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Do Labor Statistics Depend on How and to Whom the Questions Are Asked? Results from a Survey Experiment in Tanzania

Bardasi, Elena; Beegle, Kathleen; Dillon, Andrew; Serneels, Pieter
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.5%
Labor market statistics are critical for assessing and understanding economic development. In practice, widespread variation exists in how labor statistics are measured in household surveys in low-income countries. Little is known whether these differences have an effect on the labor statistics they produce. This paper analyzes these effects by implementing a survey experiment in Tanzania that varied two key dimensions: the level of detail of the questions and the type of respondent. Significant differences are observed across survey designs with respect to different labor statistics. Labor force participation rates, for example, vary by as much as 10 percentage points across the four survey assignments. Using a short labor module without screening questions on employment generates lower female labor force participation and lower rates of wage employment for both men and women. Response by proxy rather than self-report yields lower male labor force participation, lower female working hours, and lower employment in agriculture for men. The differences between proxy and self reporting seem to come from information imperfections within the household...

Armenia - Labor Market Dynamics : Volume 1. Overview

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.48%
This study is intended to help Armenian policymakers better understand the main factors behind modest labor market outcomes and to identify policy options to create more and better jobs. The report is based on data from administrative statistics, labor force surveys, and household surveys. The objective of the study is to determine the main factors behind poor labor market outcomes in Armenia: high unemployment of long duration despite rapid economic growth. To do so, it will assess, first, the key characteristics of the demand for labor. These include (a) the impact of macroeconomic policies on job growth; (b) wage flexibility and unit labor costs; (c) cost-of-doing-business factors, including costs, risks, and barriers to competition faced by firms; and (d) employment promotion legislation and labor market institutions. Recommendations are made on policies that can promote an effective and sustainable increased demand for labor; second, the key characteristics of the supply of labor, including the impact of long-term demographic developments and labor migration...

Estimating Quarterly Poverty Rates Using Labor Force Surveys : A Primer

Douidich, Mohamed; Ezzrari, Abdeljaouad; Van der Weide, Roy; Verme, Paolo
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.36%
The paper shows how Labor Force Surveys can be used effectively to estimate poverty rates using Household Expenditure Surveys and cross-survey imputation methods. With only two rounds of Household Expenditure Survey data for Morocco (2001 and 2007), the paper estimates quarterly poverty rates for the period 2001-2010 by imputing household expenditures into the Labor Force Surveys. The results are encouraging. The methodology is able to accurately reproduce official poverty statistics by combining current Labor Force Surveys with previous period Household Expenditure Surveys, and vice versa. Although the focus is on head-count poverty, the method can be applied to any welfare indicator that is a function of household income or expenditure, such as the poverty gap or the Gini index of inequality. The newly produced time-series of poverty rates can help researchers and policy makers to: (a) study the determinants of poverty reduction or use poverty as an explanatory factor in cross-section and panel models; (b) forecast poverty rates based on a time-series model fitted to the data; and (c) explore the linkages between labor market conditions and poverty and simulate the effects of policy reforms or economic shocks. This is a promising research agenda that can expand significantly the tool-kit of the welfare economist.

Labor Market Policies under a Youth Bulge : How to Benefit from Demographic Dividend in Pakistan

Robalino, David; Cho, Yoonyoung
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.5%
This paper assesses labor market trends and outcomes in Pakistan over the past decade. It shows that despite a high rate of employment growth, labor market outcomes have been disappointing: most jobs have been created in low productivity sectors/activities, and even if they provide a minimum level of income to often avoid poverty, they remain low quality jobs providing little or no protection to workers against shocks. In addition, female participation rates for women are very low and there are large income disparities between rural and urban areas, and across sectors. A fundamental part of the problem is the low level of education of the labor force. Pakistan is currently in the midst of a demographic transition that is bringing a growing number of youth into the labor market. This youth bulge that is unwinding opens both challenges and opportunities. Challenges because of the need to create enough jobs to employ new entrants; Opportunities, because if this is done the country will enjoy a demographic dividend ...

Privatization and Labor Force Restructuring around the World

Chong, Alberto; López-de-Silanes, Florencio
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.36%
Some critics of privatization argue that poor labor force restructuring is a key concern and that governments should establish better retrenchment programs. Using new data from a sample of 400 companies in the world, Chong and López-de-Silanes test competing theories about the wisdom of retrenchment programs and their effect on prices paid by buyers, and rehiring policies by private owners after privatization. The results show that adverse selection plagues retrenchment programs carried out by governments before privatization. Controlling for endogeneity, several labor retrenchment policies yield a negative impact on net privatization prices. In confirmation of the adverse selection argument, various types of voluntary downsizing lead to a higher frequency of rehiring of the same workers by the new private owners. Compulsory skill-based programs are the only type of program that is marginally associated with higher prices and lower rehiring rates after privatization, but the political and economic costs of this policy may make it somewhat impractical. While a qualified non-intervention policy appears to be the safest bet in labor retrenchment before privatization...

