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O brasil e a segurança no cone sul no pós-guerra fria; Brazil and the post-cold war international security in the southern cone

Castillo, Juan Ignacio Albino Roman
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 30/01/2009 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.21%
Quando se considera a Segurança Internacional da América Latina, comprovasse a inexistência de um ator regional com excedente de poder necessário, tanto em Hard power, poderes econômico, militar, e de mobilização, como de Soft power, de liderança passiva pela persuasão da conveniência da emulação e pela convicção de resultados melhores pela cooperação com o líder ou primus inter pares. Portanto, o exercício de um Smart power, o hábil e eficaz equilíbrio dos dois poderes mencionados só poderá acontecer dentro de um condomínio de boa vontade entre os países da região. Uma Segurança Cooperativa Sustentável para América Latina, com participação seminal dos países do Cone Sul será o objeto de análise deste trabalho. O Brasil e seus vizinhos do Cone Sul, com um peso específico importante na região, devem demonstrar Vontade Nacional e capacidade operativa para facilitar a realização de consensos entre os países envolvidos para garantir uma gestão sustentável da agenda regional de segurança. Isto se torna de particular premência numa conjuntura internacional onde ameaças e desafios relativos a região carecem de qualquer prioridade global, enquanto graves crises atuais e futuras imediatas se ensejam em zonas mais críticas ao Sistema Internacional. Como conseqüência caberá aos países da sub-região exercer eficientemente a vigilância...

Segurança e defesa da Amazônia: o exército brasileiro e as ameaças não-tradicionais; Security and defense of the Amazon: the Brazilian Army and the non-traditional threats

Piletti, Felipe José
Fonte: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul Publicador: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul
Tipo: Dissertação Formato: application/pdf
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.16%
As grandes guerras da Idade Moderna foram, em sua maioria, travadas por inimigos que se organizavam sob a forma de Estado-nação. Após o final da Guerra Fria, entretanto, um conjunto múltiplo e disperso de fenômenos e atores, predominantemente não-estatais e transnacionais, tem se tornado um importante alvo das políticas de segurança internacional, especialmente as dos Estados do Ocidente. Esses novos fenômenos e atores de caráter nãotradicional são definidos na política de defesa dos EUA – bem como na daqueles Estados, setores e organismos internacionais por ela influenciados – como as “novas ameaças”, um conceito que abrange atividades diversificadas, tais como o terrorismo e o crime organizado em geral (narcotráfico, tráfico de armas e de pessoas, por exemplo). Ao mesmo tempo, estaríamos vivenciando um processo de “securitização” de novas questões a partir da extensão do conceito de “segurança” para novas áreas, como a economia, o meioambiente, a sociedade e a política, supostamente superando a segurança entendida em termos militares e estratégicos. O objetivo da presente dissertação é analisar a posição do Exército Brasileiro com relação a quatro problemas de segurança não-tradicionais presentes na Amazônia...

Crime organizado, estado e segurança internacional; Organized crime, the state and international security

Cepik, Marco Aurelio Chaves; Borba, Pedro dos Santos de
Fonte: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul Publicador: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.17%
O presente artigo versa sobre o crime organizado internacional, buscando debater seus atributos conceituais e avaliá-lo do ponto de vista da segurança internacional. O problema norteador do trabalho é compreender o fundamento e as consequências da interação entre autoridade política e crime organizado, analisando, de um lado, as implicações da criminalidade organizada para a soberania e, de outro, as ações governamentais e internacionais para controlar essas organizações. Nesse sentido, argumentamos que as capacidades de poder acumuladas pelo crime, na medida em que o próprio processo de consolidação do Estado impede que as organizações criminosas possam almejar substituírem o Estado, são funcionais ao seu objetivo primário de enriquecimento ilícito. O desenvolvimento do crime organizado não é exógeno à vida em sociedade ou patológico, e sim parte constituinte da estrutura social, mantendo uma relação parasitária com a ordem estabelecida. Como o crime organizado tem implicações negativas sobre a capacidade de o Estado prover segurança e bem-estar para a sociedade, debatemos as ações policiais, judiciárias e de inteligência a que recorrem os governos como meio para controlar as organizações criminosas. No âmbito internacional...

