Página 1 dos resultados de 247 itens digitais encontrados em 0.005 segundos

Percepção dos enfermeiros sobre o processo de avaliação da aprendizagem nos treinamentos desenvolvidos num hospital da cidade de São Paulo.; Perception of the nurses on learning valuation process in the developed trainings in a São Paulo city hospital.

Castro, Liliana Cristina de
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 31/07/2006 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.6%
Este estudo foi realizado com os enfermeiros de um hospital universitário da cidade de São Paulo e teve como objetivo conhecer a percepção sobre a avaliação da aprendizagem nos treinamentos desenvolvidos. Para a coleta de dados utilizamos um instrumento contendo a pergunta: qual a sua percepção sobre a avaliação da aprendizagem nos programas de treinamento e desenvolvimento? Os discursos obtidos foram categorizados, segundo o referencial de Bardin, na modalidade análise de conteúdo, numa perspectiva qualitativa. Os resultados mostram que para esses sujeitos, a avaliação da aprendizagem se configura para o ponto que denominamos de avaliação do processo ensino-aprendizagem como um ato processual e permanente, para rever e refletir o passado para se construir o futuro no presente. É através da avaliação que iremos adequar os métodos didáticos às diferentes necessidades individuais, propiciando uma aprendizagem mais satisfatória e que leve a um crescimento integral. Esse processo mostra alguns fatores que dificultam ou impedem a avaliação como o fator tempo, despreparo do avaliador, sentimentos de medo, resignação e ansiedade. Referem-se também quanto à metodologia desenvolvida que inicia no diagnóstico das necessidades de treinamento indo até à questão de aquisição...

Desenvolvimento do conceito de avaliação na formação inicial de professores em atividade colaborativa.; Development of the concept of valuation in the teachers formation initial on the collaborating activity.

Barros, Luciana Alvares Paes de
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 24/04/2007 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.43%
A presente dissertação é resultado de uma pesquisa colaborativa realizada no Clube de Matemática, projeto de estágio oferecido pela Faculdade de Educação da USP aos alunos do curso de Pedagogia e Licenciaturas desta universidade, com o objetivo de investigar como se desenvolve o conceito de avaliação na formação de professores em atividade colaborativa. Esta apresenta um estudo sobre a formação inicial de professores no contexto da Educação Superior, a avaliação no contexto da Educação Básica e a Teoria da Atividade norteadora das atividades orientadoras de ensino desenvolvidas nesse espaço de formação. Para o levantamento de dados, além da participação da pesquisadora como observadora e colaboradora no projeto durante três semestres consecutivos, foram gravadas as discussões coletivas de avaliação das ações dos estagiários e dos alunos de 1ª a 4ª séries do Ensino Fundamental da Escola de Aplicação da USP também envolvidos no projeto. A transcrição das fitas, as observações realizadas pela pesquisadora in loco, os relatórios produzidos pelos estagiários ao final de cada semestre e os questionários respondidos por eles compuseram as fontes que foram analisadas a partir dos pressupostos teóricos da Teoria da Atividade e dos conceitos de professor reflexivo e de avaliação levantados pela pesquisadora em estudo bibliográfico. Durante todo processo de ensino e aprendizagem vivenciado no Clube de Matemática...

Avaliação da aprendizagem em curso a distância; Learning evalution in distance education

Soffner, Rosemary
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 12/04/2010 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.57%
Esta tese estuda as concepções de avaliação da aprendizagem em cursos a distância, pois tendo em vista a crescente oferta de cursos nesta modalidade de ensino, a partir do desenvolvimento das tecnologias de informação e comunicação, acreditamos ser o tema relevante para que cursos a distância possam, de fato, contribuir, para que superemos, enquanto nação, a desigualdade de acesso à educação. Consideramos como aporte teórico os princípios da avaliação formativa, uma vez que um de seus principais objetivos é oferecer informações para que professor e aluno possam repensar e fazer os ajustes necessários nos processos de ensino e aprendizagem. O estudo feito sobre a História da Educação a Distância e os meios de comunicação utilizados nesta modalidade de ensino objetivou compreender o status que ocupa nos dias de hoje, para então entender as prováveis concepções que norteiam a legislação vigente sobre o tema. Também analisamos três documentos de instituições de ensino superior que oferecem cursos a distância, buscando identificar a concepção de avaliação da aprendizagem. Como contribuição, podemos destacar dois pontos: a análise de instrumentos de avaliação da aprendizagem que podem ser utilizados em cursos a distância e um conjunto de princípios que podem gerar inúmeras práticas pedagógicas que favoreçam a construção do conhecimento e a aprendizagem. As críticas apontadas à legislação vigente objetivam criar espaços para debates produtivos que possam contribuir para a elaboração de um projeto nacional de educação.; This thesis studies conceptions of the learning valuation whenever long distance education courses are applied...

