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Recognition by toll-like receptor 2 induces antigen-presenting cell activation and Th1 programming during infection by Neospora caninum

MINEO, Tiago W. P.; OLIVEIRA, Carlo J. F.; GUTIERREZ, Fredy R. S.; SILVA, Joao S.
Fonte: NATURE PUBLISHING GROUP Publicador: NATURE PUBLISHING GROUP
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
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Neospora caninum is an apicomplexan parasite responsible for major economic losses due to abortions in cattle. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) sense specific microbial products and direct downstream signaling pathways in immune cells, linking innate, and adaptive immunity. Here, we analyze the role of TLR2 on innate and adaptive immune responses during N. caninum infection. Inflammatory peritoneal macrophages and bone marrow-derived dendritic cells exposed to N. caninum-soluble antigens presented an upregulated expression of TLR2. Increased receptor expression was correlated to TLR2/MyD88-dependent antigen-presenting cell maturation and pro-inflammatory cytokine production after stimulation by antigens. Impaired innate responses observed after infection of mice genetically deficient for TLR2((-/-)) was followed by downregulation of adaptive T helper 1 (Th1) immunity, represented by diminished parasite-specific CD4(+) and CD8(+) T-cell proliferation, IFN-gamma:interleukin (IL)-10 ratio, and IgG subclass synthesis. In parallel, TLR2(-/-) mice presented higher parasite burden than wild-type (WT) mice at acute and chronic stages of infection. These results show that initial recognition of N. caninum by TLR2 participates in the generation of effector immune responses against N. caninum and imply that the receptor may be a target for future prophylactic strategies against neosporosis. Immunology and Cell Biology (2010) 88...

Cell-Cycle-Regulated Expression and Subcellular Localization of the Caulobacter crescentus SMC Chromosome Structural Protein

Jensen, Rasmus B.; Shapiro, Lucy
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /05/2003 EN
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Structural maintenance of chromosomes proteins (SMCs) bind to DNA and function to ensure proper chromosome organization in both eukaryotes and bacteria. Caulobacter crescentus possesses a single SMC homolog that plays a role in organizing and segregating daughter chromosomes. Approximately 1,500 to 2,000 SMC molecules are present per cell during active growth, corresponding to one SMC complex per 6,000 to 8,000 bp of chromosomal DNA. Although transcription from the smc promoter is induced during early S phase, a cell cycle transcription pattern previously observed with multiple DNA replication and repair genes, the SMC protein is present throughout the entire cell cycle. Examination of the intracellular location of SMC showed that in swarmer cells, which do not replicate DNA, the protein forms two or three foci. Stalked cells, which are actively engaged in DNA replication, have three or four SMC foci per cell. The SMC foci appear randomly distributed in the cell. Many predivisional cells have bright polar SMC foci, which are lost upon cell division. Thus, chromosome compaction likely involves dynamic aggregates of SMC bound to DNA. The aggregation pattern changes as a function of the cell cycle both during and upon completion of chromosome replication.

High-Level β-Lactam Resistance and Cell Wall Synthesis Catalyzed by the mecA Homologue of Staphylococcus sciuri Introduced into Staphylococcus aureus

Severin, Anatoly; Wu, Shang Wei; Tabei, Keiko; Tomasz, Alexander
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /10/2005 EN
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A close homologue of mecA, the determinant of broad-spectrum β-lactam resistance in Staphylococcus aureus was recently identified as a native gene in the animal commensal species Staphylococcus sciuri. Introduction of the mecA homologue from a methicillin-resistant strain of S. sciuri into a susceptible strain of S. aureus caused an increase in drug resistance and allowed continued growth and cell wall synthesis of the bacteria in the presence of high concentrations of antibiotic. We determined the muropeptide composition of the S. sciuri cell wall by using a combination of high-performance liquid chromatography, mass spectrometric analysis, and Edman degradation. Several major differences between the cell walls of S. aureus and S. sciuri were noted. The pentapeptide branches in S. sciuri were composed of one alanine and four glycine residues in contrast to the pentaglycine units in S. aureus. The S. sciuri wall but not the wall of S. aureus contained tri- and tetrapeptide units, suggesting the presence of dd- and ld-carboxypeptidase activity. Most interestingly, S. aureus carrying the S. sciuri mecA and growing in methicillin-containing medium produced a cell wall typical of S. aureus and not S. sciuri, in spite of the fact that wall synthesis under these conditions had an absolute dependence on the heterologous S. sciuri gene product. The protein product of the S. sciuri mecA can efficiently participate in cell wall biosynthesis and build a cell wall using the cell wall precursors characteristic of the S. aureus host.