A Organização do Tratado do Atlantico Norte e a segurança internacional no mundo Pos-Guerra Fria; The North Atlantic treaty Organization and international security in the Post-Cold War world

Juliana Santos Maia Bertazzo
Fonte: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp Publicador: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 02/04/2009 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.21%
A Organização do Tratado do Atlântico Norte contraria a teoria das alianças: mesmo tendo sido declarada vencedora da Guerra Fria por uma inesperada retirada de seu oponente, ela não saiu de cena. A Aliança Atlântica desde então se expandiu e se adaptou gradativamente às novas exigências do contexto regional e internacional, com uma presença ativa em ambos. Após os eventos de 11 de setembro 2001, contudo, a Organização do Tratado do Atlântico Norte perde seu foco principal, que era a defesa da Europa, e se desdobra entre demandas regionais e globais não só dos seus membros, mas também de outras organizações. O meu objeto de pesquisa é, portanto, a Organização do Tratado do Atlântico Norte em sua nova fase, ao mesmo tempo um caso único de persistência entre as alianças militares e de adaptação entre as organizações regionais de segurança. Minha análise sobre os fenômenos relacionados à nova fase da Aliança Atlântica se desenvolve em quatro pontos: o alargamento, a permanência, a transformação, e as operações. Minha hipótese central é que durante a Guerra Fria a Organização do Tratado do Atlântico Norte foi uma referência para a segurança internacional, mas se manteve restrita à dinâmica da segurança regional...

A política de segurança dos Estados Unidos e a tríplice fronteira no pós 11 de setembro : uma análise dos interesses norte-americanos e o posicionamento brasileiro; The United States security policy and TBA in the post September 11 : an analysis of U.S. interests and the position of Brazil

Marcos Alan Fagner dos Santos Ferreira
Fonte: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp Publicador: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 17/11/2010 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.1%
Após os atentados de 11 de setembro de 2001 ocorridos em território norte-americano, diversas ações foram tomadas por parte do governo dos EUA para contenção do terrorismo internacional. Embora seja uma região que não tenha sofrido incursões bélicas ancoradas no argumento de combate ao terror, no caso da América Latina uma área em especial tem sido destacada nos relatórios governamentais e estudos de analistas internacionais: a Tríplice Fronteira entre Argentina, Brasil e Paraguai (TF). Tal região tem sido considerada um safe haven, ou seja, uma área propensa a ser utilizada como base de apoio ao terrorismo internacional, especialmente para financiamento de grupos islâmicos radicais. Visando uma melhor compreensão do destaque dado à região, esta pesquisa objetiva analisar a política externa dos EUA para a região, assim como as ações e as percepções do mesmo, em comparação às visões proporcionadas por analistas internacionais. Ainda, pretende-se mostrar o posicionamento do governo brasileiro diante desta postura de Washington. Considerando que tal tema tem sido pouco estudado na área de Relações Internacionais, esta pesquisa busca preencher uma lacuna importante nos estudos relacionados a segurança internacional dentro do Cone Sul...

A cross-case comparative analysis of international security forces’ impacts on health systems in conflict-affected and fragile states

Bourdeaux, Margaret; Kerry, Vanessa; Haggenmiller, Christian; Nickel, Karlheinz
Fonte: BioMed Central Publicador: BioMed Central
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.3%
Background: Destruction of health systems in fragile and conflict-affected states increases civilian mortality. Despite the size, scope, scale and political influence of international security forces intervening in fragile states, little attention has been paid to array of ways they may impact health systems beyond their effects on short-term humanitarian health aid delivery. Methods: Using case studies we published on international security forces’ impacts on health systems in Haiti, Kosovo, Afghanistan and Libya, we conducted a comparative analysis that examined three questions: What aspects, or building blocks, of health systems did security forces impact across the cases and what was the nature of these impacts? What forums or mechanisms did international security forces use to interact with health system actors? What policies facilitated or hindered security forces from supporting health systems? Results: We found international security forces impacted health system governance, information systems and indigenous health delivery organizations. Positive impacts included bolstering the authority, transparency and capability of health system leadership. Negative impacts included undermining the impartial nature of indigenous health institutions by using health projects to achieve security objectives. Interactions between security and health actors were primarily ad hoc...

