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Transaction Costs Analysis of Low-Carbon Technologies

Mundaca, Luis; Mansoz, Mathilde; Neij, Lena; Timilsina, Govinda
Fonte: Taylor and Francis Publicador: Taylor and Francis
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
96.12%
Transaction costs (TCs) must be taken into account when assessing the performance of policy instruments that create markets for the diffusion and commercialization of low-carbon technologies (LCTs). However, there are no comprehensive studies on the development and application of transaction cost analysis to LCTs. In this meta-analysis, a wide-ranging evaluation of TCs associated with energy efficiency, renewable energy, and carbon market technologies is provided. There is a plethora of different definitions of, and measurement techniques to estimate, TCs. There is wide variation in the quantitative estimates, which can be attributed to factors such as the definition used, data collection, quantification methods, the type and size of technologies, the regulatory frameworks, the complexity of transactions, and the maturity of policy instruments. It is concluded that TCs are highly specific to both LCTs and policy instruments and that a common methodological approach is needed to avoid misleading policy analysis of the extant and future assessments. Policy relevance: Transaction costs (TCs) accrued by, for instance, the search for information, due diligence, monitoring and verification (M&V) activities, must be considered in the design...

Transaction Costs of Low-Carbon Technologies and Policies : The Diverging Literature

Mundaca, Luis; Mansoz, Mathilde; Neij, Lena; Timilsina, Govinda R.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
76.14%
Transaction costs are major challenge to moving forward toward low-carbon economic growth, as new technologies or policies tend to have higher transaction costs compared with those in the business as usual situation. However, neither a well-developed theoretical foundation nor a consensus interpretation is available for those transaction costs in the existing literature. The definitions and therefore the estimations of transaction costs vary across existing studies. The wide variations in the estimates could be attributed to several factors such as the very definitions and scope of transaction costs considered in the studies, the methodology for quantifying these costs, the type and size of low-carbon technologies, and complexities involved in the transactions. Nevertheless, the existing literature converges on addressing market failures, such as lack of information, in developing regulatory and institutional capacity to enhance private sector confidence in energy efficiency business as a key means to help reduce the transaction costs of low-carbon technologies.

Low Carbon Growth Country Studies--Getting Started : Experience from Six Countries

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.94%
Six emerging economies, Brazil, China, India, Indonesia, Mexico, and South Africa, are proactively seeking to identify opportunities and related financial, technical, and policy requirements to move towards a low carbon growth path. With the help of the Energy Sector Management Assistance Program (ESMAP), the governments of these countries have initiated country-specific studies to assess their development goals and priorities, in conjunction with greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation opportunities, and examine the additional costs and benefits of lower carbon growth. Mitigation actions today are expected to reduce future expenditure on adaptation. These actions can help attract international concessional funding to co-finance programs in energy, industry, transport, and natural resource management, which have carbon reduction implications. This paper illustrates the framework and the steps to perform a comprehensive assessment of GHG mitigation options, highlighting the central importance of sustained communication with stakeholders in the study process.

Planning for a Low Carbon Future

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
76.08%
Developing countries are faced with the dual challenge of reducing poverty while improving management of natural capital and mitigating the emission of greenhouse gases (GHGs) and local pollutants. The challenge is particularly acute for large, rapidly growing economies, such as India, China, and Brazil. In response to this challenge, Energy Sector Management assistance Program (ESMAP) and the World Bank began in 2007 to provide support to countries to develop long term frameworks for reducing GHG emissions in a way that is compatible with economic growth objectives and tied to national and sectoral plans. In total, seven studies were conducted between 2007 and 2010, for the following countries: Brazil, China, India, Indonesia, Mexico, Poland, and South Africa. This report collates the lessons learned from these studies and is intended as a practical guide for government officials, practitioners, and development agencies involved in low carbon development planning. The low carbon studies were tailored to the individual needs of each country involved. In Brazil...

The Low Carbon City Development Program Guidebook

World Bank; DNV KEMA
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.09%
According to the United Nations population fund, the world is undergoing the largest wave of urban growth in history, with more people now living in cities than in rural areas. Cities are also responsible for a high proportion of global carbon emissions, which are the main driver of anthropogenic climate change. By taking the lead on low carbon development, cities have the opportunity to engage in an important dialogue about sustainable development, directly address local issues, and contribute to the reduction of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Low carbon development strategies allow cities to position themselves as major players in climate change mitigation, as well as set an example for the development of national emission reduction policies. The systematic approach offered by a low carbon city development program (LCCDP) enables a city to overcome the barriers faced in single project implementation and pursue an integrated low carbon pathway. It provides a common framework to identify, implement, and measure low carbon interventions that will not only contribute to lower emissions...