Native Cell Wall Organization Shown by Cryo-Electron Microscopy Confirms the Existence of a Periplasmic Space in Staphylococcus aureus

Matias, Valério R. F.; Beveridge, Terry J.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /02/2006 EN
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The current perception of the ultrastructure of gram-positive cell envelopes relies mainly on electron microscopy of thin sections and on sample preparation. Freezing of cells into a matrix of amorphous ice (i.e., vitrification) results in optimal specimen preservation and allows the observation of cell envelope boundary layers in their (frozen) hydrated state. In this report, cryo-transmission electron microscopy of frozen-hydrated sections of Staphylococcus aureus D2C was used to examine cell envelope organization. A bipartite wall was positioned above the plasma membrane and consisted of a 16-nm low-density inner wall zone (IWZ), followed by a 19-nm high-density outer wall zone (OWZ). Observation of plasmolyzed cells, which were used to artificially separate the membrane from the wall, showed membrane vesicles within the space associated with the IWZ in native cells and a large gap between the membrane and OWZ, suggesting that the IWZ was devoid of a cross-linked polymeric cell wall network. Isolated wall fragments possessed only one zone of high density, with a constant level of density throughout their thickness, as was previously seen with the OWZs of intact cells. These results strongly indicate that the IWZ represents a periplasmic space...

Inhibition of Cell Division Suppresses Heterocyst Development in Anabaena sp. Strain PCC 7120

Sakr, Samer; Jeanjean, Robert; Zhang, Cheng-Cai; Arcondeguy, Tania
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /02/2006 EN
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When the filamentous cyanobacterium Anabaena PCC 7120 is exposed to combined nitrogen starvation, 5 to 10% of the cells along each filament at semiregular intervals differentiate into heterocysts specialized in nitrogen fixation. Heterocysts are terminally differentiated cells in which the major cell division protein FtsZ is undetectable. In this report, we provide molecular evidence indicating that cell division is necessary for heterocyst development. FtsZ, which is translationally fused to the green fluorescent protein (GFP) as a reporter, is found to form a ring structure at the mid-cell position. SulA from Escherichia coli inhibits the GTPase activity of FtsZ in vitro and prevents the formation of FtsZ rings when expressed in Anabaena PCC 7120. The expression of sulA arrests cell division and suppresses heterocyst differentiation completely. The antibiotic aztreonam, which is targeted to the FtsI protein necessary for septum formation, has similar effects on both cell division and heterocyst differentiation, although in this case, the FtsZ ring is still formed. Therefore, heterocyst differentiation is coupled to cell division but independent of the formation of the FtsZ ring. Consistently, once the inhibitory pressure of cell division is removed...

Coordination between Chromosome Replication, Segregation, and Cell Division in Caulobacter crescentus

Jensen, Rasmus B.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /03/2006 EN
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Progression through the Caulobacter crescentus cell cycle is coupled to a cellular differentiation program. The swarmer cell is replicationally quiescent, and DNA replication initiates at the swarmer-to-stalked cell transition. There is a very short delay between initiation of DNA replication and movement of one of the newly replicated origins to the opposite pole of the cell, indicating the absence of cohesion between the newly replicated origin-proximal parts of the Caulobacter chromosome. The terminus region of the chromosome becomes located at the invaginating septum in predivisional cells, and the completely replicated terminus regions stay associated with each other after chromosome replication is completed, disassociating very late in the cell cycle shortly before the final cell division event. Invagination of the cytoplasmic membrane occurs earlier than separation of the replicated terminus regions and formation of separate nucleoids, which results in trapping of a chromosome on either side of the cell division septum, indicating that there is not a nucleoid exclusion phenotype.

