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Modifications and Alternatives to the Tests of Levene and Brown & Forsythe for Equality of Variances and Means

ALMEIDA, Antonia De; ELIAN, Silvia; NOBRE, Juvencio
Fonte: UNIV NAC COLOMBIA, DEPT ESTADISTICA Publicador: UNIV NAC COLOMBIA, DEPT ESTADISTICA
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.81%
The usual tests to compare variances and means (e. g. Bartlett`s test and F-test) assume that the sample comes from a normal distribution. In addition, the test for equality of means requires the assumption of homogeneity of variances. In some situation those assumptions are not satisfied, hence we may face problems like excessive size and low power. In this paper, we describe two tests, namely the Levene`s test for equality of variances, which is robust under nonnormality; and the Brown and Forsythe`s test for equality of means. We also present some modifications of the Levene`s test and Brown and Forsythe`s test, proposed by different authors. We analyzed and applied one modified form of Brown and Forsythe`s test to a real data set. This test is a robust alternative under nonnormality, heteroscedasticity and also when the data set has influential observations. The equality of variance can be well tested by Levene`s test with centering at the sample median.

Análise dos Sorotipos do VHC Identificados em Pacientes da Cidade de São Paulo, Através de Método Imunoenzimático.; Analysis of serotypes of HCV in patients from the city of São Paulo, by means of a enzyme-immunoassay method.

Cavalheiro, Norma de Paula
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 07/12/1999 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
25.94%
CAVALHEIRO, N.P. Análise dos sorotipos do VHC identificados em pacientes da cidade de São Paulo, através de método imunoenzimático. São Paulo, 1999. 97p. Dissertação de mestrado - Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de São Paulo. Com o objetivo de analisar a prevalência dos diferentes tipos do vírus da Hepatite C (VHC) em uma população de pacientes portadores crônicos do VHC, através de um método sorológico (MUREX HCV Serotyping Assay), foram estudados 219 pacientes, que apresentaram positiva a Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase (PCR), nested-PCR. Estes soros foram submetidos ao teste imunoenzimático para detecção dos anticorpos contra os tipos 1,2,3,4,5,6 do VHC. As amostras foram diluídas e incubadas na presença de peptídeos heterólogos de competição, com antígenos sorotipo-específicos do VHC. Dos 219 pacientes, foi possível detectar o sorotipo do VHC em 166, revelando uma sensibilidade de 75,8%. Os resultados apresentaram a predominância do tipo 1 (70,0%) em nosso meio, seguido pelo tipo 3 (22,3%) e tipo 2 (4,2%). Os sorotipos 4 e 5 estiveram presentes para 1,8% dos pacientes, sempre associados com o sorotipo 1. Estas amostras, apesar de cumprirem os quesitos de validade do teste, apresentaram leituras de Densidade Ótica muito altas para todos os tipos virais testados...

Estimação de contrastes de médias de tratamentos, de um experimento em blocos ao acaso, utilizando as análises clássica e espacial; Estimation of treatments means contrasts, in a random blocks model, using the classical and spatial analysis

Maestre, Marina Rodrigues
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 08/10/2008 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
25.89%
Em um experimento, é comum ocorrerem fatores não controláveis, responsáveis pela heterogeneidade entre as parcelas. Mesmo executando os três princípios básicos da experimentação no planejamento (repetição, casualização e controle local), ainda assim, pode haver correlação nos erros e, portanto, dependência espacial na área estudada. Se for detectada essa estrutura de auto-correlação e se essa informação for utilizada na análise estatística, estimativas mais eficientes dos contrastes entre as médias dos tratamentos são garantidas, mas se tal estrutura for desconsiderada pode impedir que diferenças reais sejam detectadas. Neste trabalho, foram observadas as coordenadas dos centros das parcelas de um delineamento em blocos ao acaso. A variável resposta, deste experimento, é a concentração de carbono orgânico no solo, sendo as avaliações feitas no início do experimento, ou seja, antes da aplicaçao dos tratamentos, portanto, um ensaio em branco, um ano após a aplicação dos tratamentos e, novamente, depois de mais um ano. Para tanto, foram utilizadas as análises clássica e espacial na comparação dos métodos de estimação de contrastes de médias de tratamentos. O método estudado para a análise clássica...

