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Production of Nucleic Acid-Related Substances by Fermentation Processes: XXXIII. Accumulation of Inosine by a Mutant of Brevibacterium ammoniagenes

Furuya, Akira; Abe, Shigeo; Kinoshita, Shukuo
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /08/1970 EN
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25.96%
Inosine-producing cultures were found among mutants resistant to 6-mercaptoguanine (6MG) derived from a 5′-inosinic acid (IMP)-producing strain, KY 13102, of Brevibacterium ammoniagenes. Inosine-producing ability was very frequent among the mutants resistant to a low concentration (10 to 50 μg/ml) of 6MG. The accumulation of inosine by strain KY 13714 was stimulated by a low concentration of adenine (25 mg/liter) but was depressed by high levels of adenine. The accumulation by strain KY 13714 was not inhibited by manganese ion but instead was stimulated by its excess, in contrast to IMP accumulation by KY 13102. Addition of hypoxanthine at an early stage of cultivation accelerated inosine accumulation. Furthermore, on addition of hypoxanthine and of a surface-activating agent after 48 hr of cultivation, the simultaneous accumulation of IMP and inosine was observed. A 9.3-mg amount of inosine per ml accumulated after 4 days of cultivation at 30 C. The inosine-producing mutant did not differ from the IMP-producing strain either in 5′ purine nucleotide degradation or in IMP formation from hypoxanthine. However, it was found to be completely devoid of purine nucleoside-degrading activity. The conversion of IMP accumulation to inosine can be explained by the lack of nucleosidedegrading activity. The relationship between deficiency of nucleoside-degrading activity and resistance to low levels of 6MG is discussed...

Inosine binds to A3 adenosine receptors and stimulates mast cell degranulation.

Jin, X; Shepherd, R K; Duling, B R; Linden, J
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 01/12/1997 EN
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We investigated the mechanism by which inosine, a metabolite of adenosine that accumulates to > 1 mM levels in ischemic tissues, triggers mast cell degranulation. Inosine was found to do the following: (a) compete for [125I]N6-aminobenzyladenosine binding to recombinant rat A3 adenosine receptors (A3AR) with an IC50 of 25+/-6 microM; (b) not bind to A1 or A2A ARs; (c) bind to newly identified A3ARs in guinea pig lung (IC50 = 15+/-4 microM); (d) lower cyclic AMP in HEK-293 cells expressing rat A3ARs (ED50 = 12+/-5 microM); (e) stimulate RBL-2H3 rat mast-like cell degranulation (ED50 = 2.3+/-0.9 microM); and (f) cause mast cell-dependent constriction of hamster cheek pouch arterioles that is attenuated by A3AR blockade. Inosine differs from adenosine in not activating A2AARs that dilate vascular smooth muscle and inhibit mast cell degranulation. The A3 selectivity of inosine may explain why it elicits a monophasic arteriolar constrictor response distinct from the multiphasic dilator/constrictor response to adenosine. Nucleoside accumulation and an increase in the ratio of inosine to adenosine may provide a physiologic stimulus for mast cell degranulation in ischemic or inflamed tissues.

Inosine/pyruvate/phosphate medium but not adenosine/pyruvate/phosphate medium introduces millimolar amounts of 5-phosphoribosyl 1-pyrophosphate in human erythrocytes. A 31P-n.m.r. study.

Petersen, A; Quistorff, B
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 01/03/1990 EN
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Incubation of human erythrocytes in medium containing inosine (10 mM), pyruvate (10 mM), phosphate (50 mM) and NaCl (75 mM) at pH 6.6 leads to a more than 1000-fold increase in the concentration of 5-phosphoribosyl 1-pyrophosphate (PRPP), as identified and quantified by 31P-n.m.r. spectroscopy. The accumulation is highly pH-dependent, with a maximum at extracellular pH 6.60, and the maximum value of 1.3-1.6 mmol/l of erythrocytes is attained within 1 h at 37 degrees C. PRPP was accumulated despite high concentrations of 2,3-bisphosphoglycerate (2,3-BPG), an inhibitor of PRPP synthetase. The concentration of PRPP correlated with the intracellular concentration of inorganic phosphate (Pi). Substitution of either adenosine or adenosine plus inosine for inosine in the medium did not lead to 31P-n.m.r.-detectable accumulation of PRPP. These results show that neither 2,3-BPG nor PRPP itself inhibits the synthesis of PRPP in the human erythrocyte. Adenosine, however, prevents the inosine-stimulated accumulation of PRPP.

