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Family disruption in the case-law of the European Court of Human Rights

Almeida, Susana; Gil, Ana Rita
Fonte: Instituto Politécnico de Leiria Publicador: Instituto Politécnico de Leiria
Tipo: Conferência ou Objeto de Conferência
Publicado em 05/06/2010 ENG
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45.62%
Comunicação apresentada na 47th Annual Conference of the Association of Family and Conciliation Courts – Traversing the trail of alienation: mountains of emotion, rocky relationships, mile high conflict, Denver, Colorado, 5th June 2010; This workshop aims to analyse the principles drawn out by the case-law of the European Court of Human Rights in regard to family disruption matters, such as custody and access, children taken into public care and the right to respect for family life of prisoners and immigrants. The right to respect for family life, within the meaning of Article 8 of the European Convention on Human Rights, requires a positive obligation of Member States to act in a manner calculated to allow family ties to develop normally. Furthermore, as the Strasbourg Court often stresses, the mutual enjoyment by parents and children of each other’s company constitutes a fundamental element of family life and thus one of the objectives pursued by Article 8. Therefore, the restriction or non-enforcement of custody and visiting rights, as well as the compulsory taking of children into public care and the implementation of care measures, or the limitation or prohibition of visits from family members to prisoners, or even the refusal of family reunification of immigrants...

Clinical Implications of the Transversus Abdominis Plane Block in Adults

Young, Mark J.; Gorlin, Andrew W.; Modest, Vicki E.; Quraishi, Sadeq A.
Fonte: Hindawi Publishing Corporation Publicador: Hindawi Publishing Corporation
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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The transversus abdominis plane (TAP) block is a relatively new regional anesthesia technique that provides analgesia to the parietal peritoneum as well as the skin and muscles of the anterior abdominal wall. It has a high margin of safety and is technically simple to perform, especially under ultrasound guidance. A growing body of evidence supports the use of TAP blocks for a variety of abdominal procedures, yet, widespread adoption of this therapeutic adjunct has been slow. In part, this may be related to the limited sources for anesthesiologists to develop an appreciation for its sound anatomical basis and the versatility of its clinical application. As such, we provide a brief historical perspective on the TAP block, describe relevant anatomy, review current techniques, discuss pharmacologic considerations, and summarize the existing literature regarding its clinical utility with an emphasis on recently published studies that have not been included in other systematic reviews or meta-analyses.

Imposed Limitations on Freedom of Religion in China and the Margin of Appreciation Doctrine: A Legal Analysis of the Crackdown on the Falun Gong and other "Evil Cults"

Edelman, Bryan; Richardson, James T.
Fonte: Oxford University Press Publicador: Oxford University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
EN
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Operational sustainability metrics : a case of electronics recycling

Atlee, Jennifer Robinson
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 127 p.; 10729810 bytes; 10736001 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
ENG
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In the past 15 years corporations and governments have developed a growing appreciation of the need for "sustainability" and have worked the term into their goals, strategy and mission statements. Despite extensive efforts to define the term, there is still little clarity on how to move toward sustainability or measure improvements. Further advances toward sustainability will require system specific metrics to assess both current performance and the impact of operational, technological or regulatory changes on that performance. Not only are there currently few operational metrics by which to practically assess progress toward sustainability, there is also very little understanding of how to judge the effectiveness of such metrics. Electronics recycling is used in this thesis as a case problem in developing and evaluating system specific performance metrics for sustainability. Electronics recycling is a growing national and international concern due to the increasing volume of waste, the potential toxicity of the scrap, and reports of improper handling and disposal. Despite this concern, there is limited understanding about the electronics recycling system. There is a need for systematic ways to describe system functioning and quantitative methods to assess system performance. Existing evaluations of eco-efficiency or sustainability are either too aggregated to guide operational decisions or too complex and data intensive to be performed in the context of a low-margin system. A range of performance metrics were developed and assessed for several electronics recycling operators. These included measures of resource recovery and environmental performance.; (cont.) These metrics were assessed for their ability to provide insights on resource efficiency comparable to more complex indicators...