Avaliação da estabilidade do processo de lingotamento contínuo por meio de gráficos de controle com variáveis dependentes; Stability evaluation of continuous casting process by means of control graphs with dependent variables

Casarin, Vanusa Andrea
Fonte: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul Publicador: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
25.85%
A presente pesquisa aborda a utilização de gráficos de controle em processo produtivo com variáveis autocorrelacionadas. Tem como objetivo verificar a estabilidade do processo de lingotamento contínuo na fabricação de tarugos por gráficos de controle aplicados aos resíduos oriundos da previsão dos modelos matemáticos por meio da modelagem linear e/ou não linear. Primeiramente, é observada a existência de correlação entre os dados, utilizandose, então, a Análise de Componentes Principais. Com os dados livres de correlação, testa-se a autocorrelação nas Componentes Principais. A partir desse instante, são aplicados os modelos ARIMA, para encontrar os resíduos nos quais será testada a presença de volatilidade, podendo-se aplicar os modelos ARCH e/ou GARCH. Para exemplificar a metodologia utilizada na pesquisa, foi realizado um estudo de caso em uma empresa do RS, na célula da aciaria, especificamente na máquina de lingotamento contínuo onde são fabricados os tarugos para o Aço DIN20MnCr5, seção quadrada 240 mm. Foi possível a avaliação da estabilidade do processo para as variáveis originais por meio do gráfico . Posteriormente, os dados foram decompostos em Componentes Principais, avaliados por meio dos gráficos de controle e EWMA...

Keeping the Unemployed Healthy: The Effect of Means-Tested and Entitlement Benefits in Britain, Germany, and the United States

Rodriguez, Eunice
Fonte: © American Journal of Public Health 2001 Publicador: © American Journal of Public Health 2001
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /09/2001 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.79%
Objectives. Although considerable evidence about the health effects of unemployment exists, little is known about the possible protective effects of various social interventions. This study examined the role that means-tested and entitlement programs could have in ameliorating the health impact of unemployment in Britain, Germany, and the United States.

DEMONSTRATION OF AN EPITHELIAL ANTIGEN IN COLON BY MEANS OF FLUORESCENT ANTIBODIES FROM CHILDREN WITH ULCERATIVE COLITIS

Broberger, Ove; Perlmann, Peter
Fonte: The Rockefeller University Press Publicador: The Rockefeller University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 01/01/1962 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
25.85%
Thirteen sera from children with ulcerative colitis were examined for antibodies reacting with constituents of human colonic tissue by means of immunofluorescent methods. 3 out of 10 sera reacted positively when tested by the direct staining method while 6 out of 13 reacted positively when tested by the indirect method with conjugates of rabbit anti-human gamma globulin. The specificity of the reactions could be confirmed by inhibition tests. 16 sera from healthy children and adults yielded completely negative results. The staining capacity of various sera was correlated to their hemagglutinating titer when they were tested with sheep erythrocytes, coated with phenol-water extract of human colon. Absorption experiments indicated that the stainable antigen was also present in the extracts used for the hemagglutination experiments. In unfixed tissue sections, fluorescent antibodies were adsorbed onto the epithelial cells of the mucosa. Adsorption on epithelial basement membranes could not be demonstrated. Fluorescent H agglutinins, isolated from eel serum, were adsorbed onto the same mucosal structures of human colon (blood group O) as the antibodies in the sera of patients with ulcerative colitis. However, any immunological relationship between H substance and the colonic antigen of ulcerative colitis could be ruled out by cross-inhibition and hemagglutination inhibition experiments. Fluorescent serum from patients with rheumatoid arthritis also stained sections of human colon but the localization of the stainable antigens was different from that visualized with the ulcerative colitis sera. Inhibition experiments indicated that the rheumatoid arthritis serum contained antibodies staining colon antigens different from those reacting with antibodies in the ulcerative colitis sera. Sera from patients with systemic lupus erythematosus or with the nephrotic syndrome...