Inosine metabolism in the rat.

Sharma, R J; Fernando, A R; Griffiths, J R
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 15/12/1982 EN
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25.94%
1. Uptake and subsequent metabolism of purine and ribose moieties was monitored after intravenous administration of doubly labelled inosine. 2. More than 95% was cleared from the plasma within 5 min, and 99% within 20 min. 3. Approx. 50% of the 160 mumol total was rapidly incorporated into liver and kidney. Kidney removed the greatest amount (21 mumol/g wet wt.), about 10-fold more than heart, lung or liver. Lung and heart accounted for only 3%. These tissues then lost radioactivity during the remainder of the experiment. Radioactivity in the skeletal muscle, in contrast, increased from 8% of the injected dose at 5 min to 40% at 60 min. 4. In liver, kidney, heart and lung there was a significant difference in the fate of inosine. After initial incorporation of inosine, kidney predominantly lost inosine; heart preferentially lost purines; lung preferentially lost ribose radioactivity; and in liver the ribose radioactivity was rapidly lost, whereas purine was retained. Some of the ribose moiety was metabolized to glucose, presumably in the liver, and then released into the blood. Ribose radioactivity (probably as glucose) and radioactive hypoxanthine accumulated in skeletal muscle throughout the experiment. 5. Inosine caused a rapid and prolonged increase in the blood glucose content...

Inosine-stimulated insulin release and metabolism of inosine in isolated mouse pancreatic islets.

Capito, K; Hedeskov, C J
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 15/08/1976 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
25.98%
Inosine is a potent primary stimulus of insulin secretion from isolated mouse islets. The inosine-induced insulin secretion was totally depressed during starvation, but was completely restored by the addition of 5 mM-caffeine to the medium and partially restored by the addition of 5 mM-glucose. Mannoheptulose (3 mg/ml) potentiated the effect of 10 mM-inosine in islets from fed mice. The mechanism of the stimulatory effect of inosine was further investigated, and it was demonstrated that pancreatic islets contain a nucleoside phosphorylase capable of converting inosine into hypoxanthine and ribose 1-phosphate. Inosine at 10 mM concentration increased the lactate production and the content of ATP, glucose 6-phosphate (fructose 1,6-diphosphate + triose phosphates) and cyclic AMP in islets from fed mice. In islets from starved mice inosine-induced lactate production was decreased and no change in the concentration of cyclic AMP could be demonstrated, whereas the concentration of ATP and glucose 6-phosphate rose. Inosine (10 mM) induced a higher concentration of (fructose 1,6-diphosphate + triose phosphates) in islets from starved mice than in islets from fed mice suggesting that in starvation the activities of glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase or other enzymes below this step in glycolysis are decreased. Formation of glucose from inosine was negligible. Inosine had no direct effect on adenylate cyclase activity in islet homogenates. The observed changes in insulin secretion and islet metabolism mimic what is seen when glucose and glyceraldehyde stimulate insulin secretion...