Relationship among Several Key Cell Cycle Events in the Developmental Cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. Strain PCC 7120

Sakr, Samer; Thyssen, Melilotus; Denis, Michel; Zhang, Cheng-Cai
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /08/2006 EN
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When grown in the absence of a source of combined nitrogen, the filamentous cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120 develops, within 24 h, a differentiated cell type called a heterocyst that is specifically involved in the fixation of N2. Cell division is required for heterocyst development, suggesting that the cell cycle could control this developmental process. In this study, we investigated several key events of the cell cycle, such as cell growth, DNA synthesis, and cell division, and explored their relationships to heterocyst development. The results of analyses by flow cytometry indicated that the DNA content increased as the cell size expanded during cell growth. The DNA content of heterocysts corresponded to the subpopulation of vegetative cells that had a big cell size, presumably those at the late stages of cell growth. Consistent with these results, most proheterocysts exhibited two nucleoids, which were resolved into a single nucleoid in most mature heterocysts. The ring structure of FtsZ, a protein required for the initiation of bacterial cell division, was present predominantly in big cells and rarely in small cells. When cell division was inhibited and consequently cells became elongated, little change in DNA content was found by measurement using flow cytometry...

Flagella of Pyrococcus furiosus: Multifunctional Organelles, Made for Swimming, Adhesion to Various Surfaces, and Cell-Cell Contacts†

Näther, Daniela J.; Rachel, Reinhard; Wanner, Gerhard; Wirth, Reinhard
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /10/2006 EN
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Pyrococcus furiosus (“rushing fireball”) was named for the ability of this archaeal coccus to rapidly swim at its optimal growth temperature, around 100°C. Early electron microscopic studies identified up to 50 cell surface appendages originating from one pole of the coccus, which have been called flagella. We have analyzed these putative motility organelles and found them to be composed primarily (>95%) of a glycoprotein that is homologous to flagellins from other archaea. Using various electron microscopic techniques, we found that these flagella can aggregate into cable-like structures, forming cell-cell connections between ca. 5% of all cells during stationary growth phase. P. furiosus cells could adhere via their flagella to carbon-coated gold grids used for electron microscopic analyses, to sand grains collected from the original habitat (Porto di Levante, Vulcano, Italy), and to various other surfaces. P. furiosus grew on surfaces in biofilm-like structures, forming microcolonies with cells interconnected by flagella and adhering to the solid supports. Therefore, we concluded that P. furiosus probably uses flagella for swimming but that the cell surface appendages also enable this archaeon to form cable-like cell-cell connections and to adhere to solid surfaces.

Temperature Sensitivity and Cell Division Defects in an Escherichia coli Strain with Mutations in yghB and yqjA, Encoding Related and Conserved Inner Membrane Proteins▿

Thompkins, Kandi; Chattopadhyay, Ballari; Xiao, Ying; Henk, Margaret C.; Doerrler, William T.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology (ASM) Publicador: American Society for Microbiology (ASM)
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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Ludox density gradients were used to enrich for Escherichia coli mutants with conditional growth defects and alterations in membrane composition. A temperature-sensitive mutant named Lud135 was isolated with mutations in two related, nonessential genes: yghB and yqjA. yghB harbors a single missense mutation (G203D) and yqjA contains a nonsense mutation (W92TGA) in Lud135. Both mutations are required for the temperature-sensitive phenotype: targeted deletion of both genes in a wild-type background results in a strain with a similar phenotype and expression of either gene from a plasmid restores growth at elevated temperatures. The mutant has altered membrane phospholipid levels, with elevated levels of acidic phospholipids, when grown under permissive conditions. Growth of Lud135 under nonpermissive conditions is restored by the presence of millimolar concentrations of divalent cations Ca2+, Ba2+, Sr2+, or Mg2+ or 300 to 500 mM NaCl but not 400 mM sucrose. Microscopic analysis of Lud135 demonstrates a dramatic defect at a late stage of cell division when cells are grown under permissive conditions. yghB and yqjA belong to the conserved and widely distributed dedA gene family, for which no function has been reported. The two open reading frames encode predicted polytopic inner membrane proteins with 61% amino acid identity. It is likely that YghB and YqjA play redundant but critical roles in membrane biology that are essential for completion of cell division in E. coli.

