and relative terms. The United States has remained the most important migrant destination in the world...

Modeling Migration Dynamics in Albania : A Hazard Function Approach

Azzarri, Carlo; Carletto, Calogero
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
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36.53%
Since 1990 migration flows from Albania have been massive, relative to the size of the country and its population, but they have also fluctuated over time. This paper presents and discusses various descriptive trends, mainly in graphical form. The data come from the Albanian Living Standards Measurement Survey, 2005 round, and cover the period 1990-2004. The resulting observed trends reflect changing push and pull factors in Albania and the two main host countries, Greece and Italy. The paper also presents a hazard approach to modeling Albanian emigration and return migration. This analysis highlights, among other things, the relevance of networks in Albanian migration dynamics, both to promote emigration and to delay return.

International Migration, Economic Development and Policy

Özden, Çağlar; Schiff, Maurice
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank and Palgrave Macmillan Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank and Palgrave Macmillan
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36.56%
This volume reflects the expansion of the World Bank Research Program on International Migration and Development into new substantive and geographic areas. It presents a new global migration database and includes studies of the determinants and impact of return and circular migration, the impact of the flow of ideas on fertility, host country policies and their impact on immigrants, and the impact of international migration and remittances on poverty and other development indicators. The studies cover countries from Latin America, North Africa, South Asia, the South Pacific, and Western Europe, and show that the impact of migration on education and health tends to benefit girls more than boys, that its impact on labor force participation tends to be stronger for women than men, that return migrants tend to do better than non-migrants, and that fertility has tended to decline in countries whose migration has been to the West and has failed to do so in countries whose migration has been to the Gulf. The purpose of the case studies is to illustrate and clarify many theoretical mechanisms and to advance understanding of the impact of different migration policies...

Migration and Remittances : Eastern Europe and the Former Soviet Union

Mansoor, Ali; Quillin, Bryce
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
EN_US
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36.53%
In regard to migration and remittances for Eastern Europe and the Former Soviet Union, the overview chapter summarizes the main findings that are developed in much greater detail in later chapters. The core focus of this report is on documenting the trends of international migration and remittances in this region since the period of transition (chapters one and two) and discussing the determinants of migration in this region (chapter three). A final chapter (chapter four) reviews the organization of international migration policy in the region. It details the nature and types of bilateral migration schemes in place between Europe and Central Asia (ECA) countries and between ECA and Western Europe and identifies some of their limitations. The final section of chapter four suggests some avenues through which bilateral migration agreements could be improved.

Agency, Education and Networks : Gender and International Migration from Albania

Stecklov, Guy; Carletto, Calogero; Azzarri, Carlo; Davis, Benjamin
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.53%
This paper examines the causes and dynamics of the shift in the gender composition of migration, and more particularly, in the access of women to migration opportunities and decision making. The context of the analysis is Albania, a natural laboratory for studying migration developments given that out-migration was practically eliminated from the end of World War II to the end of the 1980s. The authors use micro-level data from the Albania 2005 Living Standards Measurement Study including migration histories for family members since migration began. Based on discrete-time hazard models, the analysis shows an impressive expansion of female participation in international migration. Female migration, which is shown to be strongly associated with education, wealth, and social capital, appears responsive to economic incentives and constraints. Yet, using unique data on the dependency of female migration to the household demographic structure as well as the sensitivity of female migration to household-level shocks...

Migration and Human Capital in Brazil during the 1990s

Fiess, Norbert M.; Verner, Dorte
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
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36.54%
Nearly 40 percent of all Brazilians have migrated at one point and time, and in-migrants represent substantial portions of regional populations. Migration in Brazil has historically been a mechanism for adjustment to disequilibria. Poorer regions and those with fewer economic opportunities have traditionally sent migrants to more prosperous regions. As such, the southeast region, where economic conditions are most favorable, has historically received migrants from the northeast region. Migration should have benefited both regions. The southeast benefits by importing skilled and unskilled labor that makes local capital more productive. The northeast can benefit from upward pressures on wages and through remittances that migrant households return to their region of origin. The northeast of Brazil is a net sender of migrants to the southeast. In recent years a large number of people moved from the southeast to the northeast. Compared with northeast to southeast (NE-SE) migrants, southeast to northeast (SE-NE) migrants are less homogeneous regarding age...

Informing Migration Policies : A Data Primer

Carletto, Calogero; Larrison, Jennica; Ozden, Caglar
Fonte: World Bank Group, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank Group, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.54%
Researchers in many fields, such as demography, economics, and sociology, have established various data collection methodologies and principles to answer a range of academic and policy questions on migration. Although the progress has been impressive, some basic challenges remain. This paper addresses some basic, yet fundamental, questions on identification of international migrants and how their various demographic, personal, and human capital characteristics are captured via different data sources. The critical issues are the construction of proper sampling frames in censuses, registers, and surveys and the design of questionnaires in household, labor market, and other relevant surveys. The paper discusses how these data sources can be used to answer policy questions in areas such as labor markets, education, or poverty. The focus is on how some of the existing shortcomings in availability, quality, and relevance of migration data can be overcome via improvements in data collection methods.