Genetic parameters of a random regression model for daily feed intake of performance tested French Landrace and Large White growing pigs

Schnyder, Urs; Hofer, Andreas; Labroue, Florence; Künzi, Niklaus
Fonte: BioMed Central Publicador: BioMed Central
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 15/11/2001 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
25.89%
Daily feed intake data of 1 279 French Landrace (FL, 1 039 boars and 240 castrates) and 2 417 Large White (LW, 2 032 boars and 385 castrates) growing pigs were recorded with electronic feed dispensers in three French central testing stations from 1992–1994. Male (35 to 95 kg live body weight) or castrated (100 kg live body weight) group housed, ad libitum fed pigs were performance tested. A quadratic polynomial in days on test with fixed regressions for sex and batch, random regressions for additive genetic, pen, litter and individual permanent environmental effects was used, with two different models for the residual variance: constant in model 1 and modelled with a quadratic polynomial depending on the day on test dm as follows in model 2: . Variance components were estimated from weekly means of daily feed intake by means of a Bayesian analysis using Gibbs sampling. Posterior means of (co)variances were calculated using 800 000 samples from four chains (200 000 each). Heritability estimates of regression coefficients were 0.30 (FL model 1), 0.21 (FL model 2), 0.14 (LW1) and 0.14 (LW2) for the intercept, 0.04 (FL1), 0.04 (FL2), 0.11 (LW1) and 0.06 (LW2) for the linear, 0.03 (FL1), 0.04 (FL2) 0.11 (LW1) and 0.06 (LW2) for the quadratic term. Heritability estimates for weekly means of daily feed intake were the lowest in week 4 (FL1: 0.11...

Dogs are able to solve a means-end task

Range, Friederike; Hentrup, Marleen; Viranyi, Zsofia
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
25.85%
Dogs, although very skilled in social communicative tasks, have shown limited abilities in the domain of physical cognition. Consequently, several researchers hypothesized that domestication enhanced dogs’ cognitive abilities in the social realm, but relaxed selection on the physical one. For instance, dogs failed to demonstrate means-end understanding, an important form of relying on physical causal connection, when tested in a string-pulling task. Here, we tested dogs in an ‘on/off’ task using a novel approach. Thirty-two dogs were confronted with four different conditions in which they could choose between two boards one with a reward ‘on’ and another one with a reward ‘off’ (reward was placed next to the board). The dogs chose the correct board when 1) both rewards were placed at the same distance from the dog, when 2) the reward placed ‘on’ the board was closer to the dog, and 3) even when the reward placed ‘off’ the board was much closer to the dog and was food. Interestingly, in the latter case dogs did not perform above chance, if instead of a direct reward, the dogs had to retrieve an object placed on the board to get a food reward. In contrast to previous string pulling studies, our results show that dogs are able to solve a means-end task even if proximity of the unsupported reward is a confounding factor.

Should Social Security Benefits Be Means Tested?

Feldstein, Martin
Fonte: University of Chicago Press Publicador: University of Chicago Press
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.79%
Social-security retirement benefits distort the saving decisions of workers who are rational enough to save for their future. Since the implicit rate of return in an unfunded social-security program is less than the marginal product of capital, the resulting decline in saving causes a welfare loss. The present paper examines the conditions under which the welfare loss can be reduced by replacing the current universal social-security program with a means-tested program that pays benefits only to those individuals with little or no other retirement income or assets.; Economics

Universal Minimum Old Age Pensions : Impact on Poverty and Fiscal Cost in 18 Latin American Countries