Artificial Septal Targeting of Bacillus subtilis Cell Division Proteins in Escherichia coli: an Interspecies Approach to the Study of Protein-Protein Interactions in Multiprotein Complexes ▿ †

Robichon, Carine; King, Glenn F.; Goehring, Nathan W.; Beckwith, Jon
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology (ASM) Publicador: American Society for Microbiology (ASM)
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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Bacterial cell division is mediated by a set of proteins that assemble to form a large multiprotein complex called the divisome. Recent studies in Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli indicate that cell division proteins are involved in multiple cooperative binding interactions, thus presenting a technical challenge to the analysis of these interactions. We report here the use of an E. coli artificial septal targeting system for examining the interactions between the B. subtilis cell division proteins DivIB, FtsL, DivIC, and PBP 2B. This technique involves the fusion of one of the proteins (the “bait”) to ZapA, an E. coli protein targeted to mid-cell, and the fusion of a second potentially interacting partner (the “prey”) to green fluorescent protein (GFP). A positive interaction between two test proteins in E. coli leads to septal localization of the GFP fusion construct, which can be detected by fluorescence microscopy. Using this system, we present evidence for two sets of strong protein-protein interactions between B. subtilis divisomal proteins in E. coli, namely, DivIC with FtsL and DivIB with PBP 2B, that are independent of other B. subtilis cell division proteins and that do not disturb the cytokinesis process in the host cell. Our studies based on the coexpression of three or four of these B. subtilis cell division proteins suggest that interactions among these four proteins are not strong enough to allow the formation of a stable four-protein complex in E. coli in contrast to previous suggestions. Finally...

Influences of Capsule on Cell Shape and Chain Formation of Wild-Type and pcsB Mutants of Serotype 2 Streptococcus pneumoniae ▿ †

Barendt, Skye M.; Land, Adrian D.; Sham, Lok-To; Ng, Wai-Leung; Tsui, Ho-Ching T.; Arnold, Randy J.; Winkler, Malcolm E.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology (ASM) Publicador: American Society for Microbiology (ASM)
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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55.69%
PcsB is a protein of unknown function that plays a critical role in cell division in Streptococcus pneumoniae and other ovococcus species of Streptococcus. We constructed isogenic sets of mutants expressing different amounts of PcsB in laboratory strain R6 and virulent serotype 2 strain D39 to evaluate its cellular roles. Insertion mutagenesis in parent and pcsB+ merodiploid strains indicated that pcsB is essential in serotype 2 S. pneumoniae. Quantitative Western blotting of wild-type and epitope-tagged PcsB showed that all PcsB was processed into cell-associated and secreted forms of the same molecular mass and that cell-associated PcsB was moderately abundant and present at ≈4,900 monomers per cell. Controlled expression and complementation experiments indicated that there was a causative relationship between the severity of defects in cell division and decreasing PcsB amount. These experiments also showed that perturbations of expression of the upstream mreCD genes did not contribute to the cell division defects of pcsB mutants and that mreCD could be deleted. Unexpectedly, capsule influenced the cell shape and chain formation phenotypes of the wild-type D39 strain and mutants underexpressing PcsB or deleted for other genes involved in peptidoglycan biosynthesis...

LytM-Domain Factors Are Required for Daughter Cell Separation and Rapid Ampicillin-Induced Lysis in Escherichia coli▿