Processing speed enhances model-based over model-free reinforcement learning in the presence of high working memory functioning

Schad, Daniel J.; Jünger, Elisabeth; Sebold, Miriam; Garbusow, Maria; Bernhardt, Nadine; Javadi, Amir-Homayoun; Zimmermann, Ulrich S.; Smolka, Michael N.; Heinz, Andreas; Rapp, Michael A.; Huys, Quentin J. M.
Fonte: Frontiers Media S.A. Publicador: Frontiers Media S.A.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 17/12/2014 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.36%
Theories of decision-making and its neural substrates have long assumed the existence of two distinct and competing valuation systems, variously described as goal-directed vs. habitual, or, more recently and based on statistical arguments, as model-free vs. model-based reinforcement-learning. Though both have been shown to control choices, the cognitive abilities associated with these systems are under ongoing investigation. Here we examine the link to cognitive abilities, and find that individual differences in processing speed covary with a shift from model-free to model-based choice control in the presence of above-average working memory function. This suggests shared cognitive and neural processes; provides a bridge between literatures on intelligence and valuation; and may guide the development of process models of different valuation components. Furthermore, it provides a rationale for individual differences in the tendency to deploy valuation systems, which may be important for understanding the manifold neuropsychiatric diseases associated with malfunctions of valuation.

Distinct patterns of outcome valuation and amygdala-prefrontal cortex synaptic remodeling in adolescence and adulthood

Stolyarova, Alexandra; Izquierdo, Alicia
Fonte: Frontiers Media S.A. Publicador: Frontiers Media S.A.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 07/05/2015 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.38%
Adolescent behavior is typified by increased risk-taking, reward- and novelty-seeking, as well as an augmented need for social and environmental stimulation. This behavioral phenotype may result from alterations in outcome valuation or reward learning. In the present set of experiments, we directly compared adult and adolescent animals on tasks measuring both of these processes. Additionally, we examined developmental differences in dopamine D1-like receptor (D1R), dopamine D2-like receptor (D2R), and polysialylated neural cell adhesion molecule (PSA-NCAM) expression in animals that were trained on an effortful reward valuation task, given that these proteins play an important role in the functional development of the amygdala-prefrontocortical (PFC) circuit and mesocorticolimbic dopamine system. We found that adolescent animals were not different from adults in appetitive associative learning, but exhibited distinct pattern of responses to differences in outcome values, which was paralleled by an enhanced motivation to invest effort to obtain larger rewards. There were no differences in D2 receptor expression, but D1 receptor expression was significantly reduced in the striatum of animals that had experiences with reward learning during adolescence compared to animals that went through the same experiences in adulthood. We observed increased levels of PSA-NCAM expression in both PFC and amygdala of late adolescents compared to adults that were previously trained on an effortful reward valuation task. PSA-NCAM levels in PFC were strongly and positively associated with high effort/reward (HER) choices in adolescents...

Financing Lifelong Learning

Oosterbeek, Hessel; Patrinos, Harry Anthony
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.14%
This paper describes and analyzes different financial schemes to promote lifelong learning. Considered are financial instruments to stimulate successful early learning, financial aid schemes and subsidization mechanisms. Theoretical analyses about funding of early learning have mainly focused on vouchers. Yet, the available empirical evidence is more ambiguous about the effects of vouchers than about the effects of conditional cash transfers and financial incentives for pupils and teachers. Positive effects of financial incentives to pupils are not restricted to high ability pupils, as low ability students also seem to benefit. The evidence regarding the effects of subsidy forms is limited. The most prominent knowledge gaps regarding the effects of various financing schemes related to lifelong learning are the effects of vouchers in compulsory education; financial aid schemes for students; and entitlements and individual learning accounts.