Dethier, Jean-Jacques; Pestieau, Pierre; Ali, Rabia
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.75%
Alleviating poverty for the elderly requires a different approach from other age groups, and a minimum pension is likely to be the only viable option. This paper examines the impact on old age poverty and the fiscal cost of universal minimum old age pensions in 18 Latin American countries using recent household survey data. First the authors measure old age poverty rates for these countries. Then they discuss the design of minimum pensions schemes -- means-tested or not -- as well as the disincentives they introduce for the economic and social behavior of households including labor supply, saving and family solidarity. Finally, the authors use household survey data to simulate the fiscal cost and the impact on poverty rates of alternative minimum pension schemes in the 18 countries. They show that a universal minimum pension would substantially reduce poverty among the elderly (except in Argentina, Brazil, Chile and Uruguay where minimum pension systems already exist and poverty rates are low). Such schemes have much to be commended in terms of incentives...

Social Assistance in the New EU Member States : Strengthening Performance and Labor Market Incentives

Ringold, Dena; Kasek, Leszek
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.69%
This report looks at safety nets in the new member states from the perspective of fiscal impact and effectiveness. Given the limited budgets for social assistance, ensuring that resources are spent well, reach those who need them, and optimize welfare gains and labor market outcomes. This also requires attention to the balance between spending on means-tested antipoverty programs and family benefits and social insurance programs. Because of high levels of pension spending and rapidly aging populations, there is a risk that contributory social insurance spending will crowd out spending on social assistance. Managing the long-term fiscal sustainability of these programs to meet emerging needs is a priority. This paper looks at social assistance within the broader context of social protection. The main focus of the policy discussion is on the guaranteed minimum income programs, which comprise the centerpiece of the social assistance systems in each of the EU8 countries. Child allowances are also discussed...

Water Subsidy Policies : Comparison of the Chilean and Colombian Schemes

Gomez-Lobo, Andres; Contreras, Dante
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
25.91%
Analysis of two water subsidy schemes a means tested subsidy in Chile and a geographically targeted subsidy in Colombia shows that the means-tested system is better able to identify poor households than the geographically targeted scheme. However, the overall distributive impact of both schemes is quite similar, at least for the three lowest income deciles, because the amount of benefits per household in the geographically targeted Colombian scheme are differentiated by the socioeconomic classification of household. Despite the relative merits of the Chilean means tested scheme, targeting errors are still quite large. More than 60 percent of subsidies accrue to households that are above the third decile of the income distribution. If the policy objective in Chile is to benefit a significant proportion of households in the lowest income deciles, then either the targeting mechanism must be improved or the number of subsidies has to increase to take into account these targeting imperfections. In Colombia almost all households receive some kind of benefit...

Beurteilung der im Gebrauch auftretenden Verschleißerscheinungen elektrischer Erwachsenenzahnbürsten mit Hilfe eines selbstentwickelten Prüfstandes; Evaluation of signs of wear of electric power toothbrushes for adults by means of a self designed test rig