Uehara, Tsuyoshi; Dinh, Thuy; Bernhardt, Thomas G.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology (ASM) Publicador: American Society for Microbiology (ASM)
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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55.69%
Bacterial cytokinesis is coupled to the localized synthesis of new peptidoglycan (PG) at the division site. This newly generated septal PG is initially shared by the daughter cells. In Escherichia coli and other gram-negative bacteria, it is split shortly after it is made to promote daughter cell separation and allow outer membrane constriction to closely follow that of the inner membrane. We have discovered that the LytM (lysostaphin)-domain containing factors of E. coli (EnvC, NlpD, YgeR, and YebA) are absolutely required for septal PG splitting and daughter cell separation. Mutants lacking all LytM factors form long cell chains with septa containing a layer of unsplit PG. Consistent with these factors playing a direct role in septal PG splitting, both EnvC-mCherry and NlpD-mCherry fusions were found to be specifically recruited to the division site. We also uncovered a role for the LytM-domain factors in the process of β-lactam-induced cell lysis. Compared to wild-type cells, mutants lacking LytM-domain factors were delayed in the onset of cell lysis after treatment with ampicillin. Moreover, rather than lysing from midcell lesions like wild-type cells, LytM− cells appeared to lyse through a gradual loss of cell shape and integrity. Overall...

Cell Wall Hydrolases Affect Germination, Vegetative Growth, and Sporulation in Streptomyces coelicolor▿ †

Haiser, Henry J.; Yousef, Mary R.; Elliot, Marie A.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology (ASM) Publicador: American Society for Microbiology (ASM)
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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Peptidoglycan is a major cell wall constituent of gram-positive bacteria. It is a dynamic macromolecule that is actively remodeled to enable cell growth and differentiation through a tightly choreographed interplay of hydrolytic and biosynthetic enzyme activities. The filamentous bacterium Streptomyces coelicolor has a complex life cycle that likely requires considerable cell wall remodeling to enable both extension of vegetative hyphae and formation of differentiated cell types. In silico analysis of the S. coelicolor genome enabled identification of 56 candidate cell wall hydrolase genes. We found that seven of these genes shared a highly conserved 5′ untranslated region and were expressed during both vegetative growth and sporulation; four of these genes were selected for more extensive biochemical and biological characterization. The proteins encoded by these genes, termed RpfA, SwlA, SwlB, and SwlC, were confirmed to be hydrolytic enzymes, as they could efficiently cleave S. coelicolor cell walls. Phenotypic analyses revealed that these enzymes are important throughout development; deletion of each hydrolase gene resulted in a mutant strain that was heat sensitive, defective in spore formation, and either altered in vegetative growth or delayed in spore germination. Our results indicate that these enzymes play key roles at multiple stages in the growth and development of S. coelicolor...

Polar Localization of the CckA Histidine Kinase and Cell Cycle Periodicity of the Essential Master Regulator CtrA in Caulobacter crescentus▿ †

Angelastro, Peter S.; Sliusarenko, Oleksii; Jacobs-Wagner, Christine
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology (ASM) Publicador: American Society for Microbiology (ASM)
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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The phosphorylated form of the response regulator CtrA represses DNA replication initiation and regulates the transcription of about 100 cell cycle-regulated genes in Caulobacter crescentus. CtrA activity fluctuates during the cell cycle, and its periodicity is a key element of the engine that drives cell cycle progression. The histidine kinase CckA controls the phosphorylation not only of CtrA but also of CpdR, whose unphosphorylated form promotes CtrA proteolysis. Thus, CckA has a central role in establishing the cell cycle periodicity of CtrA activity by controlling both its phosphorylation and stability. Evidence suggests that the polar localization of CckA during the cell cycle plays a role in CckA function. However, the exact pattern of CckA localization remains controversial. Here, we describe a thorough, quantitative analysis of the spatiotemporal distribution of a functional and chromosomally produced CckA-monomeric green fluorescent protein fusion that affects current models of cell cycle regulation. We also identify two cis-acting regions in CckA that are important for its proper localization and function. The disruption of a PAS-like motif in the sensor domain affects the stability of CckA accumulation at the poles. This is accompanied by a partial loss in CckA function. Shortening an extended linker between β-sheets within the CckA catalysis-assisting ATP-binding domain has a more severe effect on CckA polar localization and function. This mutant strain exhibits a dramatic cell-to-cell variability in CpdR levels and CtrA cell cycle periodicity...