Demographic Alternatives for Aging Industrial Countries : Increased Total Fertility Rate, Labor Force Participation, or Immigration

Holzmann, Robert
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.54%
The paper investigates the demographic alternatives for dealing with the projected population aging and low or negative growth of the population and labor force in the North. Without further immigration, the total labor force in Europe and Russia, the high-income countries of East Asia and the Pacific, China, and, to a lesser extent, North America is projected to be reduced by 29 million by 2025 and by 244 million by 2050. In contrast, the labor force in the South is projected to add some 1.55 billion, predominantly in South and Central Asia and in Sub-Saharan Africa. The demographic policy scenarios to deal with the projected shrinking of the labor forth in the North include moving the total fertility rate back to replacement levels, increasing labor force participation of the existing population through a variety of measures, and filling the demographic gaps through enhanced immigration. The estimations indicate that each of these policy scenarios may partially or even fully compensate for the projected labor force gap by 2050. But a review of the policy measures to make these demographic scenarios happen also suggests that governments may not be able to initiate or accommodate the required change.

Job Opportunities along the Rural-Urban Gradation and Female Labor Force Participation in India

Chatterjee, Urmila; Murgai, Rinku; Rama, Martin
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.52%
The recent decline in India’s rural female labor force participation is generally attributed to higher rural incomes in a patriarchal society. Together with the growing share of the urban population, where female participation rates are lower, this alleged income effect does not bode well for the empowerment of women as India develops. This paper argues that a traditional supply-side interpretation is insufficient to account for the decline in female participation rates, and the transformation of the demand for labor at local levels needs to be taken into account as well. A salient trait of this period is the collapse in the number of farming jobs without a parallel emergence of other employment opportunities considered suitable for women. The paper develops a novel approach to capture the structure of employment at the village or town level, and allow for differences along six ranks in the rural-urban gradation. It also considers the possible misclassification of urban areas as rural, as a result of household surveys lagging behind India’s rapid urbanization process. The results show that the place of residence along the rural-urban gradation loses relevance as an explanation of female labor force participation once local job opportunities are taken into account. Robustness checks confirm that the main findings hold even when taking into account the possibility of spurious correlation and endogeneity. They also hold under alternative definitions of labor force participation and when sub-samples of women are considered. Simulations suggest that for India to reverse the decline in female labor force participation rates it needs to boost job creation.

Labor force participation and transitions of older workers in Spain

Alba, Alfonso
Fonte: Universidade Carlos III de Madrid Publicador: Universidade Carlos III de Madrid
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /05/1997 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.43%
We use data from the Active Population Survey (EP A) to study the labor force participation of older workers in Spain. More specifically, the focus is on labor force transitions of men aged 50-69. We match quarterly EPA files, available for the period 1987-1996, to obtain transitions over one-year intervals. In the parametric analysis of transitions rates we use a multinomial logit model. Similar to U.S. studies, we find a strong spike in labor force exit at age 65, the normal age of retirement. We also find a higher probability of exit from the labor force at the beginning of eligibility for early retirement, age 60 in Spain. In general, the paper's results agree with those obtained in previous studies. In addition, we provide evidence of the effect on transition rates of variables related labor force attachment and job characteristics. For instance, we find that lower job security is associated with a higher probability of leaving the labor force at older ages.

The effects of labor force, demographic, and social trends on future military manpower directions

Koch, Andrew J.; Anderson, Eric D.
Fonte: Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: ix, 78 p.
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.22%
Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.; The lessening of tensions between the United States and the Soviet Union have brought about projected reductions in defense spending and attendant manpower drawdowns. However, manpower analysts and policymakers in the Department of Defense and the services' secretariates are faced with frequent changes in world events that portend threats to the interests of the United States. At the same time, the supply and demographic complexion of American youth that is available to fill manpower needs is changing. This thesis examines changing labor force, demographic, and social trends into the early 21st century, focusing on 18 to 24 year-olds-the military's traditional source of accessions. Census Bureau, Bureau of Labor Statistics and Defense Manpower Data Center statistics are used, along with recent legislation, to make projections concerning the availability of quality youth for the services' recruiting efforts. Recommendations are made concerning policies to continue attracting and retaining quality personnel for the 'high tech' military of the future.; Lieutenant Commander, United States Navy; Lieutenant, United States Navy