Learning from Financial Crises

Lim, Jamus Jerome; Minne, Geoffrey
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.06%
This paper considers the question of whether international banks learn from their previous crisis experiences and reduce their lending to developing countries in the event of a financial crisis. The analysis combines a bank-level dataset of bank activity and ownership with country-level data on the stock of historical crisis events between 1800 and 2005. To circumvent selection and endogeneity concerns, the paper exploits temporal variations in the relative recency of crises as instruments for crisis experience. The results indicate that foreign banks with greater crisis experience reduced their lending significantly more relative to other foreign banks, which can be interpreted as evidence in favor of a learning effect. The findings survive robustness checks that include alternative measures of crisis experience, additional controls, and decompositions into different types of crises. The question of learning is also examined from the perspective of other measures of bank performance.

Evaluation im Kontext des organisationalen Lernens : der Beitrag reflexiver Bewertungsoperationen zur Entwicklung lernender Systeme; Evaluation in the context of organizational learning : the contribution of reflexive valuation operations to the development of learning systems

Blank, Stephan
Fonte: Universidade de Tubinga Publicador: Universidade de Tubinga
Tipo: Dissertação
DE_DE
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.33%
Diese Arbeit intendiert, Lern- und Evaluationsprozesse aus der Perspektive der Theorie autopoietischer und selbstreferentiell operierender Systeme zu analysieren. Insbesondere wird Lernen im Kontext von Organisationssystemen - das organisationale Lernen - fokussiert. Dabei wird Lernen als Änderung der systemischen Erwartungsstruktur definiert, die aufgrund erwartungsabweichender Kommunikationen erfolgt. Es wird eine Metatheorie von Evaluation entfaltet, die evaluative Operationen als konstitutiven Bestandteil und funktionales Element organisationaler Lernprozesse begreift. Evaluation erscheint als spezifische Operationsform eines Systems: als reflexiv-bewertende Form der Kommunikation. Ihre konstitutiven Strukturelemente sind Beobachtung von Differenz, Reflexion (Beobachtung der Beobachtung von Differenz) und Bewertung der beobachteten Unterschiede. Dabei impliziert Reflexivität auch Rekursivität: der Prozess der Evaluation verwendet seine eigenen Ergebnisse als Grundlage nachfolgender Operationen. Evaluative Kommunikationen erschöpfen sich nicht allein darin, systemische Prozesse angemessen zu reflektieren; sie nehmen selbst zentrale Funktionen bei der Entwicklung lernender Systeme ein: Sie wirken als perturbierende Ereignisse...

La valoración de la importancia de las competencias transversales: comparación de su percepción al inicio y final de curso en alumnos de psicología; The valuation of the importance of the transverse competencies: comparison of their vision from beginning to final of course in psychology students.

Alonso Martín, Pilar
Fonte: Universidade de Múrcia Publicador: Universidade de Múrcia
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
SPA
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.06%
A learning based on competencies consists on acquisition some competencies that help to the student about scientific and technical knowledge, for to apply them in different contexts and to integrate them with its own attitudes for to be able to act in a professional way. The objective of this investigation is to know the opinion of the students on the learning based on competencies and with methodology ECTS and to compare the level of importance of the generic competencies. The sample is composed by 63 students of 3º of psychology. Two questionnaires Likert type scale has been applied to the beginning and the end of the course. The results show positive elements of this methodology, the students has been active element about their learning and satisfaction with the knowledge and abilities; but they also point out elements that should be improved, for example the work overload. There have been significant differences in function of time, but there haven’t been about gender. It concludes with some suggestions to improve the educational quality.; Un aprendizaje basado en competencias consiste en desarrollar unas competencias que capacite al estudiante acerca de conocimientos científicos y técnicos, de aplicarlos en distintos contextos e integrarlos con sus propias actitudes para poder actuar de forma profesional. El objetivo de esta investigación es conocer la opinión de los alumnos sobre el aprendizaje basado en competencias y con metodología ECTS y comparar el nivel de importancia de las competencias genéricas. La muestra está compuesta por 63 alumnos de 3º de psicología. Se han aplicado dos cuestionarios tipo Likert al inicio y al final del curso. Los resultados indican elementos positivos de esta metodología ...