Heipmann, Caroline
Fonte: Universidade de Tubinga Publicador: Universidade de Tubinga
Tipo: Dissertação
DE_DE
Relevância na Pesquisa
25.85%
In dieser In- vitro Studie wurde untersucht, ob sich elektrische Zahnbürsten unterschiedlicher Funktionsweise und Preiskategorie in ihren Verschleißerscheinungen unterscheiden. Drei elektrische Bürsten ( Oral- B ProfessionalCare 1000, Oral-B Vitality D12013 und Philips Sonocare HX6711/02) wurden nacheinander in einem selbstentwickelten Prüfstand befestigt. Je Modell wurde mit fünf Bürstenköpfen über eine Reihe Frasacozähne in einer Zahnpastasuspension gebürstet. Mit jedem Bürstenkopf wurde zwischen 280 und 340 Minuten gebürstet und anschließend gegen einen neuen Bürstenkopf ausgetauscht. Ausgewertet wurden die Akkufunktion, die makroskopische Entfärbung der Indikatorborsten mit Deformation des gesamten Bürstenfeldes und die Veränderung der Filamentenenden mit Hilfe eines Rasterelektronenmikroskopes. Die Akkuleistung unterschied sich teilweise deutlich von den Herstellerangaben. Der Verschleiß der Bürstenkopfmechanik der Oral- B Bürsten erwies sich am Ende der Versuchsreihe als unauffällig. Die Entfärbung der Indikatorborsten und Deformation des Borstenfeldes zeigte sich schon deutlich vor der vom Hersteller empfohlenen Austauschfrist von drei Monaten für Bürstenköpfe. Während der Versuche wurde bei den Oral- B Modellen ein brauner Substanzaustritt an der Bürstenkopfrückseite sichtbar. Es konnte nicht nachvollzogen werden woher diese Substanz stammt. Der Aufspleißungsgrad war bei der Vitality geringer als bei den Konkurrenzmodellen. Rasterelektronenmikroskopisch erkennbar eine einheitliche Abrundung der Filamentenenden in unbenutztem Zustand und Bildung eines zentralen Plateaus nach einer Versuchszeit von ca.280 Minuten. Aufgrund der hervorragenden Akkuleistung der Sonicare und des Austretens der braunen Flüssigkeit bei den Oral- B Modellen ist die Sonicare vorzuziehen. Zusätzlich wäre die Empfehlung für den Bürstenkopfwechsel schon nach ca. zweieinhalb Monaten zu geben.; The objective of this In- vitro study was whether there is a difference in signs of wear of electric powered toothbrushes of different mode of operation and price level. Three different electric powered toothbrushes ( Oral- B ProfessionalCare 1000...

Creating choice or social engineering? An exploration of government assistance to Australian families

Tai, Rebekha
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Relatório
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.85%
Australian Prime Minister John Howard has stated that his government's family policies increase parents' choices about they wish to balance work and caring. By looking at the current government family initiatives and their practical application one can examine whether these policies really do create more choices. The Coalition's family policies reward breadwinner families disproportionately and so supports parents who make this choice more than others. The Australian Government has historically assisted families with the costs of raising children. This has occurred primarily through welfare payments, which have been given to those families believed to need help the most. Today's government continues this tradition of aiding families through financial payments, spending $18.2 billion this financial year on the five dominant family assistance payments alone. All these payments, except the Baby Bonus, are means-tested to ensure these payments continue to target those parents deemed most in need. These payments disproportionately benefit families with one full-time working parent and a parent that either does not work or works very little. The rates of family payments give greatest benefits to families that split income earning on a ratio of 80/20. Further...

Trade-offs in Means Tested Pension Design

Tran, Chung; Woodland, Alan
Fonte: Elsevier Publicador: Elsevier
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.69%
The means-testing of age pension programs allows governments to control the receipt of pension benefits (extensive margin) and the benefit level (intensive margin). We investigate how the presence of the extensive margin influences the trade-off between p

Localisation and the means test: a case study of support for English students from Autumn 2012

Hills, John; Richards, Ben
Fonte: Centre for Analysis of Social Exclusion, London School of Economics and Political Science Publicador: Centre for Analysis of Social Exclusion, London School of Economics and Political Science
Tipo: Monograph; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /05/2012 EN; EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.99%
The combination of spending cuts, efforts to protect the poorest from some of their effects, and ‘localised’ decision-making are leading to an increase in the numbers of means tests designed by lower level institutions. This paper examines a case study of the effects of this, looking at the means-tested support which has been offered to English students applying to go to 52 universities from Autumn 2012, designed partly to offset the rise in general fees to or towards £9,000. 27 of these universities are offering significant levels of means-tested support through bursaries or fee reductions depending on parental income. Although using a common income definition, each university has designed its own system with widely varying criteria. Taken with the national maintenance grant system, these imply substantially different levels of support for students from lower and higher-income families. Nearly all of them involve significant downward steps or ‘cliff edges’ in support at particular income levels, often involving a drop of several thousand pounds. Just looking at student support by itself, this implies typical marginal withdrawal rates exceeding 40 per cent and even 100 per cent over particular income ranges. Taken together with the effects of other parts of the tax and benefit system that would have affected family income...