Disciplining democracy: United Nations peacekeeping, international security and democratization in the post -Cold War era

Zanotti, Laura
Fonte: FIU Digital Commons Publicador: FIU Digital Commons
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.16%
After the end of the Cold War, democratization and good governance became the organizing concepts for activities of the United Nations, regional organizations and states in the fields of peace, development and security. How can this increasing interest in democratization and its connection with international security be explained? This dissertation applies the theoretical tools developed by Michel Foucault in his discussions of disciplinarity and government to the analysis of the United Nations debate on democracy in the 1990s, and of two United Nations pro-democracy peacekeeping operations and their aftermath: the United Nations interventions in Haiti and Croatia. It probes “how” certain techniques of power came into being and describes their effects, using as data the texts that elaborate the United Nations understanding of democracy and the texts that constitute peacekeeping. ^ In the face of the proliferation of unpredictable threats in the last decades of the twentieth century a new form of international power emerged. Order in the international arena increasingly was maintained through activities aimed at reducing risk and increasing predictability through the normalization of “rogue” states. The dissertation shows that in the context of these activities...

Hedley Bull and international security

Makinda, Samuel M
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Working/Technical Paper Formato: 1620760 bytes; 349 bytes; 356 bytes; application/pdf; application/octet-stream; application/octet-stream
EN_AU
Relevância na Pesquisa
76.31%
Hedley Bull made a significant contribution to international security studies, but his role as a security theorist remains largely unexplored. This paper argues that Bull’s ideas went beyond the traditional international security agenda and helped establish the foundation for critical security theory. Although Bull did not describe himself as a critical security theorist, his work indirectly provided a basis on which the assumptions underpinning the traditional international security assumptions could be challenged. Bull was a trans-paradigm theorist who utilised realism, pluralism, classical solidarism and cosmopolitan solidarism not only to shed significant light on the traditional international security perspective, but also to lay the foundation for critical security theory. In his early work, Bull used realism and pluralism to address the traditional international security agenda, with its emphasis on threats to the states, power politics, and the use of military force. Classical solidarism provided a framework through which he explored ideas about collective security and the ability of the United Nations to deal with common threats to international order and security. Through cosmopolitan solidarism, Bull explained the need for international society and world society to deal with poverty and injustice in the world. It is through cosmopolitan solidarist ideas that Bull can be portrayed as a critical security theorist.; no

Varieties of Cooperation: Government Networks in International Security

EILSTRUP-SANGIOVANNI, Mette
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: application/pdf; digital
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.15%
A growing literature touts the prominence of international cooperation among substate officials through so-called transgovernmental networks (TGNs). These networks are allegedly faster, cheaper and more flexible than conventional international treaty organizations (ITOs) (e.g. Slaughter, 2004). Yet, TGNs are not evenly distributed, either in terms of geography or issue-area. While some policyareas are characterized by networked cooperation, others continue to be dominated by formal ITOs. How can we explain such variation? I draw on recent network studies in public policy, economics and sociology to theorize the conditions in which states may prefer cooperation through TGNs. I have two main findings: First, TGNs are designed to deal with cooperation problems of a different nature than those addressed by ITOs. ITOs aim to reduce transaction costs, enhance credibility of interstate agreements and solve problems of incomplete contracting. By contrast, the chief benefit of TGNs is to provide policy flexibility and untie the hands of national executives, allowing them to bypass domestic and international constraints on policy. Second, TGNs are not a panacea for international problemsolving. Rather, they are useful tools in situations where states are reluctant to embrace treaty-based cooperation due to sovereignty concerns or environmental uncertainty. The argument is applied against three cases drawn from the ordinarily hierarchical realm of international security cooperation.