Policy Uncertainty and Investment in Low-Carbon Technology

ALBRIZIO, Silvia; COSTA, Hélia
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: application/pdf
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
75.92%
In the context of an emission trading scheme (ETS), we study how uncertainty over the environmental policy affectsfirms' investment in low-carbon technologies. We develop a three period sequential model that combines the industry and the electricity sectors and encompasses both irreversible and reversible investment possibilities for the firms. Additionally, we explicitly model the policy uncertainty in the regulator's objective function as well as the market interactions that give rise to an endogenous price of permits. We find that uncertainty reduces irreversible investment and that the availability of both reversible and irreversible technologies partially eliminates the positive effect of policy uncertainty on reversible technology found in previous literature. Furthermore, we provide a framework that allows to assess the efficiency of different implementations of the scheme.

Applying Abatement Cost Curve Methodology for Low-Carbon Strategy in Changning District, Shanghai

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Policy Note; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.19%
The speed and scale of urbanization provide an unprecedented opportunity in the coming years to invest in clean energy technologies to contain carbon emissions from the country's sprawling cities. Therefore, supporting low carbon cities is one of the government's top priorities. Shanghai municipal and changning district governments are firmly committed to the transition to a low-carbon city and requested for the World Bank's support in making changning district and Shanghai leaders in designing novel and efficient ways to achieve carbon-intensity-reduction targets. This report documents the methodology of and key findings from applying abatement cost curves and scenarios to set low-carbon targets and define cost-effective low-carbon investment programs in Changning district, Shanghai. At the request of changning district government, the Bank team supported a Shanghai energy conservation institution, assisted by an international firm, in conducting a comprehensive survey of buildings in Hongqiao area in the changning district...

Climate Change and the World Bank Group : Phase II - The Challenge of Low-Carbon Development

Independent Evaluation Group
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.08%
The first volume of Independent Evaluation Group (IEG) series (IEG 2009) examined World Bank experience with the promotion of the most important win-win (no regrets) energy policies, policies that combine domestic gains with global greenhouse gas (GHG) reductions. These included energy pricing reform and policies to promote energy efficiency. This second phase covers the entire World Bank Group (WBG), including the International Finance Corporation (IFC) and the Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency (MIGA). It assesses of interventions, from technical assistance to financing to regulatory reform. This project-eye view of activities pertains to all the action areas of the Strategic Framework on Development and Climate Change (SFDCC). The third phase will look at the challenge of adaptation to climate change. The WBG's resources, human and financial, are small compared to the task at hand. The International Energy Agency estimates that developing and transition countries need $16 trillion of energy sector investments over 2008-30 under 'business as usual' operations...

Brazil Low Carbon Case Study : Waste; Estudo de Baixo Carbono para o Brasil : Relatório de Síntese Técnica - Resíduos

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Energy-Environment Review; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.09%
This report synthesis the findings for the waste sector of a broader study, the Brazil low carbon study, which was undertaken by the World Bank in its initiative to support Brazil's integrated effort towards reducing national and global emissions of Greenhouse Gases (GHG) while promoting long term development. The purpose of the present report is to assist in the preparation of public policy proposals regarding GHG emissions and the additional financial resources necessary. The main purpose of the scenarios is to provide an evaluation of the GHG emissions arising from the different approaches and methods for treating waste and to ensure that important environmental aspects are taken into account when key decisions are being made on the waste treatment technologies to be applied in Brazil. The World Bank and covers four key areas with large potential for low-carbon options: 1) Land Use, Land-Use Change, and Forestry (LULUCF), including deforestation; 2) transport systems; 3) energy production and use, particularly electricity...

Assessing Low-Carbon Development in Nigeria : An Analysis of Four Sectors

Cervigni, Raffaello; Rogers, John Allen; Dvorak, Irina
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
76.14%
The Federal Government of Nigeria (FGN) and the World Bank have agreed to carry out a Climate Change Assessment (CCA) within the framework of the Bank's Country Partnership Strategy (CPS) for Nigeria (2010-13). The CCA includes an analysis of options for low-carbon development in selected sectors, including power, oil and gas, transport, and agriculture. The goal of the low-carbon analysis is to define likely trends in carbon emissions up to 2035, based on government sector development plans, and to identify opportunities for achieving equivalent development objectives with a reduced carbon footprint. This study comprises the following components: (i) development of a reference scenario of greenhouse gas (GHG) net emissions for the agriculture sector, consistent with vision 20: 2020 and other government plans; (ii) identification of opportunities for reduced net emissions- reduced emissions and or enhanced carbon sequestration- while achieving the same development objectives as in the reference scenario; and (iii) economic assessment of low-carbon options in order to help the Nigerian government to prioritize policy options. The study evaluates costs and benefits in a partial equilibrium setting...