Analogues of ribose 5-phosphate and 5-phosphoribosyl pyrophosphate. The preparation and properties of ribose 5-phosphorothioate and 5-phosphoribosyl 1-methylenediphosphonate

Murray, A. W.; Wong, P. C. L.; Friedrichs, Beverly
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /05/1969 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.64%
1. 5-Phosphoribosyl 1-methylenediphosphonate was isolated after reaction of ribose 5-phosphate and O-adenylyl methylenediphosphonate with 5-phosphoribosyl pyrophosphate synthetase from Ehrlich ascites-tumour cells. 2. The analogue reacted with adenine phosphoribosyltransferase, hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase and nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase [Km (analogue)/Km (5-phosphoribosyl pyrophosphate) 0·17, 0·19 and 6·3 respectively; Vmax. (analogue)/Vmax. (5-phosphoribosyl pyrophosphate) 0·011, 0·26 and 1·1 respectively]. 3. The analogue was not a substrate for 5-phosphoribosyl pyrophosphate amidotransferase or orotate phosphoribosyltransferase. 4. Ribose 5-phosphorothioate was synthesized by allowing ribose to react with thiophosphoryl chloride in triethyl phosphate. The analogue was a substrate for 5-phosphoribosyl pyrophosphate synthetase from Ehrlich ascites-tumour cells. When this reaction was coupled to either adenine phosphoribosyltransferase or hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase, adenosine 5′-phosphorothioate or inosine 5′-phosphorothioate was formed respectively.

The release of adenosine and inosine from canine subcutaneous adipose tissue by nerve stimulation and noradrenaline.

Fredholm, B B; Sollevi, A
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //1981 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
25.93%
1. Plasma and adipose tissue purine nucleosides were assayed by reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatography after purification of the samples on phenylboronate affinity gel. 2. The adenosine content of unstimulated subcutaneous adipose tissue was close to 1 n-mole/g. The concentrations of adenosine and inosine in canine arterial plasma were 0.26 +/- 0.03 and 0.16 +/- 0.03 microM, respectively. In venous plasma from the canine subcutaneous adipose tissue the corresponding values were 0.32 +/- 0.04 and 0.28 +/- 0.06 microM under basal conditions. The arterio-venous concentration difference of adenosine was linearly dependent upon the arterial adenosine concentration. At arterial concentrations below 0.3 microM there was a net production of adenosine; above 0.3 microM there was a net extraction of approximately 77% of the adenosine. Adenosine was extensively eliminated in blood. The major part of this elimination could be accounted for by metabolism to inosine, hypoxanthine and uric acid. 3. Following sympathetic nerve stimulation (4 Hz for 20 min) the rate of adenosine outflow from adipose tissue increased from 0.33 +/- 0.22 to a peak value of 1.2 +/- 0.26 n-mole/min. This corresponds to a net release of 8.7 +/- 3.0 n-mole/100 g tissue. Inosine outflow rose from 0.64 +/- 0.37 to 5.3 +/- 1.4 n-mole/min...

Effects of fluorocarbons, chlorinated solvents, and inosine on the cardiopulmonary system

Aviado, Domingo M.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /10/1978 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.87%
The effects of fluorocarbons and chlorinated solvents on the cardiopulmonary system are reviewed. The new information, not hitherto reported, relates to the antagonistic action of inosine, a naturally occurring nucleoside formed in the body by deamination of adenosine. The effect of inosine on methylene chloride toxicity was investigated in open chest dogs anesthetized with pentobarbital sodium. Methylene chloride (5% in air or 50,000 ppm) elicited a decrease of ventricular contractility represented by the diminished left ventricular (dp/dt)max and myocardial contractile force measured directly with a Walton-Brodie strain gauge arch. Coronary blood flow decreased slightly after exposure to methylene chloride. Arterial blood pressure and heart rate did not change. The negative inotropic effect of methylene chloride was reversed or prevented to a substantial extent by intravenous infusion of inosine (5 mg/kg-min). The effect of the latter compound was also characterized by significant coronary vasodilation. It was shown by the experiments that the cardiostimulatory action of inosine was associated with improved hypoxic adaptability of the coronary blood vessels. In contrast, the effect of catecholamines (epinephrine and isoproterenol) was not accompanied by such a beneficial coronary vascular effect. On the basis of these results...