Security policy of the Czech Republic in light of the integration into the European Union

Lysina, Miroslav
Fonte: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.11%
Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited; The Czech Republic was integrated into NATO in 1999, when the process of the enlargement of the Alliance by including Central and Eastern Europe had begun, and the idea of the EU expansion was being seriously considered. These changes and the unfavorable development of the Balkans crisis created a new security environment in the region, and the necessity for a revised European security policy. Membership in the EU became a primary strategic goal of the Czech Republic.s foreign policy. How did the NATO strategy influence the Czech security policy? What was the evolution of the security environment in the Europe-Atlantic region and the NATO-EU relationship? This thesis analyzes this process and examines its experience. The Czech Republic, as one of the candidates for integration into the EU, has created a good position for its entry. This thesis also explores recent international security relations and their strategic continuities for the creation of the new policy. Since the armed forces play an important role in the national security, the work analyzes a new concept of the Czech Republic Armed Forces reform. In the last chapter the thesis tries to define possible presumptions for the new security policy and argues some possible proposals...

Civil-military relations : enhancing international security

Fekete, Florian
Fonte: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.24%
Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited; The thesis describes how civil-military relations at the international level enhance international security, in particular, the way of development of international society in trying to orient its progress towards international peace, security and sustainable development. It focuses upon civil-military relationships in the League of Nations and the United Nations, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, The International Committee of Red Cross. The thesis identifies particular types of relationships created by these international organizations and explains how participants influence each other. A short historical overview of emerging international civil-military relationships shows how civil-military relationships have developed at international level. The ongoing Iraq crises illustrates how civil-military relationships are functioning and serving for enhancing international security. The examples and the analyses have shown that the international community has made great progress toward establishing norms of civil-military relations, while trying to regulate behavior of independent states. From ad-hoc experiments included a system of agreements under the International Red Cross...

The role of international juridical process in international security and civil-military relations

Polydorou, Stavros
Fonte: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: xii, 135 p. ;
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.24%
Approved for public release; distribution in unlimited.; This thesis answers the following question: "Does the practice and theory of modern Transnational Juridical Institutions impact upon the development and maintenance of International Security within the complex of the Civil Military relation's paradigm, and if so, how?" Therefore it examines the effects of International Juridical Institutions upon the relations between civil authorities and the military structure within modern states. Since 1945 the international community has constituted four ad hoc tribunals, namely the International Military Tribunal at Nuremberg, the International Military Tribunal for the Far East, the International Criminal Tribunal for Yugoslavia, and the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda. Their mandate was to bring to justice those who have committed grave breaches of international law by the waging of aggressive war, crimes against humanity, war crimes, genocide, and crimes against peace; crimes committed with the use of the military. Their jurisprudence significantly challenged the relations between the military the state and the society not only in the state they had or have jurisdiction but worldwide. They have affected constitutions, attitudes...

The domestic, regional and global security stakes in Kazakhstan

Mukhamedov, Igor
Fonte: Monterey California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey California. Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: xii, 71 p. : col. ill.
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.2%
Approved for public release, distribution is unlimited; The evolution of Kazakhstan's security policies since independence, and particularly after September 11, 2001, indicates that the country has chosen to play an active role in regional and international security as a means to security its own national interests. It has opened to the West, and played an active role in the War on Terrorism. It has also worked to maintain Central Asia's regional security architecture. These policies have had some demonstrable affect on national, regional and international security, but as a young state in a troubled region Kazakhstan will require increased Western assistance if it is to become the force for stability that it seeks to be. Kazakhstan has a very important geopolitical location, and can play a role of a regional leader in Central Asia, but it is still a very young state and needs a strong support. "Perhaps nowhere was the granting of independence more bittersweet and the challenges of sustaining it more complex than in the case of Kazakhstan." (Mathews, Jessica T. Foreword in "Kazakhstan: Unfulfilled Promise" by Olcott, Martha Brill, Washington D.C. Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, 2002); Colonel, Ministry of Defence of the Republic of Kazakhstan

