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Language impairment in euthymic, elderly patients with bipolar disorder but no dementia

RADANOVIC, Marcia; NUNES, Paula Villela; GATTAZ, Wagner Farid; FORLENZA, Orestes Vicente
Fonte: CAMBRIDGE UNIV PRESS Publicador: CAMBRIDGE UNIV PRESS
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.78%
Background: Neurocognitive impairment is known to occur in euthymic bipolar patients, but language alterations have not been thoroughly investigated. The aim of this study is to examine the performance in language tests of a sample of elderly patients with bipolar disorder. Methods: We studied 33 eurthymic elderly patients with bipolar disorder but no dementia and 33 healthy individuals, matched for age and education, who were compared in terms of their CAMCOG global score and its subitems. Results: The scores obtained in language-related abilities for patients and controls, respectively, were: language (total): 27.3 (1) and 28.5 (1), p < 0.0001)comprehension: 8.6 (0.5) and 8.9 (0.3), p = 0.006; production: 18.7 (1) and 19.6 (0.9), p = < 0.0001; abstraction: 6.8 (1.1) and 7.3 (0.7), p = 0.016; verbal fluency: 16.3 (4.3) and 19.6 (4.1), p = 0.003. Conclusion: A mild but significant impairment in language-related ability scores was detected when comparing patients and controls.

Mito Arturiano e processo de individuação: caminhos para uma educação de sensibilidade na relação ensino-aprendizagem de inglês; The Arthurian Myth and the Individuation process: some ways towards an education of sensibility in the teaching-learning process of english

Giosa, Elenice
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 14/03/2008 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.84%
Esta pesquisa estabelece um diálogo entre a Psicologia Analítica de Jung e a Antropologia do Imaginário de Gilbert Durand, com o intuito de trilhar rumos alternativos para a educação, mais especificamente para o ensino-aprendizagem de Inglês como língua estrangeira. O problema central recai em um ensino-aprendizagem que privilegia excessivamente a racionalização em detrimento do caráter poético. A educação atual carece de equilíbrio entre razão e sensibilidade. O aparato teórico proposto recupera essa sensibilidade por meio da função mediadora do símbolo, tomado sobretudo, como o mito, trazendo significado para o aluno em seu contexto educacional. Considerando o ciclo arturiano como base da mitologia britânica, são observadas as trajetórias de seus mitos e sua ressonância em alguns aspectos da cultura britânica. Como passo seguinte, o aluno é colocado em contato com essa mitologia, com o objetivo de propiciar a construção de uma língua poética, ao invés da manutenção da língua inglesa enquanto língua de poder, encorajando assim, o processo imaginativo. O pressuposto é que tal sensibilização permite ao aluno vivenciar a constituição da cultura britânica e seus desdobramentos na língua, tornando seu aprendizado mais prazeroso e sua produção lingüística mais rica e mais sábia. Para tal...

Rapid perceptual integration of facial expression and emotional body language

Meeren, Hanneke K. M.; van Heijnsbergen, Corné C. R. J.; de Gelder, Beatrice
Fonte: National Academy of Sciences Publicador: National Academy of Sciences
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.55%
In our natural world, a face is usually encountered not as an isolated object but as an integrated part of a whole body. The face and the body both normally contribute in conveying the emotional state of the individual. Here we show that observers judging a facial expression are strongly influenced by emotional body language. Photographs of fearful and angry faces and bodies were used to create face-body compound images, with either matched or mismatched emotional expressions. When face and body convey conflicting emotional information, judgment of facial expression is hampered and becomes biased toward the emotion expressed by the body. Electrical brain activity was recorded from the scalp while subjects attended to the face and judged its emotional expression. An enhancement of the occipital P1 component as early as 115 ms after presentation onset points to the existence of a rapid neural mechanism sensitive to the degree of agreement between simultaneously presented facial and bodily emotional expressions, even when the latter are unattended.

Does verbatim sentence recall underestimate the language competence of near-native speakers?