Mutations in the Lipopolysaccharide Biosynthesis Pathway Interfere with Crescentin-Mediated Cell Curvature in Caulobacter crescentus▿ §

Cabeen, Matthew T.; Murolo, Michelle A.; Briegel, Ariane; Bui, N. Khai; Vollmer, Waldemar; Ausmees, Nora; Jensen, Grant J.; Jacobs-Wagner, Christine
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology (ASM) Publicador: American Society for Microbiology (ASM)
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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Bacterial cell morphogenesis requires coordination among multiple cellular systems, including the bacterial cytoskeleton and the cell wall. In the vibrioid bacterium Caulobacter crescentus, the intermediate filament-like protein crescentin forms a cell envelope-associated cytoskeletal structure that controls cell wall growth to generate cell curvature. We undertook a genetic screen to find other cellular components important for cell curvature. Here we report that deletion of a gene (wbqL) involved in the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) biosynthesis pathway abolishes cell curvature. Loss of WbqL function leads to the accumulation of an aberrant O-polysaccharide species and to the release of the S layer in the culture medium. Epistasis and microscopy experiments show that neither S-layer nor O-polysaccharide production is required for curved cell morphology per se but that production of the altered O-polysaccharide species abolishes cell curvature by apparently interfering with the ability of the crescentin structure to associate with the cell envelope. Our data suggest that perturbations in a cellular pathway that is itself fully dispensable for cell curvature can cause a disruption of cell morphogenesis, highlighting the delicate harmony among unrelated cellular systems. Using the wbqL mutant...

The Putative Hydrolase YycJ (WalJ) Affects the Coordination of Cell Division with DNA Replication in Bacillus subtilis and May Play a Conserved Role in Cell Wall Metabolism ▿ †

Biller, Steven J.; Wayne, Kyle J.; Winkler, Malcolm E.; Burkholder, William F.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology (ASM) Publicador: American Society for Microbiology (ASM)
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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Bacteria must accurately replicate and segregate their genetic information to ensure the production of viable daughter cells. The high fidelity of chromosome partitioning is achieved through mechanisms that coordinate cell division with DNA replication. We report that YycJ (WalJ), a predicted member of the metallo-β-lactamase superfamily found in most low-G+C Gram-positive bacteria, contributes to the fidelity of cell division in Bacillus subtilis. B. subtilis ΔwalJ (ΔwalJBsu) mutants divide over unsegregated chromosomes more frequently than wild-type cells, and this phenotype is exacerbated when DNA replication is inhibited. Two lines of evidence suggest that WalJBsu and its ortholog in the Gram-positive pathogen Streptococcus pneumoniae, WalJSpn (VicX), play a role in cell wall metabolism: (i) strains of B. subtilis and S. pneumoniae lacking walJ exhibit increased sensitivity to a narrow spectrum of cephalosporin antibiotics, and (ii) reducing the expression of a two-component system that regulates genes involved in cell wall metabolism, WalRK (YycFG), renders walJ essential for growth in B. subtilis, as observed previously with S. pneumoniae. Together, these results suggest that the enzymatic activity of WalJ directly or indirectly affects cell wall metabolism and is required for accurate coordination of cell division with DNA replication.

The Three-Layered DNA Uptake Machinery at the Cell Pole in Competent Bacillus subtilis Cells Is a Stable Complex▿ †

Kaufenstein, Miriam; van der Laan, Martin; Graumann, Peter L.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology (ASM) Publicador: American Society for Microbiology (ASM)
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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Many bacteria possess the ability to actively take up DNA from the environment and incorporate it into the chromosome. RecA protein is the key protein achieving homologous recombination. Several of the proteins involved in the transport of DNA across the cell envelope assemble at a single or both cell poles in competent Bacillus subtilis cells. We show that the presumed structure that transports DNA across the cell wall, the pseudopilus, also assembles at a single or both cell poles, while the membrane receptor, ComEA, forms a mobile layer throughout the cell membrane. All other known Com proteins, including the membrane permease, localize again to the cell pole, revealing that the uptake machinery has three distinct layers. In cells having two uptake machineries, one complex is occasionally mobile, with pairs of proteins moving together, suggesting that a complete complex may lose anchoring and become mobile. Overall, the cell pole provides stable anchoring. Only one of two uptake machineries assembles RecA protein, suggesting that only one is competent for DNA transfer. FRAP (fluorescence recovery after photobleaching) analyses show that in contrast to known multiprotein complexes, the DNA uptake machinery forms a highly stable complex...