THE NOVEL INOSINE ANALOGUE INO-2002 EXERTS AN ANTI-INFLAMMATORY EFFECT IN A MURINE MODEL OF ACUTE LUNG INJURY

Mabley, Jon G.; Pacher, Pal; Murthy, Kanneganti G.K.; Williams, William; Southan, Garry J.; Salzman, Andrew L.; Szabo, Csaba
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /09/2009 EN
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25.91%
Endogenous purines, including inosine, have been shown to exert immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory effects in a variety of disease models. The dosage of inosine required for these effects has been shown to be between 200 and 600 mg kg−1 because of the rapid metabolism of inosine in vivo. The aim of this study was to determine whether a metabolic resistant purine analog, INO-2002, exerts anti-inflammatory effects in an animal model of acute respiratory distress syndrome. Mice challenged with intratracheal LPS (50 μg) were treated with INO-2002 (30 or 100 mg kg−1, i.p.) in divided doses at either 1 and 12 h or at 5 and 16 h. After 24 h, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid was obtained to measure leukocyte infiltration by myeloperoxidase levels, lung edema by protein levels, and proinflammatory chemokine (macrophage inflammatory protein 1α) and cytokine (TNF-α, IL-1, and IL-6) levels. INO-2002 (30 and 100 mg kg−1) reduced the LPS-mediated infiltration of leukocytes and edema as evidenced by bronchoalveolar lavage fluid reduction in levels of myeloperoxidase and protein. INO-2002 also downregulated expression of the proinflammatory mediators macrophage inflammatory protein 1α, TNF-α, IL-1, and IL-6. Delaying the start of treatment by 5 h after LPS administration affected the potency of INO-2002 protective effects...

Inosine augments the effects of a Nogo receptor blocker and of environmental enrichment to restore skilled forelimb use after stroke

Zai, Laila; Ferrari, Christina; Dice, Carlie; Subbaiah, Sathish; Havton, Leif A.; Coppola, Giovanni; Geschwind, Daniel; Irwin, Nina; Huebner, Eric; Strittmatter, Stephen M.; Benowitz, Larry I.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 20/04/2011 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
25.91%
Stroke is the leading cause of disability in much of the world, with few treatment options available. Following unilateral stroke in rats, inosine, a naturally occurring purine nucleoside, stimulates the growth of projections from the undamaged hemisphere into denervated areas of the spinal cord and improves skilled use of the impaired forelimb. Inosine augments neurons’ intrinsic growth potential by activating Mst3b, a component of the signal-transduction pathway through which trophic factors regulate axon outgrowth. The present study investigated whether inosine would complement the effects of treatments that promote plasticity through other mechanisms. Following unilateral stroke in the rat forelimb motor area, inosine combined with NEP1-40, a Nogo receptor antagonist, doubled the number of axon branches extending from neurons in the intact hemisphere into the denervated side of the spinal cord compared to either treatment alone and restored rats’ level of skilled reaching using the impaired forepaw to preoperative levels. Similar functional improvements were seen when inosine was combined with environmental enrichment (EE). The latter effect was associated with changes in gene expression in layer 5 pyramidal neurons of the undamaged cortex well beyond those seen with inosine or EE alone. Inosine is now in clinical trials for other indications...

Structural Basis for the High-Affinity Inhibition of Mammalian Membranous Adenylyl Cyclase by 2′,3′-O-(N-Methylanthraniloyl)-Inosine 5′-TriphosphateS⃞