Three essays in international trade; 3 essays in international trade

Chaney, Thomas
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 112 p.
ENG
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This thesis is a collection of three essays in international trade. Chapter 1 explains how firm heterogeneity and market structure can distort the geography of international trade. By considering only the intensive margin of trade, Krugman (1980) predicts that a higher elasticity of substitution between goods magnifies the impact of trade barriers on trade flows. In this chapter, I introduce firm heterogeneity in a simple model of international trade. I prove that the extensive margin, the number of exporters, and intensive margin, the exports per firm, are affected by the elasticity of substitution in exact opposite directions. In sectors with a low elasticity of substitution, the extensive margin is highly sensitive to trade barriers, compared to the intensive margin, and the reverse holds true in sectors with a high elasticity. The extensive margin always dominates, and the predictions of the Krugman model with representative firms are overturned: the impact of trade barriers on trade flows is dampened by the elasticity of substitution, and not magnified. To test the predictions of the model, I estimate gravity equations at the sectoral level. The estimated elasticities of trade flows with respect to trade barriers are systematically distorted by the degree of firm heterogeneity and by market structure.; (cont.) These distortions are consistent with the predictions of the model with heterogeneous firms...

Web of words : poetry, fandom and globality

Gopalakrishnan, Amulya
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 64 leaves
ENG
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This study explores questions of media change, negotiation of literary value and postcolonial hybridity through a study of The Wondering Minstrels, a largely South-Asian community on the Web dedicated to the celebration of English poetry. I aim to demonstrate how an online community like Minstrels can unsettle hierarchies such as those between writer and reader, high art and fandom, and between metropole and margin, even as it often seems rooted in this logic. While print-culture and literary values are often conflated, this new kind of platform celebrates poetry using the interactive and participatory possibilities of the Web. It garbles protocols of literary appreciation by discussing canonical poetry in an idiosyncratic, personal manner. As a group dominated by South-Asian techno-managerial workers, this is also an account of ways in which globalization and postcoloniality intersect and the new networked society complicates the center-periphery model of cultural traffic. In choosing to informally engage with English poetry as bookmarks for their own lives and remaking the rules of engagement, the Wondering Minstrels is an act of cultural translation, another way of telling the literary legacy of colonialism. In addition to analyzing the conversation on the website...

Corte interamericana de direitos humanos: opinião consultiva 4/84: a margem de apreciação chega à América = Inter-american court of human rights: advisory opinion 4/84: the margin of appreciation arrives at the american continent

Corrêa, Paloma Morais
Fonte: Superior Tribunal de Justiça do Brasil Publicador: Superior Tribunal de Justiça do Brasil
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
PT_BR
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45.63%
doi: 10.5102/rdi.v10i2.2581

The Margin of Appreciation in the Jurisprudence of the European Court of Human Rights

MACDONALD, Ronald St. J.
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Parte de Livro
EN
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35.63%

Ordering Pluralism

DELMAS-MARTY, Mireille
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Outros Formato: application/pdf; digital
EN
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In the traditional legal culture, the expression of “ordering pluralism” is rather unusual. Pluralism implies differences, dispersion and fragmentation, whereas “legal order” leads us to think in terms of a unified structure. From this perspective, a legal order is necessarily unified, hierarchical and almost static. But our legal history has changed and we must rise to the challenge of changing our minds. The world is not static but interactive and rapidly evolving. In Europe, a supranational legal order was established after the end of World War II. In the whole world, the end of Cold War accelerated the so-called globalisation of law. In this new global world, we have to observe the different processes used for ordering pluralism by integrating the plural without reducing it to the identical. Using “ordering”, rather than “ordered” pluralism, because it is a way to stress the processes of integration rather than the results, the movement rather than the model. Looking at these processes, we will identify different degrees of integration, different levels in space, and different speeds in time to analyse the possible answers to a series of questions: How? Where? When? And finally, what will the future world order look like? As the states become more and more interdependent...