Schweppe, Judith; Barth, Sandra; Ketzer-Nöltge, Almut; Rummer, Ralf
Fonte: Frontiers Media S.A. Publicador: Frontiers Media S.A.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 04/02/2015 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.64%
Verbatim sentence recall is widely used to test the language competence of native and non-native speakers since it involves comprehension and production of connected speech. However, we assume that, to maintain surface information, sentence recall relies particularly on attentional resources, which differentially affects native and non-native speakers. Since even in near-natives language processing is less automatized than in native speakers, processing a sentence in a foreign language plus retaining its surface may result in a cognitive overload. We contrasted sentence recall performance of German native speakers with that of highly proficient non-natives. Non-natives recalled the sentences significantly poorer than the natives, but performed equally well on a cloze test. This implies that sentence recall underestimates the language competence of good non-native speakers in mixed groups with native speakers. The findings also suggest that theories of sentence recall need to consider both its linguistic and its attentional aspects.

On Language

Pinker, Steven
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Press Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Press
Tipo: Commentary or Review
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.8%
Steven Pinker is a professor in the Department of Brain and Cognitive Sciences at MIT, and in 1994 will become director of its McDonnell-Pew Center for Cognitive Neuroscience. He received his B.K from McGill University in 1976 and his Ph.D. from Harvard University in 1979, both in experimental psychology, and taught at Harvard and Stanford before joining the faculty of MIT in 1982. He has done research in visual cognition and the psychology of language, and is the author of Language Learnability and Language Development (1984) and Learnability and Cognition (1989) and the editor of Visual Cognition (1985), Connections and Symbol (1988, with Jacques Mehler), and Lexical and Conceptual Semantics (1992, with Beth Levin). He was the recipient of the Early Career Award in 1984 and the Boyd McCandless Award in 1986 from the American Psychological Association, a Graduate Teaching Award from MIT in 1986, and the Troland Research Award from the National Academy of Sciences in 1993. His newest book, The Language Instinct, will be published by William Morrow & Company in January 1994.; Psychology

Investigating the Neural Correlates of Voice versus Speech-Sound Directed Information in Pre-School Children

Raschle, Nora Maria; Smith, Sara Ashley; Zuk, Jennifer; Dauvermann, Maria Regina; Figuccio, Michael Joseph; Gaab, Nadine
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.7%
Studies in sleeping newborns and infants propose that the superior temporal sulcus is involved in speech processing soon after birth. Speech processing also implicitly requires the analysis of the human voice, which conveys both linguistic and extra-linguistic information. However, due to technical and practical challenges when neuroimaging young children, evidence of neural correlates of speech and/or voice processing in toddlers and young children remains scarce. In the current study, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in 20 typically developing preschool children (average age = 5.8 y; range 5.2–6.8 y) to investigate brain activation during judgments about vocal identity versus the initial speech sound of spoken object words. FMRI results reveal common brain regions responsible for voice-specific and speech-sound specific processing of spoken object words including bilateral primary and secondary language areas of the brain. Contrasting voice-specific with speech-sound specific processing predominantly activates the anterior part of the right-hemispheric superior temporal sulcus. Furthermore, the right STS is functionally correlated with left-hemispheric temporal and right-hemispheric prefrontal regions. This finding underlines the importance of the right superior temporal sulcus as a temporal voice area and indicates that this brain region is specialized...

9.591J / 24.945J Language Processing, Fall 2002; Language Processing

Gibson, Edward Albert Fletcher
Fonte: MIT - Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: MIT - Massachusetts Institute of Technology
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EN-US
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.84%
Seminar in real-time language comprehension. Models of sentence and discourse comprehension from the linguistic, psychology, and artificial intelligence literature, including symbolic and connectionist models. Ambiguity resolution. Linguistic complexity. The use of lexical, syntactic, semantic, pragmatic, contextual and prosodic information in language comprehension. The relationship between the computational resources available in working memory and the language processing mechanism. The psychological reality of linguistic representations.

Issues in the foundations of cognitive psychology

Stabler, Edward Palmer
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 214 leaves
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.57%
by Edward Palmer Stabler, Jr.; Thesis (Ph.D.)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Dept. of Linguistics and Philosophy, 1981.; MICROFICHE COPY AVAILABLE IN ARCHIVES AND HUMANITIES.; Includes bibliographies.