Female Labor Force Participation in Turkey : Trends, Determinants and Policy Framework; Turkiye de KadInlarIn isgucune KatIlImI

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Public Sector Study; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.5%
Turkey has been collaborating with the World Bank in developing macroeconomic policies and implementing various reforms such as social security, investment climate, competitiveness, labor market, and public sector management. One of the salient features of the labor market in Turkey is the distinctly lower labor force participation (LFP) rates of women. As of January 2009, female LFP in Turkey was 23.5 percent. Urbanization and the move out of subsistence agriculture have had a profound effect on employment patterns for women, especially among those who have not attained university education. Family farming and subsistence agriculture have become less and less important as other more attractive opportunities expand in the service and manufacturing sectors. In the ninth development plan the Turkish Government has set goals to increase the number of women who are actively employed. The national action plan for gender equality emphasizes that using women's talents and skills in the labor market not only provides families with more economic independence...

Breadwinner or Caregiver? How Household Role Affects Labor Choices in Mexico

Cunningham, Wendy V.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.49%
Recent volatility in the Mexican economy, has required households to alter patterns of participation in the labor force, voluntarily or not. The author uses panel data to examine patterns of labor force entry among adult men, and women with different household responsibilities, asking whether gender is a primary determinant, shaping these patterns. She finds that labor supply patterns are driven more by household role, than by gender. Heads of households, regardless of sex, behave similarly. Women who have neither spouses, nor children behave more like men, than like married women. They are also more likely than any other group to have inflexible, higher-paying jobs in the formal sector - which raises the question: Do employers discriminate, based on gender, or on household structure? She also detects a strong added-worker effect among secondary workers, a result not detected in the labor markets of developed countries that have social insurance programs. Finally she finds that wives' choice of sector during downturns...

Demographic Transition and the Labor Market in Sri Lanka

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.53%
Sri Lanka's demographic transition has significantly shaped the age distribution of the labor force and created a large working age population (World Bank 2008). Changing cohort sizes of young and old workers not only affect their own labor market outcomes (job quality, earnings), but also potentially affect growth prospects in the economy. Recovering from a 30-year conflict in the North and the East, Sri Lanka aims to accelerate growth in the medium term by substantially increasing investments. What will be the role of the labor market in delivering this growth? The service sector is expanding and accounts for nearly 60 percent of the Growth Domestic Product (GDP) and almost 40 percent of employment. However, only 56 percent of the working age population is employed, a result of low participation and high unemployment rates among women and youth. Any growth strategy will have to bring in more working age people, particularly women, into economic activity. The paper is organized as follows. The two sections that follow present an overview of the supply and demand side of the labor market. The next section discusses the ways in which the demographic transition could shape the labor market...

Promoting Labor Market Participation and Social Inclusion in Europe and Central Asia's Poorest Countries

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Report; Economic & Sector Work; Economic & Sector Work :: Other Social Protection Study
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.51%
This report, funded by the Trust Fund for Environmentally and Socially Sustainable Development (TFESSD), seeks to identify labor market inequalities in the ten countries outlined above, to relate these inequalities to other forms of social exclusion, and to propose areas for policy action aimed at boosting labor market participation. The remainder of the report is structured as follows. Chapter two describes the role that jobs play in fostering good living standards, productivity and social cohesion, and contextualizes the discussion on jobs and participation in the ten countries. Chapter three zooms in, highlighting inequalities in labor force participation across demographic groups. Chapter four shifts the focus to the factors explaining unequal labor force participation across groups, and discusses a policy agenda for these ten countries, drawing on experiences from the rest of the world. Chapter five concludes.

Child Care and Women's Labor Force Participation in Romania

Fong, Monica; Lokshin, Michael
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research; Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.22%
The authors model the household demand for child care, the mother's participation in the labor force, and her working hours in Romania. Their model estimates the effects of the price of child care, the mother's wage, and household income on household behavior relating to child care and mothers working outside the home. They find that: Both the maternal decision to take a job and the decision to use out-of-home care are sensitive to the price of child care. A decrease in the price of child care can increase the number of mothers who work and thus reduce poverty in some households. The potential market wage of the mother has a significant positive effect on the decision to purchase market care and the decision to engage in paid employment. The level of household nonwage income has little effect on maternal employment and the demand for child care. In addition to facilitating women's work, kindergartens and creches appear to provide educational and social benefits for children. Close to half the children in these facilities have mothers who do not work. Further research is needed to assess the cost and nature of these benefits and to determine the appropriate roles for the private and public sectors in providing, financing, and regulating such services for working and nonworking mothers.