State Discretion as a Paradox of EU Evolution

FOROWICZ, Magdalena
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: application/pdf; digital
EN
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The notion of State discretion is a fundamental concept for the determination of powers and the effective functioning of regional and international legal systems. It is an inherently controversial notion in a system such as the European Union, as it implies that a freedom of decision and interpretation is left to Member States. State discretion disturbs and fosters diversity, thereby potentially threatening the coherent development and harmonisation of EU law and policies. Nonetheless, as part of an expanding EU, it becomes increasingly difficult to build consensus among States with varied legal, economic and political traditions. The increasingly pluralist nature of the EU membership and regime often requires patience and compromise. In this context, the notion of State discretion could play an important role in improving the efficiency of EU law and relations between EU Institutions and Member States. This Working Paper envisages State discretion as process which is defined in the ex ante legislative phase and the ex post judicial phase. As an alternative to the principle of subsidiarity, this paper proposes a different and more comprehensive framework for interpreting relations between Member States and EU Institutions. It is also part of a longer study focusing on several areas of EU Law.

Theory and Practice of Harmonisation

Fonte: Edward Elgar Publishing Publicador: Edward Elgar Publishing
Tipo: Livro
EN
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Harmonised and uniform international laws are now being spread across different jurisdictions and fields of law, bringing with them an increasing body of scholarship on practical problems and theoretical dimensions. This comprehensive and insightful book focuses on the contributions to the development and understanding of the critical theory of harmonisation. The contributing authors address a variety of different subjects concerned with harmonisation and the application of legal rules resulting from harmonisation efforts. This study is written by leading scholars engaged in different aspects of harmonisation, and covers both regional harmonisation within the EU and regional human rights treaties, as well as harmonisation with international treaty obligations. With comparative analysis that contributes to the development of a more general theory on the harmonisation process, this timely book will appeal to EU and international law scholars and practitioners, as well as those looking to future legal harmonisation in other regions in Asia, Latin America and Africa.; Preface 1. Harmonising and Regulating Financial Markets Mads Andenas 2. Applied Uniformity of a Uniform Commercial Law: Ensuring Functional Harmonisation of Uniform Texts through a Global Jurisconsultorium of the CISG Camilla Baasch Andersen 3. Regulatory Competition or Harmonisation: The Dilemma...

Reflections on the constitutionalisation of international economic law : liber amicorum for Ernst-Ulrich Petersmann

Fonte: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers Publicador: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers
Tipo: Livro
EN
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This book collects a large number of essays written in honour of Professor Ernst-Ulrich Petersmann by his friends, colleagues and former students. The respective contributions cover the fields of International Economic Law, International Constitutional Law/Transnational Constitutionalism, EU Law and Human Rights. The broad thematic scope of this book mirrors the extremely large field of interests of the jubilarian. Paying tribute to a particular trait of Professor Petersmann´s character who was always both a dogmatic thinker and a curious researcher, the authors try to cover both structural issues of law as well as most recent developments, in particular in the field of International Economic Law. “Construing” the constitution of International Economic Law, in both senses of this activity, was an aim throughout Professor Petersmann´s academic career and this goal stands also at the heart of this book.; -- Preface, Marise Cremona, Peter Hilpold, Nikos Lavranos, Stefan Staiger Schneider and Andreas R. Ziegler INSTITUTIONAL AND SUBSTANTIVE ISSUES IN EUROPEAN LAW -- Liberalization of Trade in Goods in the EEC: Origin and Early Evolution, Federico Ortino -- The ‘Politicization’ of the EU’S Common Commercial Policy – Approaching the “Post-Lockean” Era...

A comparative approach of the national margin of appreciation doctrine before the ECtHR, investment tribunals and WTO dispute settlement bodies

EL BOUDOUHI, Saïda
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: application/pdf; digital
EN
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The paper proposes a critical appraisal of the possibility of transposing the national margin of appreciation doctrine as developed in the ECtHR case law to the WTO dispute settlement system on the one hand and to investor-State arbitration on the other. For that purpose, the analysis first establishes the difference between the doctrine and the concept of national margin of appreciation which takes into account many situations that would otherwise be misleading. The paper then looks at the functional nature of the doctrine within the case law of the ECtHR to conclude that it acts as a “softener” of the otherwise stringent proportionality analysis test. While the observation of the case law in WTO and international investment law shows that there is currently little room for the transposition of the doctrine to these areas, the paper looks at possible theoretical explanations for such a state of the law which seems to be due to both structural differences and political contingencies.