Mexico - Low-Carbon Development : Main Report; Mexico - Estudio sobre la disminución de emisiones de carbono

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Environmental Study
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.99%
This study analyzes a range of energy efficiency options available in Mexico, including supply-side efficiency improvements in the electric power and oil and gas industries and demand-side electricity efficiency measures to limit high-growth energy-consuming activities, such as air conditioning and refrigeration. It also evaluates a range of renewable energy options that make use of the country's vast wind, solar, biomass, hydro, and geothermal resources. But low-carbon (CO2) development is not only about energy production and consumption. In Mexico one of the most important sources of greenhouse gas emissions continues to be emissions from deforestation. The rate of deforestation has fallen steadily in Mexico over the past decades. Expanded programs for forest management, wildlife conservation, and efforts to increase the stock of forests can provide needed employment in rural areas and help make Mexican forests net absorbers of CO2 in the coming years. A fundamental question often asked about low-cost mitigation options is why they are not already being undertaken. As the study shows...

Brazil Low-carbon Country Case Study

Gouvello, Christophe de
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.97%
This study was undertaken by the World Bank in its initiative to support Brazil's integrated effort towards reducing national and global emissions of greenhouse gases while promoting long term development. The study builds on the best available knowledge and to this effect the study team undertook a broad consultative process and surveyed the copious literature available to identify the need for incremental efforts and centers of excellences. The overall aim of this study was to support Brazil's efforts to identify opportunities to reduce its emissions in ways that foster economic development. The primary objective was to provide the Brazilian government the technical inputs needed to assess the potential and conditions for low-carbon development in key emitting sectors. The Brazil low carbon study aims to support Brazil's continued efforts to foster development while reducing GHG emissions. The World Bank Group has always been committed to supporting growth in developing countries, and in October 2008, it adopted a Strategic Framework on Climate Change and Development (SFCCD) to integrate climate change into the development agenda without compromising growth and poverty reduction efforts. Within the context of the SFCCD...

Energy Intensive Sectors of the Indian Economy : Path to Low Carbon Development

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Energy Study
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.95%
The report is divided into seven chapters. Chapter one discusses India's current carbon footprint, the drivers that will contribute to growth in Green House Gas (GHG) emissions, the objectives of the study, and the scope and methodology of the analytical approach. Chapter two provides an overview of each of the sectors covered by the study, along with their respective specific challenges and past performance, and the modeling approach adopted in the study. Chapters three, four, and five provide the specific assumptions and findings of the three scenarios: (1) scenario one, alternatively called five year plans scenario, assumes full implementation of the five year plans and other projections and plans by the government of India; (2) scenario two, alternatively called delayed implementation, more closely follows historical performance in implementation of the five year plans; (3) scenario three, or all-out stretch scenario, adds to scenario one additional steps to increase energy efficiency and low-carbon energy sources Sensitivity analysis is conducted on each scenario. Chapter six provides a brief comparison of the results of the three scenarios...

Energy Intensive Sectors of the Indian Economy : Path to Low Carbon Development

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: ESMAP Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.95%
Energy Intensive Sectors of the Indian Economy: Path to Low Carbon Development is the product of a collaborative effort between the World Bank and the Government of India, under the overall leadership of the Planning Commission and the Ministry of Power, and with the financial assistance of the Department for International Development (DFID) and the Energy Sector Management Assistance Program (ESMAP). The study was requested by the Government of India to develop the analytical capacity for identifying low carbon growth opportunities up to the end of the 15th Five Year Plan (March 2032) in major sectors of the economy; and to facilitate informed decision making by improving the knowledge base and raising national and international awareness of India efforts to address global climate change. The study uses an innovative engineering based, bottom up model to examine CO2 emissions from energy use during 2007 to 2031. It focuses on sectors and areas that are expected to contribute significantly to India's future growth in CO2 emissions. The report received significant support from ministries and agencies of the Government of India...

Brazil Low Carbon Country Case Study

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: ESMAP Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
76.07%
Brazil low carbon country case study was two years in the making based on a study by the World Bank assisted by the United Nations Development Program (UNDP) and the Energy Sector Management Assistance Program (ESMAP). It supports Brazil's integrated effort towards reducing national and global-emissions GHG while promoting long-term development. It builds on the best available knowledge and is underpinned by a broad consultative process and survey of available literature. The study was coordinated by Christophe de Gouvello, a Senior Energy Specialist in the Sustainable Development Department of the Latin American and the Caribbean Region. The study's scope was discussed with the Ministries of Foreign Affairs, Environment and Science and Technology, as well as representatives of the Ministries of Finance, Planning Agriculture, Transport, Mines and Energy, Development, Industry and trade. More than 15 technical reports and 4 synthesis reports have been commissioned in the course of this work. For a quick overview of priority issues...