Hübner, Melanie; Dixit, Anshuman; Mou, Tung-Chung; Lushington, Gerald H.; Pinto, Cibele; Gille, Andreas; Geduhn, Jens; König, Burkhard; Sprang, Stephen R.; Seifert, Roland
Fonte: The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics Publicador: The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /07/2011 EN
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35.56%
2′,3′-O-(N-Methylanthraniloyl)-ITP (MANT-ITP) is the most potent inhibitor of mammalian membranous adenylyl cyclase (mAC) 5 (AC5, Ki, 1 nM) yet discovered and surpasses the potency of MANT-GTP by 55-fold (J Pharmacol Exp Ther 329:1156–1165, 2009). AC5 inhibitors may be valuable drugs for treatment of heart failure. The aim of this study was to elucidate the structural basis for the high-affinity inhibition of mAC by MANT-ITP. MANT-ITP was a considerably more potent inhibitor of the purified catalytic domains VC1 and IIC2 of mAC than MANT-GTP (Ki, 0.7 versus 18 nM). Moreover, there was considerably more efficient fluorescence resonance energy transfer between Trp1020 of IIC2 and the MANT group of MANT-ITP compared with MANT-GTP, indicating optimal interaction of the MANT group of MANT-ITP with the hydrophobic pocket. The crystal structure of MANT-ITP in complex with the Gsα- and forskolin-activated catalytic domains VC1:IIC2 compared with the existing MANT-GTP crystal structure revealed only subtle differences in binding mode. The higher affinity of MANT-ITP to mAC compared with MANT-GTP is probably due to fewer stereochemical constraints upon the nucleotide base in the purine binding pocket, allowing a stronger interaction with the hydrophobic regions of IIC2 domain...

The Pentose Moiety of Adenosine and Inosine Is an Important Energy Source for the Fermented-Meat Starter Culture Lactobacillus sakei CTC 494▿

Rimaux, T.; Vrancken, G.; Vuylsteke, B.; De Vuyst, L.; Leroy, F.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /09/2011 EN
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25.95%
The genome sequence of Lactobacillus sakei 23K has revealed that the species L. sakei harbors several genes involved in the catabolism of energy sources other than glucose in meat, such as glycerol, arginine, and nucleosides. In this study, a screening of 15 L. sakei strains revealed that arginine, inosine, and adenosine could be used as energy sources by all strains. However, no glycerol catabolism occurred in any of the L. sakei strains tested. A detailed kinetic analysis of inosine and adenosine catabolism in the presence of arginine by L. sakei CTC 494, a fermented-meat starter culture, was performed. It showed that nucleoside catabolism occurred as a mixed-acid fermentation in a pH range (pH 5.0 to 6.5) relevant for sausage fermentation. This resulted in the production of a mixture of acetic acid, formic acid, and ethanol from ribose, while the nucleobase (hypoxanthine and adenine in the case of fermentations with inosine and adenosine, respectively) was excreted into the medium stoichiometrically. This indicates that adenosine deaminase activity did not take place. The ratios of the different fermentation end products did not vary with environmental pH, except for the fermentation with inosine at pH 5.0, where lactic acid was produced too. In all cases...

Comparison of the Effects of Adenosine, Inosine, and Their Combination as an Adjunct to Reperfusion in the Treatment of Acute Myocardial Infarction

Shafy, Abdel; Molinié, Vincent; Cortes-Morichetti, Miguel; Hupertan, Vincent; Lila, Nermine; Chachques, Juan C.
Fonte: International Scholarly Research Network Publicador: International Scholarly Research Network
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 14/03/2012 EN
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25.87%
Adenosine and inosine are both key intracellular energy substrates for nucleotide synthesis by salvage pathways, especially during ischemic stress conditions. Additionally they both possess cell protective and cell repair properties. The objective of this study is to detect potential advantages of the combination of adenosine and inosine versus each drug alone, in terms of ventricular function, infarct size reduction and angiogenesis. Myocardial ischemia was created in rodents and treated with adenosine, inosine or their combination. Results of experiments showed that the combination of both drugs significantly reduced infarct size and improved myocardial angiogenesis and ventricular function. The two compounds, while chemically similar, use different intracellular pathways, allowing for complementary biological activities without overlapping. The drug combination at specific 1 : 5 adenosine : inosine dose ratio demonstrated positive cardiologic effects, deserving further evaluation as an adjunct to reperfusion techniques during and after acute coronary syndrome. The association of adenosine and inosine may contribute to reduce myocardial infarction morbidity and mortality rates.