The Cost of Security: Foreign Policy Concessions and Military Alliances

Johnson, Jesse
Fonte: Universidade Rice Publicador: Universidade Rice
Tipo: Thesis; Text Formato: application/pdf
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.13%
One way states can mitigate external threats is by entering into military alliances. However, threatened states are reluctant to enter into military alliances because alliance membership can require significant policy concessions. An important and unanswered question is: when will states be willing to make policy concessions in exchange for military alliances? This is the question that is investigated in this project. To address this question I develop a simple three actor bargaining model of alliance formation that endogenizes both external threat and policy concessions. I test the model's implications with two sets of large N analyses and find strong support for the hypotheses. The first set of empirical analyses uses a novel research design that takes into account the attributes of challengers to evaluate states' alliance formation decisions. The second set is based on the same research design and provides one of the first analyses of foreign policy concessions among alliance members. The results suggest that threatened states are willing to make more concessions in exchange for an alliance when they are unlikely to defeat their challengers alone and when their allies have a large effect on their probability of defeating their challengers. This research highlights both the security and non-security motivations for alliance formation and demonstrates that alliances have important influences beyond international security.

Segurança internacional e normatividade: é o liberalismo o elo perdido dos critical securities studies?; International security and normativity: is liberalism the critial securities studies' lost link?

VILLA, Rafael Duarte
Fonte: CEDEC Publicador: CEDEC
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.17%
O surgimento, e afirmação, de uma corrente de estudos críticos em segurança internacional plantou firmemente a idéia de que os problemas de segurança internacional não estão meramente relacionados com aspectos objetivos que ameaçam os Estados, mas esses problemas estão relacionados estreitamente com as relações entre indivíduo e emancipação humana. Assim, a condição de segurança em sentido forte tem, como precondição, a emancipação humana. Porém, em que condições esse overlap entre segurança internacional e emancipação acontece? A tese deste artigo é problematizar essas condições, que escapam ao diálogo endógeno dos critical securities studies (CSS). E que uma pista para operacionalização pode ser procurada nos diálogos entre a teoria crítica cosmopolita e a teoria liberal cosmopolita. Essa interseção, ou continuum, aponta a tese do artigo, é possível se os CSS atentam para dimensões do liberalismo político que têm sido negligenciadas, especialmente a democracia pensada em bases transnacionais e as possibilidades da sociedade civil transnacionalizada.; The appearance and consolidation of a critical studies approach on international security fortified the claim that international security problems are not merely related to objective threats to states...

Segurança nas Americas : a dificil construção de um consenso sobre a segurança hemisferica : o embate entre a OEA e os interesses nacionais; Security in the Americas: the difficulties in achieving a common sense in hemispheric security - the dilemma between the ideals promoted by OAS or its member's national interest

Patricia Mara Cabral de Vasconcellos
Fonte: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp Publicador: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 04/04/2007 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.16%
Com o final da Guerra Fria, vizualizam-se diversas mudanças referentes à percepção da segurança internacional e suas formulações teóricas. Tais transformações também podem ser analisadas no âmbito da segurança no hemisfério americano. A busca pela paz e pela segurança no continente é formalizada através da Organização dos Estados Americanos, fundada em 1948. Na década de 90, com a criação da Comissão de Segurança Hemisférica, o tema adquire maior espaço nas discussões. Desde então, pode-se afirmar, busca-se um consenso entre os membros da Organização sobre a Segurança Hemisférica. As mudanças no cenário internacional são somente um dos fatores que dificultam a construção e a eficiência em torno desse objetivo comum. Preceitos presentes na era bipolar continuam prevalecendo nas relações entre os Estados, tais como a proeminência dos interesses nacionais e a busca pelo poder. Outro fator decisivo nessa análise é a presença de um ator com poder preponderante na região. Esse trabalho almeja fornecer uma breve reflexão sobre as dificuldades de estabelecer um consenso sobre a Segurança Hemisférica, enfatizando os dilemas entre os ideais promulgados pela OEA e os interesses nacionais de seus membros; With the end of the Cold War...