Managing International Migration for Development in East Asia

Adams, Richard H., Jr.; Ahsan, Ahmad
Fonte: World Bank Group, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank Group, Washington, DC
EN_US
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36.54%
The objective of this book is to analyze the economic and social impact of international migration on labor sending and labor receiving countries in the East Asia region. More specifically, the book seeks: (a) to examine the impact of international migration on key development indicators, including poverty, investment, labor force participation, labor productivity and wages; (b) to evaluate current government structures and institutions for managing migration, with a view to identifying future policies for maximizing the benefits of international labor migration. The book includes new work on these key policy issues from six East Asian countries: three labor sending countries (Indonesia, Philippines and Vietnam) and three labor receiving countries (Singapore, Malaysia and Thailand).

Dynamics in highly skilled Migration: A European Perspective; Internationale Migration Hochqualifizierter Arbeitskräfte aus Europäischer Sicht

Avato, Johanna
Fonte: Universidade de Tubinga Publicador: Universidade de Tubinga
Tipo: Dissertação
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.53%
This thesis contributes to the research in highly skilled migration and takes special interest in questions and concerns of the European Union. The research will look at the causes of migration and what factors cause the selection of migrants. In particular, it will present three empirical studies. The first analyzes the role of foreign education in the migration and subsequent integration processes. It investigates if the place of education has a uniform effect on migrants or whether there are selectivity differentials by place of education. The second studies the impact of selective migration policies and their ability to effectively over-ride existing migration patterns. As it becomes clear that there are persistent factors that reinforce migration patterns that have evolved over the past decades, the third study analyzes network effects and presents evidence of a multiplier effect that is new to the migration literature. It is evident that these questions are particularly relevant to the European Union (EU), which is a major player in international migration. The EU receives relatively low skilled immigrants compared to other major migrant destinations like the US, Canada and Australia, and migrant networks have reinforced these patterns due to strong historical linkages with many sending regions. At the same time...

Essays on the Migration of Heterogeneous Individuals; Aufsätze über die Migration heterogener Individuen

Neubecker, Nina
Fonte: Universidade de Tubinga Publicador: Universidade de Tubinga
Tipo: Dissertação
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.53%
This dissertation presents theoretical and empirical analyses in order to provide some new answers to three questions of migration research: What determines migration? Who migrates? How does migration impact on the sending countries? A common feature of the presented analyses is that they consider specific heterogeneities of migrants and non-migrants. The dissertation contains seven analytical chapters as well as an introduction and some concluding remarks. The analytical chapters deal with three different topics: 1. The Relationship between Occupational Status and Migration Within a theoretical model framework it is demonstrated that the reduction of occupational stigma may constitute a motive for migration for skilled workers. Yet, this hypothesis has to be rejected in econometric analyses on the basis of micro-level data on internal migration in Germany in the period 2001-2009. 2. Network Effects in Migration Based on econometric analyses relying on a macro-level dataset, it is shown that the migration flows of different foreign nationals to Spain in the period 1997-2006 were not only influenced by the existing networks of co-national migrants, but also by the existing networks of migrants from other nationalities. For the network of co-national migrants it can furthermore be shown that the positive effect of the network on follow-up migration differed across the different Spanish regions. In addition...

International Migration, Remittances, and the Brain Drain

Özden, Çağlar; Schiff, Maurice
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank and Palgrave Macmillan Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank and Palgrave Macmillan
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.55%
Knowledge of the economic effects of migration, especially its impact on economic development, is rather limited. In order to expand knowledge on migration, and identify policies and reforms that would lead to superior development outcomes, this volume presents the results of a first set of studies carried out on the subject. Current demographic trends in both developed and developing countries are pointing toward significant, potential economic gains from migration. The labor forces in many developed countries are expected to peak around 2010, and decline by around 5 percent in the following two decades, accompanied by a rapid increase in dependency ratios. Conversely, the labor forces in many developing countries are expanding rapidly, resulting in declines in dependency ratios. This imbalance is likely to create strong demand for workers in developed countries' labor markets, especially for numerous service sectors that can only be supplied locally. There are large north-south wage gaps, however, especially for unskilled and semiskilled labor. Part 1 of this book...

Implication de l'endosome de recyclage dans la migration cellulaire in vivo

Assaker, Gloria
Fonte: Université de Montréal Publicador: Université de Montréal
Tipo: Thèse ou Mémoire numérique / Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
FR
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36.54%
Au cours de l’ovogenèse chez la mouche du vinaigre: Drosophila melanogaster, un groupe de cellules folliculaires appelées cellules de bord, migrent à travers les cellules nourricières pour atteindre l’ovocyte. Cet événement, nécessitant la transition épithélio- mésenchymateuse (TEM), la réorientation, puis l’arrêt, ressemble à la formation de métastases. L’endocytose est un régulateur clé de plusieurs événements polarisés, y compris la migration cellulaire. En effet, différentes protéines impliquées dans la migration, comme les intégrines et les E-cadhérines (cadhérines épithéliales), sont régulées par transport à travers les endosomes. De même, l’endocytose restreint au front de migration l’activité des récepteurs tyrosine kinases (RTKs) qui guident les cellules de bord dans leur mouvement. Cependant les mécanismes moléculaires de cette restriction spatiale de l’activité des RTKs demeurent largement inconnus. Nous avons testé l’implication du trafic vésiculaire à travers la machinerie d’endocytose, dans la migration dirigée des cellules de bord, car ce système est facilement accessible pour l’expression de protéines et l’analyse de mutants. Nous avons commencé par confirmer une observation précédente du rôle de l’endosome précoce dans la migration des cellules de bord. Ensuite...