Constructing clinical judgments about preschool pragmatic language skills : an action research study

Boje, Noreen Susan ; Borasi, Raffaella ; Mock, Martha
Fonte: University of Rochester. Publicador: University of Rochester.
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: Number of Pages:ix, 214 leaves
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.71%
Thesis (Ed. D.)--University of Rochester. Margaret Warner Graduate School of Education and Human Development, 2009.; The literature suggests that children who struggle with communication during social interactions, called pragmatic language in the field of speech language pathology, have fewer opportunities to engage in social practices that promote learning because of inadequate skills in interacting with others. Children with even subtle difficulties in pragmatic language tend to have fewer friends, and more difficulties with aspects of behavior, mental health and learning. The American Speech-Language and Hearing Association recommends that pragmatic language assessment be part of complete communication assessment; however, research indicates this area is not assessed in a majority of children. Furthermore, speech-language pathologists (SLPs) do not always share the same definition of pragmatic language nor consistent ways to assess it. There are at least three distinctly different theoretical frameworks available to inform speech-language pathologists (SLPs) about the nature of pragmatic language, each suggesting different units of analysis and assessment tools. This, in turn, can result in an educational problem as, depending on the theoretical framework of the SLP evaluating them...

Preliminary study to empirically investigate the comprehensibility of requirements specifications

Carew, Deirdre; Exton, Chris; Buckley, Jim
Fonte: Psychology of Programming Interest Group Publicador: Psychology of Programming Interest Group
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/conferenceObject; all_ul_research; ul_published_reviewed
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.64%
peer-reviewed; This paper presents a pilot study to test plans for an empirical study, which will compare the comprehensibility of two specifications: a formal specification and an informal specification. The two documents used in the pilot study implemented the same logic, namely a portion of the Irish Electoral system. The “informal specification” was taken directly from the legal definition of the count rules for Irish elections. A formal requirements specification language was not employed for the pilot study. In place of a formal requirements specification language, the java programming language was used. Our main motivation for using the java programming language is based on an empirical study carried out in [19].

A notation for the structure of cognitive processes, with application to patterns of verb-processing impairment

Hutchinson, T.
Fonte: Psychology Press Publicador: Psychology Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2003 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.82%
A method is proposed for processing datasets that show whether or not each of several patients was impaired on each of several tests, and expressing conclusions about them. Its advantages are that (1) results from the patterns of impairment alone are shown, uninfluenced by theories, previous empirical work, knowledge of lesions, or ideas about what the tests are really testing, and (2) the presentation to the reader is briefer and clearer than a narrative account. The method is applied to data on the patterns of impairment of 30 subjects on six tests, each requiring the processing of verbs (Kemmerer et al., Language and Cognitive Processes , 2001). A new interpretation of this dataset is given, in terms of a set of three systems, all of which are essential. These systems resemble three of those that Kemmerer et al. hypothesised that the six tests might utilise.; T. P. Hutchinson; © Psychology Press

Signals and the Structure of Societies; Signale und Gesellschaftsstruktur

Mühlenbernd, Roland
Fonte: Universität Tübingen Publicador: Universität Tübingen
Tipo: Dissertation; info:eu-repo/semantics/doctoralThesis
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.67%
This Ph.D. project focuses on the evolution and emergence of conventions and the search for an answer to the question posed by Lewis (1969): how can linguistic meaning arise and become a convention without prior agreements? By considering that agreements need language, we would come to a paradox: language is needed for language to emerge. Lewis paved the way for refuting this paradox by showing that, with the game-theoretic model of a signaling game, conventional linguistic meaning can arise without such agreements. The technical outcome of my dissertation is an extended and refined game model of signaling games concerned with the analysis of language conventions. Only this model combines features that fulfill two essential preconditions that were missing in Lewis's original account. These must be kept for analyzing the way linguistic meaning arises and becomes a convention without prior agreements: 1. We must analyze signaling games for a whole population of agents and not only among two players of the game. Such an analysis is essential to cope with the nature of conventions that generally emerge in societies of multiple individuals. In this dissertation, I introduced network games and applied them on artificial and social network structures to meet this precondition. 2. We must model a process of the emergence of meaning without prior agreements. In this dissertation I applied repeated signaling games to model a process rather than an instance. In addition...