Role of pertussis toxin-sensitive G-protein, K+ channels, and voltage-gated Ca2+ channels in the antinociceptive effect of inosine

Macedo-Junior, Sérgio José; Nascimento, Francisney Pinto; Luiz-Cerutti, Murilo; Santos, Adair Roberto Soares
Fonte: Springer Netherlands Publicador: Springer Netherlands
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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25.99%
Inosine is the first metabolite of adenosine. It exerts an antinociceptive effect by activating the adenosine A1 and A2A receptors. We have previously demonstrated that inosine exhibits antinociceptive properties in acute and chronic mice models of nociception. The aim of this study was to investigate the involvement of pertussis toxin-sensitive G-protein-coupled receptors, as well as K+ and Ca2+ channels, in the antinociception promoted by inosine in the formalin test. Mice were pretreated with pertussis toxin (2.5 μg/site, i.t., an inactivator of Gi/0 protein); after 7 days, they received inosine (10 mg/kg, i.p.) or morphine (2.5 mg/kg, s.c., used as positive control) immediately before the formalin test. Another group of animals received tetraethylammonium (TEA) or 4-aminopyridine (4-AP) (1 μg/site, i.t., a non-specific voltage-gated K+ channel blockers), apamin (50 ng/site, i.t., a small conductance Ca2+-activated K+ channel blocker), charybdotoxin (250 pg/site, i.t., a large-conductance Ca2+-activated K+ channel blocker), glibenclamide (100 μg/site, i.t., an ATP-sensitive K+ channel blocker) or CaCl2 (200 nmol/site, i.t.). Afterwards, the mice received inosine (10 mg/kg, i.p.), diclofenac (10 mg/kg, i.p., a positive control)...

The antidepressant-like effect of inosine in the FST is associated with both adenosine A1 and A2A receptors

Kaster, Manuella P.; Budni, Josiane; Gazal, Marta; Cunha, Mauricio P.; Santos, Adair R. S.; Rodrigues, Ana Lúcia S.
Fonte: Springer Netherlands Publicador: Springer Netherlands
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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25.89%
Inosine is an endogenous purine nucleoside, which is formed during the breakdown of adenosine. The adenosinergic system was already described as capable of modulating mood in preclinical models; we now explored the effects of inosine in two predictive models of depression: the forced swim test (FST) and tail suspension test (TST). Mice treated with inosine displayed higher anti-immobility in the FST (5 and 50 mg/kg, intraperitoneal route (i.p.)) and in the TST (1 and 10 mg/kg, i.p.) when compared to vehicle-treated groups. These antidepressant-like effects started 30 min and lasted for 2 h after intraperitoneal administration of inosine and were not accompanied by any changes in the ambulatory activity in the open-field test. Both adenosine A1 and A2A receptor antagonists prevented the antidepressant-like effect of inosine in the FST. In addition, the administration of an adenosine deaminase inhibitor (1 and 10 mg/kg, i.p.) also caused an antidepressant-like effect in the FST. These results indicate that inosine possesses an antidepressant-like effect in the FST and TST probably through the activation of adenosine A1 and A2A receptors, further reinforcing the potential of targeting the purinergic system to the management of mood disorders.