Evaluación de las competencias de los estudiantes: modelos y técnicas para la valoración. Assessment of the competences of students: models and valuation techniques.; Evaluation of student competences: assessment techniques and models

Medina Rivilla, Antonio; Domínguez Garrido, Mª Concepción; Sánchez Romero, Cristina
Fonte: Universidade de Múrcia Publicador: Universidade de Múrcia
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
SPA
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.96%
Competence is an essential element in innovative educational models in the European area, and a basic framework for teaching, yet also a controversial issue for those who believe that teaching students should go beyond competence acquisition. General and specific competences are necessary in continuous education models focused on life-long learning. This paper presents a developmental study on the acquisition of professional competences by Psychopedagogy students during a period of three years. It shows that the model, methods, and competence assessment have consolidated, thus reflecting how these may be mastered when they are integrated into life projects and professional practice.; Un aspecto esencial que atañe a los modelos educativos innovadores en el escenario europeo son las competencias, situadas como un horizonte básico para la formación de los estudiantes, a la vez que polémico para quienes estiman que la formación de los universitarios ha de ser más extensa e intensa que la adquisición de tales competencias genéricas y profesionales, pero éstas son necesarias en el planteamiento, al consolidarse como una síntesis pertinente, de aspectos formativos y ser consideradas un componente esencial de los modelos de educación continua...

Cambios en el uso y la concepción de las TIC, implementando el Mobile Learning.; Changes in Use and Understanding of ICT: Implementing Mobile Learning.

Grané Oró, Mariona; Crescenzi Lanna, Lucrezia; Olmedo Casas, Karina
Fonte: Universidade de Múrcia Publicador: Universidade de Múrcia
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
SPA
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.15%
La presente investigación analiza el uso y la concepción de movilidad (TIC) por parte de un grupo de alumnos de máster participantes en una experiencia de Mobile Learning. Durante un curso de postgrado online, diseñado desde una perspectiva tradicional de e-Learning, los alumnos han podido disponer de un tablet (iPad) para trabajar y para usar en su vida personal y profesional. A partir del diseño de un cuestionario completo y original, validado científicamente, y que ha sido aplicado antes y después del curso (pre y post-test) se estudian las tendencias de uso de los dispositivos móviles y las percepciones de los participantes, desde las frecuencias, las finalidades, los hábitos de uso, y las valoraciones, así como la integración con otras tecnologías y aplicaciones en su vida personal, social y profesional. El análisis incluye el intento de aplicar los perfiles de usuarios de la red social teorizados por Bernoff (2010), y una reflexión sobre sus límites en su aplicación a la realidad. La fiabilidad intercodificadores y la validez interna indican la posibilidad de aplicar el instrumento con muestras más amplias para un acercamiento a los usos y concepciones actuales de las TIC ubicuas.; This research analyses the actual use and conception of ICT mobility that a group of life- long learning students have. The students have participated in a Mobile Learning experience along an online postgraduate course...

A Review of the Valuation of Environmental Costs and Benefits in World Bank Projects

Silva, Patricia; Pagiola, Stefano
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.3%
The review examines the use of environmental valuation in 101 projects in the World Bank's environmental portfolio approved in fiscal years 2000, 2001, and 2002. It has three broad objectives. First, it examines the extent to which environmental costs and benefits have been incorporated in the economic analysis of projects. Second, it examines how well valuation was used. Third, it seeks to identify areas of weakness so as to feed into plans for capacity building. The results show that the use of environmental valuation has increased substantially in the last decade. Ten years ago, one project in 162 used environmental valuation. In recent years, as many as one third of the projects in the environmental portfolio did so. While this represents a substantial improvement, there remains considerable scope for growth.