Unadjusted Means-tested Benefits Rate (UMBR)

Fenton, Alex
Fonte: CASE Publicador: CASE
Tipo: Dataset; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/rtf; application/zip
Publicado em /09/2012 EN; EN; EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.79%
UMBR, the Unadjusted Means-tested Benefits Rate, is a proxy measure for income poverty within small geographic units in Great Britain. It is particularly designed to work for small areas (such as Lower-level Super Output Areas, or LSOAs) and to permit comparison over time. The accompanying file, umbr_hh-esw-2001-11.csv, contains poverty proxy rates for all small areas (LSOAs in England and Wales, Datazones in Scotland) for all years from 2001 to 2011. It is suitable for describing the spatial distribution of poverty within cities and regions, and for analysing how that has changed over time.

Tightropes and tripwires: new Labour's proposals and means-testing in old age

Rake, Katherine; Falkingham, Jane; Evans, Martin
Fonte: Centre for Analysis of Social Exclusion, London School of Economics and Political Science Publicador: Centre for Analysis of Social Exclusion, London School of Economics and Political Science
Tipo: Monograph; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /04/1999 EN; EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.75%
This paper analyses the Government's proposals contained in A New Contract for Welfare: Partnership in Pensions. It examines the position of low paid workers and the potential of the proposals to protect individuals from means-tested old age. The paper identifies that the Green Paper's proposals add up to reinventing a new two-stage basic pension but at proposed levels that could extend means-testing to low paid workers. The paper then models the Green Paper's proposals on lifetime incomes of a hypothetical, low-income individual and their partner. Two key features of the proposed basic pension package are argued as problematic. First, the level of payment, and second, lifetime participation rules that prevent comprehensive coverage or tightropes and tripwires, respectively. The paper identifies potential incentive problems, and problems of sustainability. The authors make several suggestions about changes to the proposals that could meet their concerns.

Unadjusted Means-Tested Benefits Rate (UMBR), 2001-2013

Fenton, Alex
Fonte: CASE Publicador: CASE
Tipo: Dataset; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/zip; application/pdf
Publicado em 02/03/2015 EN; EN; EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.79%
The accompanying package contains an updated version of the Unadjusted Means- Tested Benefits Rate (UMBR) data set. UMBR is a proxy measure of income poverty for small geographic areas in England, Scotland and Wales. It provides a singlenumber household poverty rate for somewhat over 40,000 small area units annually from 2001 to 2013. UMBR is produced from public data sources by the Centre for Analysis of Social Exclusion at the London School of Economics, as part of the Social Policy in a Cold Climate (SPCC) research programme. UMBR is suitable for a variety of purposes, including analysis of the local distribution of poverty over time, and the coding of other individual or area data-sets with an income poverty indicator.

Objectives and outcomes of means testing under the British welfare state.

Mitton, Lavinia Clare Elizabeth
Fonte: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis Publicador: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis
Tipo: Thesis; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2004 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.81%
The principal objective of this thesis is to determine why, how and with what outcomes means tests for 'non-income-replacement' benefits were adopted in England and Wales from the mid-1960s to the mid-1990s. The approach taken is to explore four benefits: free prescription medicines; free school meals; student grants; and civil legal aid. I use documents to identify the objectives, administrative details and design of the benefits which are the focus of this thesis. The method used to find out how many and what sorts of people were eligible under the means tests is microsimulation with micro-data. There was no high point of generosity in the mid-1970s for these benefits, as the historiography often suggests. These four benefits had very different objectives. There was also incoherence in objectives over time, as governments struggled with spending constraints rather than following a welfare ideology, which serves to undermine theories which assume that welfare states are a unified institution. The changing income levels for entitlement for benefit show that who was deemed to be 'in need' of a particular benefit shifted over time. The results show little support for the theory of middle class 'capture' of the welfare state, which implies that the influence of pressure groups on welfare state change is more subtle than that theory suggests. Although the intention of restricting entitlement for all the benefits was achieved...