Low Female Labor Force Participation in Sri Lanka : Contributory Factors, Challenges and Policy Implications

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Working Paper
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.49%
Even though Sri Lanka is a fore-runner in many human development dimensions and aspects of gender equality amongst the South Asian countries, it is similar to other South Asian countries when it comes to women's participation in economic activities. Female labor force participation has not changed much in recent decades and remained stagnant at a rate around 30 to 35 percent of working age women. This rate is much lower than one would expect given the educational attainment of the female population in Sri Lanka. In order to encourage increased women s participation in economic activities, the first condition is to understand what is keeping them out of the scene. This paper analyzes the underlying reasons behind low participation rates of women in economic activities. It also investigates the employment outcomes, occupational choice, rates of returns, and skills set of economically active women in comparison with men to identify and understand the gaps. The findings have been used to suggest potential policies and programs that can help remove some of those barriers and encourage and enable women to become more economically active in the labor market.

What Explains the Stagnation of Female Labor Force Participation in Urban India?

Klasen, Stephan; Pieters, Janneke
Fonte: World Bank Group, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank Group, Washington, DC
Tipo: Working Paper; Publications & Research; Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.49%
Female labor force participation rates in urban India between 1987 and 2011 are surprisingly low and have stagnated since the late 1980s. Despite rising growth, fertility decline, and rising wages and education levels, married women's labor force participation hovered around 18 percent. Analysis of five large cross-sectional micro surveys shows that a combination of supply and demand effects have contributed to this stagnation. The main supply side factors are rising household incomes and husband's education as well as the falling selectivity of highly educated women. On the demand side, the sectors that draw in female workers have expanded least, so that changes in the sectoral structure of employment alone would have actually led to declining participation rates.

Economic Impacts of Professional Training in the Informal Sector : The Case of the Labor Force Training Program in Côte d'Ivoire

Verner, Dorte; Verner, Mette
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.17%
The authors address the economic impact of the labor force training program (PAFPA) developed for the informal sector in Côte d'Ivoire. The data contain a subsample of the participants in the agricultural sector, tailoring sector, and the electronics sector, and a comparable control group of nonparticipants. The data have been analyzed using standard program evaluation tools, namely difference-in-difference estimators, in order to detect potential program impacts. The authors find positive economic impacts as a result of training received for some groups, namely women, the agricultural and electronics sectors, firms employing 1-3 individuals, and firms with 10 or more employees.

Can Political Empowerment Help Economic Empowerment? Women Leaders and Female Labor Force Participation in India

Ghani, Ejaz; Mani, Anandi; O'Connell, Stephen D.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.48%
This study examines whether political empowerment of women affects their economic participation. In the context of mandated political representation reform for women in India, the study finds that the length of exposure to women politicians affects overall female labor force participation. These effects seem to arise through direct and indirect channels: political representation of women directly affects hours of work assigned to women under the recent national public works program, the Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme. In addition, the level of access to public goods, as influenced by exposure to women leaders over time, increases the likelihood of women being engaged in the labor force. The findings suggest that women's participation in politics could be a useful policy tool to increase both the supply of and the demand for labor market opportunities for women, potentially helping to stem India's declining female labor force participation rate.

An Ocean Formed From One Hundred Rivers: The Effects of Ethnicity, Gender, Marriage, And Location on Labor Force Participation in Urban China

Zhang, Dandan; Maurer-Fazio, Margaret; Hughes, James
Fonte: Routledge, Taylor & Francis Group Publicador: Routledge, Taylor & Francis Group
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.32%
This paper analyzes changes in labor force participation rates over time for gender- and ethnicity-differentiated groups in urban China. From 1990 to 2000, urban labor force participation rates fell substantially with women's rates declining more rapidly

Can a Small Social Pension Promote Labor Force Participation?; Evidence from the Colombia Mayor Program

Pfutze, Tobias; Rodriguez Castelan, Carlos
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Working Paper; Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.46%
One of the primary motivations behind the establishment of noncontributory pension programs is to allow beneficiaries to retire from the labor force. Yet, as with other unconditional cash transfer schemes, their aggregate effects may be more complex. Using panel data and instrumental variable techniques, this paper shows that the effect of one such program, Colombia Mayor, has been to raise the labor force participation of relatively younger male beneficiaries. This increase occurred precisely in the occupations with characteristics that are likely to require some up-front investment. The paper concludes that the transfer effectively loosened the liquidity constraints to remaining in these occupations. However, no such effect is found among women or older beneficiaries.