A "Delphi Exercise" as a Tool in Amazon Rainforest Valuation

Strand, Jon; Carson, Richard T.; Navrud, Stale; Ortiz-Bobea, Ariel; Vincent, Jeffrey
Fonte: World Bank Group, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank Group, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.24%
The Amazon rainforest, the world's largest and most biodiverse, represents a global public good of which 15 percent has already been lost. The worldwide value of preserving the remaining forest is today unknown. A "Delphi" exercise was conducted involving more than 200 environmental valuation experts from 36 countries, who were asked to predict the outcome of a survey to elicit willingness to pay for Amazon forest preservation among their own countries' populations. Expert judgments of average willingness-to-pay levels, per household per year, to fund a plan to protect all of the current Amazon rainforest up to 2050, range from $4 to $36 in 12 Asian countries, to near $100 in Canada, Germany, and Norway, with other high-income countries in between. Somewhat lower willingness-to-pay values were found for a less strict plan that allows a 12 percent further rainforest area reduction. The elasticity of experts' willingness-to-pay assessments with respect to own-country per capita income is slightly below but not significantly different from unity when results are pooled across countries and income is adjusted for purchasing power parity.

THE MARKET VALUATION OF MANAGED EARNINGS IN A REGULATORY SETTING WITH LEARNING OPPORTUNITIES

Godsell, DAVID
Fonte: Quens University Publicador: Quens University
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
EN; EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.36%
This dissertation examines the market valuation of earnings announced by U.S. firms initiating or reinitiating antidumping trade investigations against foreign exporters. Trade investigations are an interesting setting because firms petitioning the trade regulator for import relief face strong incentives to manage earnings to increase the likelihood and magnitude of import relief. In addition, the setting allows an examination of opportunities for investors to learn about earnings management because (1) investigation initiation dates and determinations are in the public domain and (2) some firms initiate investigations more than once. Import relief firms’ diverse investor base further enriches the research setting and allows for a study of investor learning by both more and less sophisticated investors. Using cross-sectional, time-series and size-matched samples and a valuation model that relates stock prices to accounting book values and earnings, I find an attenuated price-earnings relation for antidumping investigation-initiating firms only in the presence of an opportunity to learn and primarily when the firm has higher levels of following by sophisticated investors. That is, the price-earnings relation in the valuation model is attenuated only when firms with sophisticated shareholders initiate their second or subsequent antidumping investigation. This dissertation contributes to the accounting literature by shedding light on which market participants learn to identify firms’ incentives to engage in earnings management.; Thesis (Ph.D...

Defining programming problems as learning objects

Leal, José Paulo; Queirós, Ricardo
Fonte: World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology, International Science Index 34 Publicador: World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology, International Science Index 34
Tipo: Conferência ou Objeto de Conferência
Publicado em //2009 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.13%
Standards for learning objects focus primarily on content presentation. They were already extended to support automatic evaluation but it is limited to exercises with a predefined set of answers. The existing standards lack the metadata required by specialized evaluators to handle types of exercises with an indefinite set of solutions. To address this issue we extended existing learning object standards to the particular requirements of a specialized domain. We present a definition of programming problems as learning objects that is compatible both with Learning Management Systems and with systems performing automatic evaluation of programs. The proposed definition includes metadata that cannot be conveniently represented using existing standards, such as: the type of automatic evaluation; the requirements of the valuation engine; and the roles of different assets - tests cases, program solutions, etc. We present also the EduJudge project and its main services as a case study on the use of the proposed definition of programming problems as learning objects.; European Commission

Efficiently Learning from Revealed Preference

Zadimoghaddam, Morteza; Roth, Aaron
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 17/11/2012
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.32%
In this paper, we consider the revealed preferences problem from a learning perspective. Every day, a price vector and a budget is drawn from an unknown distribution, and a rational agent buys his most preferred bundle according to some unknown utility function, subject to the given prices and budget constraint. We wish not only to find a utility function which rationalizes a finite set of observations, but to produce a hypothesis valuation function which accurately predicts the behavior of the agent in the future. We give efficient algorithms with polynomial sample-complexity for agents with linear valuation functions, as well as for agents with linearly separable, concave valuation functions with bounded second derivative.; Comment: Extended abstract appears in WINE 2012