Anti-inflammatory effects of inosine in allergic lung inflammation in mice: evidence for the participation of adenosine A2A and A3 receptors

da Rocha Lapa, Fernanda; de Oliveira, Ana Paula Ligeiro; Accetturi, Beatriz Golega; de Oliveira Martins, Isabelli; Domingos, Helory Vanni; de Almeida Cabrini, Daniela; de Lima, Wothan Tavares; Santos, Adair Roberto Soares
Fonte: Springer Netherlands Publicador: Springer Netherlands
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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25.95%
Inosine, a naturally occurring purine formed from the breakdown of adenosine, is associated with immunoregulatory effects. Evidence shows that inosine modulates lung inflammation and regulates cytokine generation. However, its role in controlling allergen-induced lung inflammation has yet to be identified. In this study, we aimed to investigate the role of inosine and adenosine receptors in a murine model of lung allergy induced by ovalbumin (OVA). Intraperitoneal administration of inosine (0.001–10 mg/kg, 30 min before OVA challenge) significantly reduced the number of leukocytes, macrophages, lymphocytes and eosinophils recovered in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of sensitized mice compared with controls. Interestingly, our results showed that pre-treatment with the selective A2A receptor antagonist (ZM241385), but not with the selective A2B receptor antagonist (alloxazine), reduced the inhibitory effects of inosine against macrophage count, suggesting that A2A receptors mediate monocyte recruitment into the lungs. In addition, the pre-treatment of mice with selective A3 antagonist (MRS3777) also prevented inosine effects against macrophages, lymphocytes and eosinophils. Histological analysis confirmed the effects of inosine and A2A adenosine receptors on cell recruitment and demonstrated that the treatment with ZM241385 and alloxazine reverted inosine effects against mast cell migration into the lungs. Accordingly...

Adenosine and inosine exert cytoprotective effects in an in vitro model of liver ischemia-reperfusion injury

MÓDIS, KATALIN; GERŐ, DOMOKOS; STANGL, RITA; ROSERO, OLIVÉR; SZIJÁRTÓ, ATTILA; LOTZ, GÁBOR; MOHÁCSIK, PETRA; SZOLECZKY, PETRA; COLETTA, CIRO; SZABÓ, CSABA
Fonte: D.A. Spandidos Publicador: D.A. Spandidos
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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25.99%
Liver ischemia represents a common clinical problem. In the present study, using an in vitro model of hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury, we evaluated the potential cytoprotective effect of the purine metabolites, such as adenosine and inosine, and studied the mode of their pharmacological actions. The human hepatocellular carcinoma-derived cell line HepG2 was subjected to combined oxygen-glucose deprivation (COGD; 0-14-24 h), followed by re-oxygenation (0-4-24 h). Adenosine or inosine (300–1,000 μM) were applied in pretreatment. Cell viability and cytotoxicity were measured by the 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide and lactate dehydrogenase methods, respectively. The results showed that both adenosine and inosine exerted cytoprotective effects, and these effects were not related to receptor-mediated actions, since they were not prevented by selective adenosine receptor antagonists. On the other hand, the adenosine deaminase inhibitor erythro-9-(2-hydroxy-3-nonyl) adenine hydrochloride (EHNA, 10 μM) markedly and almost fully reversed the protective effect of adenosine during COGD, while it did not influence the cytoprotective effect of inosine in the same assay conditions. These results suggest that the cytoprotective effects are related to intracellular actions...

Purification and properties of inosine-guanosine phosphorylase from Escherichia coli K-12.

Koszalka, G W; Vanhooke, J; Short, S A; Hall, W W
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /08/1988 EN
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25.95%
A xanthosine-inducible enzyme, inosine-guanosine phosphorylase, has been partially purified from a strain of Escherichia coli K-12 lacking the deo-encoded purine nucleoside phosphorylase. Inosine-guanosine phosphorylase had a particle weight of 180 kilodaltons and was rapidly inactivated by p-chloromercuriphenylsulfonic acid (p-CMB). The enzyme was not protected from inactivation by inosine (Ino), 2'-deoxyinosine (dIno), hypoxanthine (Hyp), Pi, or alpha-D-ribose-1-phosphate (Rib-1-P). Incubating the inactive enzyme with dithiothreitol restored the catalytic activity. Reaction with p-CMB did not affect the particle weight. Inosine-guanosine phosphorylase was more sensitive to thermal inactivation than purine nucleoside phosphorylase. The half-life determined at 45 degrees C between pH 5 and 8 was 5 to 9 min. Phosphate (20 mM) stabilized the enzyme to thermal inactivation, while Ino (1 mM), dIno (1 mM), xanthosine (Xao) (1 mM), Rib-1-P (2 mM), or Hyp (0.05 mM) had no effect. However, Hyp at 1 mM did stabilize the enzyme. In addition, the combination of Pi (20 mM) and Hyp (0.05 mM) stabilized this enzyme to a greater extent than did Pi alone. Apparent activation energies of 11.5 kcal/mol and 7.9 kcal/mol were determined in the phosphorolytic and synthetic direction...