Efficient Learning for the Poor : Insights from the Frontier of Cognitive Neuroscience

Abadzi, Helen
Fonte: Washington, DC : World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC : World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.73%
This book integrates research into applications that extend from preschool brain development to the memory of adult educators. In layman's terms, it provides explanations and answers to questions such as: Why do children have to read fast before they can understand what they read? How do health, nutrition, and stimulation influence brain development? Why should students learn basic skills in their maternal language? Is there such a thing as an untrained teacher? What signs in a classroom show whether students are getting a quality education? How must information be presented in class so that students can retain it and use it? What training techniques are most likely to help staff put their learning into use? This book is intended for use by policymakers, donor agency staff, teacher trainers, supervisors, and inspectors, as well as university professors and students.

The functional role of the closed class vocabulary in children's language processing

Egido, Carmen
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: [1], 122 leaves; 7322793 bytes; 7322548 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.62%
by Carmen Egido.; Thesis (Ph.D.)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Dept. of Psychology, 1983.; MICROFICHE COPY AVAILABLE IN ARCHIVES AND HUMANITIES; Vita.; Bibliography: leaves 95-98.

Language and other artifacts: socio-cultural dynamics of niche construction

Sinha, Chris
Fonte: Frontiers Media S.A. Publicador: Frontiers Media S.A.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 20/10/2015 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.67%
Niche construction theory is a relatively new approach in evolutionary biology that seeks to integrate an ecological dimension into the Darwinian theory of evolution by natural selection. It is regarded by many evolutionary biologists as providing a significant revision of the Neo-Darwinian modern synthesis that unified Darwin’s theory of natural and sexual selection with 20th century population genetics. Niche construction theory has been invoked as a processual mediator of social cognitive evolution and of the emergence and evolution of language. I argue that language itself can be considered as a biocultural niche and evolutionary artifact. I provide both a general analysis of the cognitive and semiotic status of artifacts, and a formal analysis of language as a social and semiotic institution, based upon a distinction between the fundamental semiotic relations of “counting as” and “standing for.” I explore the consequences for theories of language and language learning of viewing language as a biocultural niche. I suggest that not only do niches mediate organism-organism interactions, but also that organisms mediate niche-niche interactions in ways that affect evolutionary processes, with the evolution of human infancy and childhood as a key example. I argue that language as a social and semiotic system is not only grounded in embodied engagements with the material and social-interactional world...

Capturing socially motivated linguistic change: how the use of gender-fair language affects support for social initiatives in Austria and Poland

Formanowicz, Magdalena M.; Cisłak, Aleksandra; Horvath, Lisa K.; Sczesny, Sabine
Fonte: Frontiers Media S.A. Publicador: Frontiers Media S.A.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 31/10/2015 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.67%
Gender-fair language consists of the symmetric linguistic treatment of women and men instead of using masculine forms as generics. In this study, we examine how the use of gender-fair language affects readers' support for social initiatives in Poland and Austria. While gender-fair language is relatively novel in Poland, it is well established in Austria. This difference may lead to different perceptions of gender-fair usage in these speech communities. Two studies conducted in Poland investigate whether the evaluation of social initiatives (Study 1: quotas for women on election lists; Study 2: support for women students or students from countries troubled by war) is affected by how female proponents (lawyers, psychologists, sociologists, and academics) are referred to, with masculine forms (traditional) or with feminine forms (modern, gender-fair). Study 3 replicates Study 2 in Austria. Our results indicate that in Poland, gender-fair language has negative connotations and therefore, detrimental effects particularly when used in gender-related contexts. Conversely, in Austria, where gender-fair language has been implemented and used for some time, there are no such negative effects. This pattern of results may inform the discussion about formal policies regulating the use of gender-fair language.

Discriminating languages in bilingual contexts: the impact of orthographic markedness

Casaponsa, Aina; Carreiras, Manuel; Duñabeitia, Jon A.
Fonte: Frontiers Media S.A. Publicador: Frontiers Media S.A.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 13/05/2014 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.68%
Does language-specific orthography help language detection and lexical access in naturalistic bilingual contexts? This study investigates how L2 orthotactic properties influence bilingual language detection in bilingual societies and the extent to which it modulates lexical access and single word processing. Language specificity of naturalistically learnt L2 words was manipulated by including bigram combinations that could be either L2 language-specific or common in the two languages known by bilinguals. A group of balanced bilinguals and a group of highly proficient but unbalanced bilinguals who grew up in a bilingual society were tested, together with a group of monolinguals (for control purposes). All the participants completed a speeded language detection task and a progressive demasking task. Results showed that the use of the information of orthotactic rules across languages depends on the task demands at hand, and on participants' proficiency in the second language. The influence of language orthotactic rules during language detection, lexical access and word identification are discussed according to the most prominent models of bilingual word recognition.