La jurisprudencia del Tribunal Europeo de Derechos Humanos sobre la libertad religiosa: un análisis jurídico-político; European Court of Human Rights case-law on religious freedom: a legal and political analysis

Arlettaz, Fernando
Fonte: Universidad Carlos III de Madrid. Instituto de Derechos Humanos Bartolomé de las Casas; Dykinson Publicador: Universidad Carlos III de Madrid. Instituto de Derechos Humanos Bartolomé de las Casas; Dykinson
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; info:eu-repo/semantics/article
Publicado em /06/2012 SPA
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Este artículo analiza los rasgos generales de la jurisprudencia del Tribunal Europeo de Derechos Humanos en relación con el artículo 9 del Convenio Europeo de Derechos Humanos, sobre la libertad religiosa, agrupándolos en tres niveles. En primer lugar, el Tribunal entiende la libertad religiosa en el sentido clásico liberal, como un derecho individual que garantiza una protección frente a la coacción del Estado o de otros individuos. Por otra parte, el concepto de igualdad asociado a la libertad religiosa es asumido en su sentido formal, es decir, sin incluir prestaciones positivas o de derechos especiales para los grupos religiosos en situación de desventaja. Finalmente, la jurisprudencia europea deja a los Estados un margen de apreciación bastante amplio al momento de establecer restricciones al derecho en cuestión.; This article analyzes the general characteristics of the European Human Rights Court case-law about religious freedom (article 9 of the European Convention on Human Rights). First, according to the Court, religious freedom is, in a liberal classical sense, an individual right which guarantees protection against coercion from the State or from other individuals. Second, the idea of equality associated to religious freedom is considered in a formal way...

The European court of human rights and religion: Between 'Christian' neutrality and the fear of Islam

Cebada Romero, Alicia
Fonte: New Zealand Centre for Public Law Publicador: New Zealand Centre for Public Law
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/acceptedVersion; info:eu-repo/semantics/article
Publicado em /11/2013 ENG
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The European Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms, as interpreted by the European Court of Human Rights (the ECtHR), remains open to different constitutional formulae regarding the regulation of the relationship between state and religion. At the present moment non-secular, soft secular and hard secular constitutional arrangements coexist in Europe. A general pre-requisite of the European Convention order is the obligation for states to remain neutral towards religious beliefs and religious institutions. In both secular and non-secular constitutional frameworks, the states' commitment to neutrality is especially relevant to preserve pluralism. In this regard, it is especially disappointing to ascertain that the Court has fallen short of providing a consistent interpretation of the obligation of neutrality. The analysis of the case law provided in this paper demonstrates that the ECtHR offers a biased interpretation of the state's duty of neutrality which, on the one hand, better serves the interest and needs of the Christian churches and, on the other hand, shows the ECtHR's fear of Islam. With its simplistic and reductive reading of Islamic rules and traditions, the Court might be contributing to the negative stereotyping of public manifestations of the Islamic faith. The ECtHR should try to offer a more consistent construction of the state's duty of neutrality that is more respectful of religions other than Christianity...

Collected Courses of the Academy of European Law (Yearbook), 1990, Vol. I - Book 2: The Protection of Human Rights in Europe

Fonte: Kluwer Academic Publishers/Martinus Nijhoff Publishers Publicador: Kluwer Academic Publishers/Martinus Nijhoff Publishers
Tipo: Livro
EN
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Recueil des cours de l'Académie de droit européen.; -- Catherine Lalumière, Conférence Winston Churchill sur le Conseil de l'Europe. Le Conseil de l'Europe et les pays de l'Europe de l'Est, 9 -- Gérard Cohen-Jonathan, Libertés fondamentales et télévision européenne, 29 -- R.St.J. Macdonald, The Margin of Appreciation in the Jurisprudence of the European Court of Human Rights, 95 -- Thomas Buergenthal, CSCE Human Dimension: The Birth of a System, 163 -- Gennady M. Danilenko, Soviet Constitutional Reform and International Human Rights Standards, 211 -- Jochen A. Frowein, General Course: The European Convention on Human Rights as the Public Order of Europe, 267 -- Index of Decisions by Transnational Courts, 359