Learning Valuation Functions

Balcan, Maria Florina; Constantin, Florin; Iwata, Satoru; Wang, Lei
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.51%
In this paper we study the approximate learnability of valuations commonly used throughout economics and game theory for the quantitative encoding of agent preferences. We provide upper and lower bounds regarding the learnability of important subclasses of valuation functions that express no-complementarities. Our main results concern their approximate learnability in the distributional learning (PAC-style) setting. We provide nearly tight lower and upper bounds of $\tilde{\Theta}(n^{1/2})$ on the approximation factor for learning XOS and subadditive valuations, both widely studied superclasses of submodular valuations. Interestingly, we show that the $\tilde{\Omega}(n^{1/2})$ lower bound can be circumvented for XOS functions of polynomial complexity; we provide an algorithm for learning the class of XOS valuations with a representation of polynomial size achieving an $O(n^{\eps})$ approximation factor in time $O(n^{1/\eps})$ for any $\eps > 0$. This highlights the importance of considering the complexity of the target function for polynomial time learning. We also provide new learning results for interesting subclasses of submodular functions. Our upper bounds for distributional learning leverage novel structural results for all these valuation classes. We show that many of these results provide new learnability results in the Goemans et al. model (SODA 2009) of approximate learning everywhere via value queries. We also introduce a new model that is more realistic in economic settings...

Learning Valuation Distributions from Partial Observation

Blum, Avrim; Mansour, Yishay; Morgenstern, Jamie
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 10/07/2014
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.26%
Auction theory traditionally assumes that bidders' valuation distributions are known to the auctioneer, such as in the celebrated, revenue-optimal Myerson auction. However, this theory does not describe how the auctioneer comes to possess this information. Recently, Cole and Roughgarden [2014] showed that an approximation based on a finite sample of independent draws from each bidder's distribution is sufficient to produce a near-optimal auction. In this work, we consider the problem of learning bidders' valuation distributions from much weaker forms of observations. Specifically, we consider a setting where there is a repeated, sealed-bid auction with $n$ bidders, but all we observe for each round is who won, but not how much they bid or paid. We can also participate (i.e., submit a bid) ourselves, and observe when we win. From this information, our goal is to (approximately) recover the inherently recoverable part of the underlying bid distributions. We also consider extensions where different subsets of bidders participate in each round, and where bidders' valuations have a common-value component added to their independent private values.

Learning to Play Games in Extensive Form by Valuation

Jehiel, Philippe; Samet, Dov
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 23/01/2002
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.49%
A valuation for a player in a game in extensive form is an assignment of numeric values to the players moves. The valuation reflects the desirability moves. We assume a myopic player, who chooses a move with the highest valuation. Valuations can also be revised, and hopefully improved, after each play of the game. Here, a very simple valuation revision is considered, in which the moves made in a play are assigned the payoff obtained in the play. We show that by adopting such a learning process a player who has a winning strategy in a win-lose game can almost surely guarantee a win in a repeated game. When a player has more than two payoffs, a more elaborate learning procedure is required. We consider one that associates with each move the average payoff in the rounds in which this move was made. When all players adopt this learning procedure, with some perturbations, then, with probability 1, strategies that are close to subgame perfect equilibrium are played after some time. A single player who adopts this procedure can guarantee only her individually rational payoff.

Neurobiology of Learning and Valuation

Heilbronner, Sarah Rachel
Fonte: Universidade Duke Publicador: Universidade Duke
Tipo: Dissertação
Publicado em //2012
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.45%

An animal's ability to make adaptive choices is key to its fitness. Thus, the process of determining options, making a decision, evaluating outcomes, and learning from those outcomes to adjust future behavior is a central function of our nervous system. Determining the neural mechanisms of these cognitive processes is a crucial goal. One brain region, the posterior cingulate cortex (CGp), a central hub within the default mode network, is prominently dysregulated in Alzheimer's Disease and schizophrenia. Despite its clinical importance, the posterior cingulate cortex remains an enigmatic nexus of attention, memory, and motivation, all pointing to a role in decision-making. This dissertation is concerned with the role of this brain region in the learning and valuation processes involved in making adaptive choices. Specifically, I used rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) to examine the neural activity in posterior cingulate associated with specific learning and valuation -related variables. In the first experiment, I showed that posterior cingulate neurons track decision salience--the degree to which an option differs from a standard--but not the subjective value of a decision. To do this, I recorded the spiking activity of CGp neurons in monkeys choosing between options varying in reward-related risk...