Cognitive dimensions usability assessment of textual and visual VHDL environments

Kontos, George
Fonte: Rochester Instituto de Tecnologia Publicador: Rochester Instituto de Tecnologia
Tipo: Masters Project
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.73%
Visual programming languages promise to make programming easier with simpler graphical methods, broadening access to computing by lessening the need for would-be users to become proficient with textual programming languages, with their somewhat arcane grammars and methods removed from the problem space of the user. However, after more than forty years of research in the field, visual methods remain in the margins of use and programming remains the bailiwick of people devoted to the endeavor. VPL designers need to understand the mechanisms of usability that pertain to complex systems like programming language environments. Effective research tools for studying usability, and sufficiently constrained, mature subjects for investigation are scarce. This study applies a usability research tool, with its origins in applied psychology, to a programming language surrogate from the hardware description language class of notations. The substitution is reasonable because of the great similarity between hardware description languages and programming languages. Considering VHDL (the VHSIC Hardware Description Language) is especially worthwhile for several reasons, but primarily because significant numbers of digital designers regularly employ both textual and visual VHDL environments to meet the same real-world design challenges. A comparative analysis of Cognitive Dimensions assessments of textual and visual VHDL environments should further understanding of the usability issues specifically related to visual methods – in many cases...

Davidson on the impossibility of thought without language: comments on Diana I. Pérez; Davidson on the impossibility of thought without language: comments on Diana I. Pérez

Fischborn, Marcelo; Universidade Federal de Santa Maria
Fonte: Federal University of Santa Catarina – UFSC Publicador: Federal University of Santa Catarina – UFSC
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; ; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 20/12/2012 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.64%
http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1808-1711.2012v16n3p489Diana Pérez (2005) criticizes Davidson’s argument for the thesis that there is no thought without language, and offers an alternative defense of that thesis on the basis of empirical studies on developmental psychology. In this comment I argue that more recent studies do not seem to affect Davidson’s argument in the way Pérez suggests, and that her alternative defense of the thesis that there is no thought without language is insufficient. At the end, I offer a sketch of how a weaker and more tenable version of the argument could be articulated.; Diana Pérez (2005) critica o argumento de Davidson em favor da tese de que não há pensamento sem linguagem e oferece uma defesa alternativa dessa mesma tese com base em estudos de psicologia do desenvolvimento. Neste comentário argumento que estudos mais recentes não parecem afetar o argumento de Davidson da maneira sugerida por Pérez e que sua defesa alternativa da tese de que não há pensamento sem linguagem é insuficiente. Ao final, ofereço um esboço de como uma versão mais fraca e defensável do argumento poderia ser articulada.

When the words are missing - a cognitive analysis of silence in psychoanalysis; Quand les mots viennent à manquer- l' analyse cognitive du silence en psychanalyse; Quando as palavras faltam - uma análise cognitiva do silêncio em psicanálise

Widlöcher, Daniel; Université Pierre et Marie Curie
Fonte: Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina Publicador: Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; ; Descritivo Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 01/01/2004 POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.73%
The neuropsychology of the aphasia keeps on making us discover some new functional dissociation liable to alter the language functions (Shallice, 1988). This way, it contributes to our knowledge of the mechanisms, which regulate these functions. In this sense, neuropsychology fits perfectly the main stream of the psychopathologic undertaking. Here - and this is precisely a fact that might surprise us – the way of communication suitable to the psychoanalytical situation can be compared to that one. At least, this is what I will try to demonstrate, having, as a starting point, a kind of absence of words, apparently very different from the aphasia, but that, from a certain point of view, can be faced as the expression of a functional dissociation of the language. This point of view will apply the theoretical frames come from the cognitive analyses of the pragmatics of communication to the observation of the psychoanalytical communication. (Fodor, 1987; Sperber et Wilson, 1989).; La neuro-psychologie des aphasies continue de nous faire découvrir de nouvelles dissociations fonctionnelles susceptibles d'altérer les fonctions du langage (Shallice, 1988). Elle ne manque pas de contribuer ainsi à notre connaissance des mécanismes qui régulent ces fonctions. En ce sens...