The International security assistance force for the Afghan security: Juridical aspects of its practical implementation.; La Fuerza Internacional de Asistencia para la Seguridad en Afganistán: Aspectos jurídicos de su implementación práctica

Manrique de Luna-Barrios, Antonio; Universidad de Osnabrück
Fonte: Universidade La Sabana Publicador: Universidade La Sabana
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
SPA
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.15%
The members of the peacekeeping operations should respect the provisions of the international human rights law and the international humanitarian law, since they are a fundamental basis to consolidate the role of the regional organizations in the area of peace and international security. However, some of the actions that have been carried out by the members of the peacekeeping operation that was led by the North Atlantic Treaty Organization in Afghanistan have violated both rights since certain activities were undertaken that resulted in causing deaths among the civil population. Especially to avoid that incidents like these, committed by members of the peacekeeping operations can be utilized by Taliban groups in order to incite the civil population against the members of these operations, it is fundamental to investigate, sanction and give compensations for such acts to the victims or to the families in case that the victims may have died.; Los miembros de las operaciones de mantenimiento de la paz deben respetar las disposiciones del derecho internacional de los derechos humanos y del derecho internacional humanitario, ya que ello constituye un pilar fundamental para consolidar el rol de las organizaciones regionales en el ámbito de la paz y la seguridad internacional. No obstante ello...

Book review: International security and gender

Novick, Natalie
Fonte: Blog post from London School of Economics & Political Science Publicador: Blog post from London School of Economics & Political Science
Tipo: Website; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 22/06/2013 EN; EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.17%
"International Security and Gender." Nicole Detraz. Polity. April 2013. --- What does it mean to be secure? In the global news, we hear stories daily about the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan, about domestic–level conflicts around the world, about the challenges of cybersecurity and social security. This broad list highlights the fact that security is an idea with multiple meanings, but do we all experience security issues in the same way? In this book, Nicole Detraz explores the broad terrain of security studies through a gender lens. Natalie Novick finds that this accessible book provides a strong argument for further scholarship on gender throughout the security literature.

A European way of security: the Madrid Report of the Human Security Study Group

Albrecht, Ulrich; Chinkin, Christine; Collantes Celador, Gemma; Flechtner, Stefanie; Glasius, Marlies; Kaldor, Mary; Kiljunen, Kimmo; Klabbers, Jan; Kuper, Jenny; Licht, Sonia; Lotti, Flavio; Reinhardt, Klaus; Schmeder, Genevieve; Seifter, Pavel; Serra, N
Fonte: Human Security Study Group Publicador: Human Security Study Group
Tipo: Monograph; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 08/11/2007 EN; EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.13%
In the past five years the European Union has developed the capacity and willingness to intervene in difficult and dangerous locations, to deal with crises, to improve the chances of people to lead peaceful lives and to contribute to regional and international security. This Report is about how the EU has built this global security role so far, and where it should go next. The Barcelona Report of 2004 declared that the most appropriate approach for Europe in the twenty-first century would be to promote human security. This Report spells out what a European Human Security approach means, and addresses the criticisms levelled at it. It looks at five cases where the EU has intervened to deal with political violence and to rebuild societies torn apart by civil war, and shows how a Human Security approach is relevant to those operations. The Report concludes that in the wake of the Reform Treaty and the `Global War on Terror' the EU should now define a distinctive European Way of Security, based on Human Security principles, which would enable it to intervene more effectively in crises, and take forward its foreign and security policies in a way which commands the support of its citizens and addresses the needs of vulnerable communities. Human Security should provide a new operating framework for European Union external action.

The English School: a neglected approach to International Security Studies

Buzan, Barry
Fonte: SAGE Publications Publicador: SAGE Publications
Tipo: Article; PeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /04/2015 EN; EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.19%
The terms ‘English School’ (ES) and ‘international security’ seldom appear in the same sentence. Yet the ES can and should constitute a general approach to International Security Studies (ISS) comparable to realism, liberalism, constructivism and several other approaches to International relations (IR). The article begins by sketching out how the ES’s idea of raison de système provides a general framing for ISS that counterpoints approaches focused on raison d’état. It then shows how the ES’s societal approach provides specific insights that could strengthen analysis of international security: by providing a normative framing for securitization; by showing the historical variability of key ISS concepts such as war, balance of power and human rights; by adding an inside/outside dimension to security relations based on differentiations within international society; and by complementing regional approaches to international security with its societal approach. The article aims to initiate a conversation between the ES and ISS by showing where the fruitful links are, and by introducing the relevant ES literature to ISS scholars.