Exchange Rate Volatility, Financial Constraints, and Trade : Empirical Evidence from Chinese Firms

Heericourt, Jerome; Poncet, Sandra
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
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This paper studies how firm-level export performance is affected by Real Exchange Rate (RER) volatility and investigates whether this effect depends on existing financial constraints. The empirical analysis relies on export data for more than 100,000 Chinese exporters over the 2000-6 period. The results confirm a trade-deterring effect of RER volatility. Firms' decision to begin exporting and the exported value decrease for destinations with higher exchange rate volatility; besides, this effect is magnified for financially vulnerable firms. As expected, financial development seems to dampen this negative impact, especially on the intensive margin of export. These results provide micro-founded evidence suggesting that the existence of well-developed financial markets allows firms to hedge exchange rate risk. The results also support a key role of financial constraints in determining the macro impact of RER volatility on real outcomes.

La souveraineté de l'État et le droit à des élections libres dans le contexte européen : essai fondé sur la jurisprudence de la Cour européenne des droits de l'Homme (1987-2008)

Draganova, Diana
Fonte: Université de Montréal Publicador: Université de Montréal
Tipo: Thèse ou Mémoire numérique / Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
FR
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L'une des critiques fondamentales adressées au mécanisme de contrôle et de surveillance de la Cour européenne des droits de l'homme en matière électorale tient au risque qu'il portera atteinte à la souveraineté de l'État. En effet, certains auteurs estiment que l'autonomie constitutionnelle de l'État dans le domaine électoral, jusqu'à tout récemment strictement protégée, s'affaiblit sous l'influence de la protection des droits de l'homme dans le système européen. Le présent mémoire a pour but de déterminer les conditions imposées aux autorités étatiques par la Cour européenne des droits de l'homme en vue d'assurer l'exercice efficace du droit à des élections libres. Ensuite, il analysera les effets de ces conditions sur la souveraineté des États parties à la Convention européenne des droits de l'homme. Notre étude s'intéresse, dans un premier temps, à l'examen du principe de la souveraineté de l'État et de son évolution progressive sous l'influence des droits de l'homme. Dans un deuxième temps, elle présentera le droit à des élections libres et ses manifestations théoriques et jurisprudentielles. L'étude des affaires tranchées par la Cour européenne permettra de remarquer que la déférence qui est accordée à la souveraineté des États s'accompagne d'une certaine limitation de la marge d'appréciation des autorités étatiques en cas de privation de l'exercice efficace du droit à des élections libres. Ensuite...

Prior notification in privacy cases: a reply to Professor Phillipson

Scott, Andrew
Fonte: Department of Law, London School of Economics and Political Science Publicador: Department of Law, London School of Economics and Political Science
Tipo: Monograph; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2010 EN; EN
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In a recent edition of the Journal of Media Law, Professor Gavin Phillipson considered whether the United Kingdom must impose a prior notification obligation on the media in respect of stories that concern the private conduct of individuals. Such a notification requirement would allow time for the subjects of such stories to seek interim relief to prevent publication. Max Mosley has asked the European Court of Human Rights to oblige the UK to introduce such a rule. Professor Phillipson concluded that Mosley should win his case. This paper proceeds, first, by questioning the fundamental premise of the Phillipson / Mosley argument: that damages are inadequate to compensate harms done through publication of private information. Secondly, it considers the practical ramifications of the imposition of a prior notification requirement, both in terms of the ‘workability’ of a legal obligation and the impact it would have on media freedom. Thirdly, it airs the question of whether – in light of the margin of appreciation afforded to contracting states – it would be legitimate for the Strasbourg court to compel the introduction of a specific measure to assist the protection of privacy. The paper concludes that the European Court should not find the United Kingdom in breach of its obligations. Nevertheless...

Being a foreigner after 9/11: the margin of appreciation of the States in personal liberty and the power of expulsion

García,Lila Emilse
Fonte: Relaciones Internacionales Publicador: Relaciones Internacionales
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2008 EN
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35.63%