The Interplay of ClpXP with the Cell Division Machinery in Escherichia coli▿†

Camberg, Jodi L.; Hoskins, Joel R.; Wickner, Sue
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /04/2011 EN
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ClpXP is a two-component protease composed of ClpX, an ATP-dependent chaperone that recognizes and unfolds specific substrates, and ClpP, a serine protease. One ClpXP substrate in Escherichia coli is FtsZ, which is essential for cell division. FtsZ polymerizes and forms the FtsZ ring at midcell, where division occurs. To investigate the role of ClpXP in cell division, we examined the effects of clpX and clpP deletions in several strains that are defective for cell division. Together, our results suggested that ClpXP modulates cell division through degradation of FtsZ and possibly other cell division components that function downstream of FtsZ ring assembly. In the ftsZ84 strain, which is temperature sensitive for filamentation due to a mutation in ftsZ, we observed that deletion of clpX or clpP suppresses filamentation and reduces FtsZ84 degradation. These results are consistent with ClpXP playing a role in cell division by modulating the level of FtsZ through degradation. In another division-defective strain, ΔminC, the additional deletion of clpX or clpP delays cell division and exacerbates filamentation. Our results demonstrate that ClpXP modulates division in cells lacking MinC by a mechanism that requires ATP-dependent degradation. However...

Dynamic Polar Sequestration of Excess MurG May Regulate Enzymatic Function ▿ †

Michaelis, Allison M.; Gitai, Zemer
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology (ASM) Publicador: American Society for Microbiology (ASM)
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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Advances in bacterial cell biology have demonstrated the importance of protein localization for protein function. In general, proteins are thought to localize to the sites where they are active. Here we demonstrate that in Escherichia coli, MurG, the enzyme that mediates the last step in peptidoglycan subunit biosynthesis, becomes polarly localized when expressed at high cellular concentrations. MurG only becomes polarly localized at levels that saturate MurG's cellular requirement for growth, and E. coli cells do not insert peptidoglycan at the cell poles, indicating that the polar MurG is not active. Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) and single-cell biochemistry experiments demonstrate that polar MurG is dynamic. Polar MurG foci are distinct from inclusion body aggregates, and polar MurG can be remobilized when MurG levels drop. These results suggest that polar MurG represents a temporary storage mechanism for excess protein that can later be remobilized into the active pool. We investigated and ruled out several candidate pathways for polar MurG localization, including peptidoglycan biosynthesis, the MreB cytoskeleton, and polar cardiolipin, as well as MurG enzymatic activity and lipid binding, suggesting that polar MurG is localized by a novel mechanism. Together...

Pole Age Affects Cell Size and the Timing of Cell Division in Methylobacterium extorquens AM1▿†

Bergmiller, Tobias; Ackermann, Martin
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /10/2011 EN
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A number of recent experiments at the single-cell level have shown that genetically identical bacteria that live in homogeneous environments often show a substantial degree of phenotypic variation between cells. Often, this variation is attributed to stochastic aspects of biology—the fact that many biological processes involve small numbers of molecules and are thus inherently variable. However, not all variation between cells needs to be stochastic in nature; one deterministic process that could be important for cell variability in some bacterial species is the age of the cell poles. Working with the alphaproteobacterium Methylobacterium extorquens, we monitored individuals in clonally growing populations over several divisions and determined the pole age, cell size, and interdivision intervals of individual cells. We observed the high levels of variation in cell size and the timing of cell division that have been reported before. A substantial fraction of this variation could be explained by each cell's pole age and the pole age of its mother: cell size increased with increasing pole age, and the interval between cell divisions decreased. A theoretical model predicted that populations governed by such processes will quickly reach a stable distribution of different age and size classes. These results show that the pole age distribution in bacterial populations can contribute substantially to cellular individuality. In addition...