Teaching at home or overseas: Teacher migration from Fiji and the Cook Islands

Voigt-Graf, Carmen; Iredale, Robyn; Khoo, Siew-Ean
Fonte: Scalabrini Migration Center Publicador: Scalabrini Migration Center
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.37%
The migration of skilled workers is increasing rapidly in Pacific Island countries including Fiji and the Cook Islands. This paper focuses on teacher migration because of the potentially far-reaching implications of this migration for educational systems

A Global Labor Market: Factors Motivating the Sponsorship and Temporary Migration of Skilled Workers to Australia

Khoo, Siew-Ean; McDonald, Peter; Voigt-Graf, Carmen; Hugo, Graeme
Fonte: Center for Migration Studies of New York Inc. Publicador: Center for Migration Studies of New York Inc.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.23%
The recruitment of skilled foreign workers is becoming increasingly important to many industrialized countries. This paper examines the factors motivating the sponsorship and temporary migration of skilled workers to Australia under the temporary business

Temporary migration of Indian ICT workers to Australia

Voigt-Graf, Carmen; Khoo, Siew-Ean
Fonte: Scalabrini Migration Center Publicador: Scalabrini Migration Center
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.23%
This article examines the temporary migration of information and communications technology (ICT) workers from India to Australia under the 457 temporary business entry visa category that was introduced in 1996. The number of Indians arriving in Australia

Bridging Gender, Migration and Governance: Theoretical Possibilities in the Asian Context

Piper, Nicola
Fonte: Scalabrini Migration Center Publicador: Scalabrini Migration Center
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.42%
This paper examines international labor migration within the broader framework of social justice and 'politics of migration' from a 'bottom up perspective.' In view of governments' inability or lack of political will to deal with labor migration issues from the perspective of migrant workers' well-being, it is very much up to non-state actors, such as NGOs, to take up the role as advocates to assert pressure on policymakers. Conceptually, this links up with the extensive literature on the revival of civil society and social movements, in a national as well as transnational setting. These linkages (between governmental or elite politics and civil society activism) in the context of international migration have not been explored sufficiently by existing scholarship and need to be integrated into a new normative framework to migration studies. Also, the issue of states' failure in addressing social issues raised by much of the literature on globalization is of importance in this context. At each of these levels, there are gender implications. The international women's movement and feminist contributions in development studies can serve as a model for migration scholars and activists.

Transnational Advocacy Networks, Female Labor Migration and Trafficking in East and Southeast Asia: A Gendered Analysis of Opportunities and Obstacles

Piper, Nicola; Uhlin, Anders
Fonte: Scalabrini Migration Center Publicador: Scalabrini Migration Center
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.42%
The aim of this article is to advance political economy and politics into migration studies by analyzing the role of transnational advocacy networks working on issues of trafficking and labor migration in East and Southeast Asia. Drawing on some empirical research, but mainly offering conceptual ideas, we demonstrate the importance of gender not only in trafficking and labor migration but also in transnational advocacy. First, we contextualize trafficking and labor migration within a gendered international political economy, focusing on existing power relations between genders, between classes and between states. Second, we examine the role of transnational advocacy networks in this context. In particular, we argue that a broader understanding of political opportunities and obstacles is needed. Emphasizing the transnational context and the importance of gender, we outline different types of opportunities and obstacles to advocacy in this particular area.

2000 families: identifying the research potential of an origins-of-migration study

Güveli, Ayşe; Ganzeboom, Harry; Baykara-Krumme, Helen; Platt, Lucinda; Eroğlu, Şebnem; Spierings, Niels; Bayrakdar, Sait; Nauck, Bernhard; Sozeri, Efe K.
Fonte: Centre for Research and Analysis of Migration (CReAM), University College London Publicador: Centre for Research and Analysis of Migration (CReAM), University College London
Tipo: Monograph; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /02/2014 EN; EN
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Despite extensive recent advances in the empirical and theoretical study of migration, certain critical areas in the analysis of European migration remain relatively underdeveloped both theoretically and empirically. Specifically, we lack studies that both incorporate an origin comparison and trace processes of intergenerational transmission across migrants over multiple generations and incorporating family migration trajectories. This paper outlines the development, data and design of such a study, the 2000 Families study, framed within a theoretical perspective of ‘dissimilation’ from origins and over generations. We term the study an origins-of-migration study, in that it captures the country of origin, the family origins and potentially the originating causes of migration processes and outcomes. The resulting data comprised nearly 2,000 migrant and non-migrant Turkish families with members across three or more generations, covering. 50,000 individuals. We reflect on the potential of this study for migration research.