Inosine-Mediated Modulation of RNA Sensing by Toll-Like Receptor 7 (TLR7) and TLR8

Sarvestani, Soroush T.; Tate, Michelle D.; Moffat, Jessica M.; Jacobi, Ashley M.; Behlke, Mark A.; Miller, Alistair R.; Beckham, Simone A.; McCoy, Claire E.; Chen, Weisan; Mintern, Justine D.; O'Keeffe, Meredith; John, Matthias; Williams, Bryan R. G.; Gan
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /01/2014 EN
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25.93%
RNA-specific adenosine deaminase (ADAR)-mediated adenosine-to-inosine (A-to-I) editing is a critical arm of the antiviral response. However, mechanistic insights into how A-to-I RNA editing affects viral infection are lacking. We posited that inosine incorporation into RNA facilitates sensing of nonself RNA by innate immune sensors and accordingly investigated the impact of inosine-modified RNA on Toll-like receptor 7 and 8 (TLR7/8) sensing. Inosine incorporation into synthetic single-stranded RNA (ssRNA) potentiated tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) or alpha interferon (IFN-α) production in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) in a sequence-dependent manner, indicative of TLR7/8 recruitment. The effect of inosine incorporation on TLR7/8 sensing was restricted to immunostimulatory ssRNAs and was not seen with inosine-containing short double-stranded RNAs or with a deoxy-inosine-modified ssRNA. Inosine-mediated increase of self-secondary structure of an ssRNA resulted in potentiated IFN-α production in human PBMCs through TLR7 recruitment, as established through the use of a TLR7 antagonist and Tlr7-deficient cells. There was a correlation between hyperediting of influenza A viral ssRNA and its ability to stimulate TNF-α...

Antiarrhythmic and arrhythmogenic action of inosine in experimental ventricular tachyarrhythmias

de Micheli,Alfredo; Pastelín,Gustavo; Chávez Domínguez,Rafael; Iturralde Torres,Pedro; Medrano,Gustavo A
Fonte: Elsevier Publicador: Elsevier
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/09/2009 EN
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Objective: To study the possible action of inosine on experimental ventricular tachyarrhythmias. Material and methods: We used 92 mongrel dogs weighing 13 kg-17 kg, anesthetized with 30 mg/kg sodium pentobarbital applied intravenously. Myocardial lesions were induced by injecting 1ml-1.5 ml of 70% phenol in the free wall of the left ventricle. In 36 dogs, the ventricular arrhythmia (VT) was induced 30 min later with aconitine crystals inserted into the periphery of the damaged area; in 16, VT was due only to myocardial damage and in the other 13 VT was spontaneously originated. Twenty-nine animals constituted the control group; no inosine was administered to them. The possible effects of inosine were studied in 63 animals. Leads II, aVR or aVL, right and left unipolar intraventricular leads and that on the wall of the superior vena cava were recorded under control conditions, once the myocardial damage had been induced, during the ventricular tachycardia, and following the injection of inosine. Of the 63 inosine-treated animals; in 34, VT was due to aconitine; in 16, it was produced only by the myocardial damage and, in 13, VT was presented spontaneously. Results: Sinus rhythm was not reestablished in the animals of the control group. Inosine reestablished the sinus rhythm in 26 of 34 dogs (76%) that received phenol and aconitine...