Transition to a Low Carbon Economy in Poland

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: ESMAP Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66%
Transition to a low carbon economy in Poland is a study by the World Bank for the Polish Government, supported by the UK Department for International Development and donors to the Energy Sector Management Assistance Program (ESMAP). The study poses the question of how Poland, an European Union (EU) member state, an industrialized 'annex one' country for the purposes of international climate discussions, and an Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) member, can successfully transition to a low carbon economy as successfully as it underwent transition to a market economy in the early 1990s. Transition to a low carbon economy in Poland provides a detailed assessment of many aspects of a low carbon growth strategy for Poland, developing insights via a suite of models that should provide ongoing assistance to policymakers. These policymakers may find reassuring the main message that Poland's transition to a low carbon economy, while not free or simple is affordable. However, capturing the full package of technologically feasible and economically sensible abatement measures requires coordinated and early action by the government.

Turning the Right Corner : Ensuring Development through a Low-Carbon Transport Sector

Kopp, Andreas; Block, Rachel I.; Limi, Atsushi
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
76.13%
This report 'Turning the right corner - ensuring development through a low carbon transport sector' emphasizes that developing countries need to transition to a low carbon transport sector now to avoid locking themselves into an unsustainable and costly future. Furthermore, it argues that this transition can be affordable if countries combine policies to reduce greenhouse gas emissions with broader sector reforms aimed at reducing local air pollution, road safety risks, and congestion. This report looks at relationships between mobility, low carbon transport and development, drawing attention to the inertia in transport infrastructure. It complements the analysis by reviewing how climate change is likely to affect operations and infrastructure, cost-effective measures for minimizing negative effects, and policies and decision frameworks. It further highlights current and projected research findings and examples from developing countries. And it concludes that new technology is not enough, and that urgent action is needed before economies become locked into high-carbon growth. It discusses how to reconcile development with the need to curb emissions...

Low-Carbon Development for Mexico; Mexico - Estudio sobre la disminucion de emisiones de carbono

Johnson, Todd M.; Alatorre, Claudio; Romo, Zayra; Liu, Feng
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.94%
One of the most compelling reasons for pursuing low-carbon development is that the potential impacts of climate change are predicted to be severe, for both industrial and developing countries, and that reducing greenhouse gas emissions can reduce the risk of the most catastrophic impacts. The challenge of reducing emissions is sobering: leading scientific models indicate that limiting the rise in global mean temperatures to less than two degree Celsius will require that global greenhouse gas emissions peak within the next 10-15 years and then fall by 2050 to levels about 50 percent lower than in 1990. Although many countries recognize the need to curtail carbon emissions, there is considerable uncertainty about how much this will cost in individual countries, what measures can be undertaken in both the short and longer term, and how cost-effective specific interventions are in reducing emissions. This study analyzes a range of energy efficiency options available in Mexico, including supply-side efficiency improvements in the electric power and oil and gas industries...

Low-Carbon Development : Opportunities for Nigeria

Cervigni, Raffaello; Rogers, John Allen; Henrion, Max
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.12%
The Federal Government of Nigeria (FGN) has formulated an ambitious strategy, known as Vision 20: 2020, which aims to make Nigeria the world s 20th largest economy by 2020. This book argues that there are many ways that Nigeria can achieve the Vision 20: 2020 development objectives for 2020 and beyond, but with up to 32 percent lower carbon emissions. A lower carbon path offers not only the global benefits of reducing contributions to climate change, but also net economic benefits to Nigeria, estimated at about 2 percent of gross domestic product (GDP). The FGN and the World Bank agreed, as part of the Country Partnership Strategy (CPS) 2010-13, to conduct an analysis of the implications of climate change for Nigeria's development agenda. The current volume focuses on low-carbon development. Building on the work under way on Nigeria's nationally appropriate mitigation actions, the authors evaluate opportunities to pursue national development priorities using technologies and interventions that reduce emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs)...

Promoting sustainable economic growth in South Africa through the export of low-carbon environmental goods

van Niekerk,Antoinette; Viviers,Wilma
Fonte: South African Journal of Economic and Management Sciences Publicador: South African Journal of Economic and Management Sciences
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/04/2014 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
75.89%
ABSTRACT Many countries, particularly those in the developing world, are under increasing pressure to improve their growth rates in order to tackle pressing economic problems at the domestic level. Increasing export volumes can make a positive contribution to a country's economic growth rate, but it can also endanger the environment. How to reconcile the often conflicting phenomena of increased export activity, stronger economic growth and a lower carbon footprint is the focus of this study. A core outcome of the study was the creation of a single list using a cross-section of international sources, of low-carbon environmental goods, and their ranking according to their inherent ability to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, South Africa's capacity to produce them, and their economic benefits, as reflected in the export opportunities they present. These export opportunities were revealed through the application of the Decision Support Model (DSM), an export market selection tool that incorporates a systematic filtering and screening system. The results of the analysis should help guide policymakers in their strategic deliberations on which export sectors to incentivise and support with a view to encouraging more 'green' growth in South Africa in the years ahead.