This work investigates the earnings mobility in Brazil, considering the period before and after the observed fall of inequality in the country. We used microdata from Monthly Employment Survey (PME/IBGE), from 1992 to 2009. It is possible to analyze mobility in an intra generational context. The mobility contributes to decrease income inequality. Given the fall of inequality in the country, if mobility persists, Brazil may experience, in the long run, greater income convergence.
This paper assesses the hypothesis that depressive syndrome is associated with socioeconomic status, using longitudinal data from the Baltimore Epidemiologic Catchment Area Followup. Socioeconomic measures include those used in most studies of status attainment, as well as measures of financial dependence, non-job income, and work environment. Analyses include inter-and intra- generational mobility, and replicate the basic aspects of the status attainment process, as well as psychiatric epidemiologic findings regarding gender, family history of depression, life events, and depressive syndrome. But the involvement of depressive syndrome in the process of status attainment, either as cause or consequence, is small and not statistically significant. There are strong effects of financial dependence and work environment on depressive syndrome. The findings shed doubt on the utility of the causation/selection/drift model for depression, to the extent it is based on linear relationships and socioeconomic rank at the macro level, while lending credibility to social-psychologically oriented theories of work environment, poverty, and depression.
This paper validates a recently proposed
method to estimate intra-generational mobility through
repeated cross-sectional surveys. The technique allows the
creation of a "synthetic panel" -- done by
predicting future or past household income using a set of
simple modeling and error structure assumptions -- and thus
permits the estimation of lower and upper bounds on
directional mobility measures. The authors validate the
approach in three different settings where good panel data
also exist (Chile, Nicaragua, and Peru). In doing so, they
also carry out a number of refinements to the validation
procedure. The results are broadly encouraging: the
methodology performs well in all three settings, especially
in cases where richer model specifications can be estimated.
The technique does equally well in predicting short and
long-term mobility patterns and is robust to a broad set of
additional "stress" and sensitivity tests.
Overall, the paper lends support to the application of this
approach to settings where panel data are absent.
Using panel data-sets from Mexico and Chile for the first years of the 21st century, the authors examine the determinants of middle-class intra-generational mobility. The middle class is defined by means of a latent index of economic well-being that is less sensitive to short-term fluctuation and measurement error than standard measures of income. The authors find high rates of both upward and downward mobility in Mexico and Chile, indicating that the middle class has opportunities to move to higher levels of well-being but is also vulnerable to falling into poverty. In both countries, labour-market resources (education and occupational status of the household head and number of members in the labour market) are much stronger determinants of mobility than demographic factors, suggesting the importance of policies that foster human capital and protect workers from shocks. Rural middle-class households are substantially more vulnerable to falling into poverty and have little chance of advancing to upper classes than their urban counterparts.
Tajikistan was one of the fastest
growing countries in the Europe and Central Asia region
during the last decade. The economic growth was widely
shared by the population and as a result poverty (measured
by the national poverty line) declined from 73 percent in
2003 to 47 percent in 2009 accompanied by falling
inequality. Consumption growth of the bottom 40 percent of
the population -- a measure of shared prosperity proposed by
the World Bank- was positive, pointing out that the growth
was shared among the less well off. This work presents a
diagnostic of shared prosperity and poverty reduction in
Tajikistan during 2003-2009. The paper also focuses on
quantifying the main drivers of poverty reduction, shared
prosperity, and intra-generational mobility (class
transitions). Some of the mechanisms of poverty reduction
are explored in detail. Finally, main impediments to
inter-generational mobility are discussed.
This book looks at both the potential and limits of policies to promote entrepreneurship as an important vehicle for social mobility in Latin America and the Caribbean. Who are the region's entrepreneurs? They tend to be middle-aged males with secondary and, often, tertiary education who represent only a small segment of the economically active population in the six countries considered in this book. They come from families in which a parent is, or was, an entrepreneur. In fact, a parent's occupation is more important in the decision to become an entrepreneur than a parent's wealth, income or education.
Middle class entrepreneurship tends to dominate the sample in part since this is the majority class in society. However, as a percentage of each social class, entrepreneurship tends to be higher in the upper class, followed by the middle and lower class. Entrepreneurs concentrate in micro enterprises with fewer than five employees. They enjoy greater social mobility than employees and the self-employed, but this mobility is not always in the upward direction. Entrepreneurs face multiple obstacles including stifling bureaucracy, burdensome tax procedures, and lack of financing, human capital, technological skills, and supportive networks. The support of family and friends and a modicum of social capital help cope with these obstacles to entrepreneurship.
Tese de doutoramento em Ciências da Comunicação (área de especialização em Psicologia da Comunicação); A mobilidade social tem a importante função de promover as vias e
possibilidades de troca, ascensão ou rebaixamento que um determinado
indivíduo possui no meio em que estabelece suas relações. Para os
alunos afro-brasileiros, a graduação superior é um investimento, pois
representa oportunidades de mobilidade social por meio de carreiras
profissionais mais promissoras quanto aos retornos salariais, direitos
sociais, posição social e à realização pessoal.
O principal objetivo desta pesquisa é analisar as percepções e
discursos de afro-brasileiros residentes na cidade de Campo Grande, Mato
Grosso do Sul, Brasil, sobre a mobilidade social por meio da graduação
superior. Os pressupostos teóricos que nortearam este trabalho de
investigação baseiam-se na mobilidade social segundo Jannuzzi (2000),
Osório (2004), Pastore e Silva (2000), Scalon (1999), Sorokin (1927),
Tajfel (1981). Procuramos identificar suas expectativas, averiguar que fatores contribuíram para a mobilidade social e como é que o processo
ocorreu. Neste sentido, aferiu-se como foram as suas condições de
acesso, a trajetória na graduação e caracterizou-se o estilo de vida desses entrevistados. Foi analisado o tipo de mobilidade social referente à
sua ocupação atual em relação à ocupação dos pais (mobilidade
intergeracional). Além disso...
La tesi analitza el paper que juguen les desigualtats de gènere en els processos associats a la reproducció de l'estructura de classes. Es defensa una perspectiva teòrica basada en: - L'articulació entre el treball de la producció i el de la reproducció. - L'estudi de la mobilitat social a través de l'anàlisi de les trajectòries socials. La tesi explota les dades del "Projecte internacional d'estructura, biografia i consciència de classe" dirigit per Erik Olin Wright. La base de dades compta amb informació sobre 6632 individus. L'anàlisi de les dades confirma la intervenció del gènere en la reproducció de l'estructura de classes: - Homes i dones segueixen pautes de mobilitat social diferents (intergeneracional, intrageneracional i matrimonial). - La mobilitat estructural és aprofitada quasi exclusivament pels homes. - La intervenció de les desigualtats de gènere en la reproducció social s'evidencia especialment mitjançant les formes a través de les quals homes i dones aconsegueixen les seves posicions de destins.; La tesis analiza el papel que juegan las desigualdades de género en los procesos asociados a la reproducción de la estructura de clases. Se defiende una perspectiva teórica basada en: - La articulación entre el trabajo de la producción y el de la reproducción. - El estudio de la movilidad social a través del análisis de las trayectorias sociales. La tesis explota los datos del "Proyecto internacional de estructura...