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Controle de perdas na ensilagem de capim Tanzânia (Panicum maximum Jacq. cv. Tanzânia) sob os efeitos do teor de matéria seca, do tamanho de partícula, da estação do ano e da presença do inoculante bacteriano.; Losses of tanzania grass silage (panicum maximum, jacq. cv. tanzania) affected by dry matter level, particle size, season and bacterial inoculant addition.

Igarasi, Mauricio Scoton
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 14/03/2002 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.26%
O objetivo do presente projeto de pesquisa foi a caracterização do processo de ensilagem de capim Tanzânia (Panicum maximum, Jacq.), avaliando a eficiência de colheita da forragem, as perdas durante o processo fermentativo, e o valor nutritivo da silagem. Para a colheita e captação da forragem foi utilizada uma colhedora de forragem comercial, efetuando cortes no inverno e no verão, em uma área destinada a produção de silagem. Para cada corte foram estabelecidos 12 tratamentos com 4 repetições, sendo analisados os efeitos da alteração do teor de matéria seca (forragem na umidade original, pré-emurchecida e a adição de polpa cítrica), do tamanho de partículas (2 níveis), e da aplicação ou não de aditivo bacteriano (1 milhão UFC viáveis/g de forragem ensilada). Nas amostras do material ensilado (forragem) e da silagem (após 120 dias do fechamento dos silos experimentais), foram analisadas o tamanho de partícula, atividade de água, condutividade elétrica,MS, EE, PB, MM, N-NH3, FDA, FDN, N-FDN, N-FDA, Lignina, nitrogênio amoniacal, pH e poder tampão. Também foram avaliadas as perdas de matéria seca na forma de gases, a produção de efluente, recuperação de matéria seca, além da determinação da estabilidade aeróbia da silagem. A análise estatística caracteriza-se em arranjo em parcelas subdivididas (split-plot)...

Efeitos da concentração de matéria seca e do uso de inoculante bacteriano-enzimático, na silagem de tifton 85 (Cynodon spp.), sobre a digestão de nutrientes, parâmetros ruminais e comportamento ingestivo em novilhos de corte em crescimento.; Effects of the dry matter concentration and use of bacterial-enzymatic inoculant, in tifton 85 (Cynodon spp.) silage, on the nutrient digestion, ruminal parameters and ingestive behavior in growing beef steers.

Coelho, Rodrigo Michelini
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 20/09/2002 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.44%
O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o efeito do emurchecimento da forragem associado ou não ao uso do aditivo bacteriano-enzimático na ensilagem do capim Tifton 85 (Cynodon spp.). Foi realizada avaliação de perdas nos painéis das silagens experimentais, assim como da composição bromatológica e do tamanho de partículas das mesmas. Ocorreram observações periódicas de comportamento ingestivo, consistência ruminal, consumo voluntário, parâmetros de fermentação ruminal, digestibilidade dos nutrientes, taxa de passagem de sólidos e líquidos ruminais em novilhos que receberam rações contendo 80% desses volumosos na base seca. Foram utilizados sete novilhos da raça Nelore, distribuídos ao acaso em um experimento do tipo quadrado latino 7 x 7. Os tratamentos avaliados foram resultantes da combinação de 3 concentrações de matéria seca (MS) na silagem do capim Tifton 85 (25, 45 e 65%) associadas (CA) ou não (SA) ao aditivo bacteriano-enzimático. Um tratamento adicional contendo 55% MS sem aditivo também foi avaliado. O aditivo utilizado foi o produto comercial SIL–ALL®, contendo cepas de Streptococcus faecium, Lactobacillus plantarum, Pediococcus acidilactici e as enzimas hemicelulase, celulase e amilase...

Eficiência do uso de fertilizantes, fungicidas e inoculante no tratamento de sementes de soja; Efficiency of fertilizers, fungicides and inoculant utilization in the soybean seed treatment

Beltrame, Loduvino Consalter
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 09/10/2009 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.26%
Com objetivo de avaliar a eficiência do uso de fertilizante (contendo macronutrientes - nitrogênio, fósforo e potássio - e micronutrientes - cobalto e molibdênio), associado a fungicida e a inoculante, no tratamento de sementes de soja (variedade cultivada FT-Abyara), foram realizados dois experimentos, em laboratório (2007) e em campo (safra agrícola de 2007/2008), no Departamento de Biologia da Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, em Santa Maria-RS. O experimento I constou de tratamentos de doses de macronutrientes e micronutrientes em mistura com os fungicidas Thiram e Carbendazim aplicados em Bradyrhizobium spp. em meio de cultura YMA. O experimento II foi realizado para avaliar o efeito do tratamento de sementes de soja com micronutrientes e fungicidas na sobrevivência de Bradyrhizobium spp. e sua influência no crescimento da planta. Com relação aos diferentes fertilizantes avaliados, verifica-se que o maior número de nódulos por planta e maior massa de matéria seca de nódulos foi obtido com os compostos que continham cobalto e molibdênio, resultado também observado em relação aos tratamentos com fungicidas. Os resultados experimentais permitem inferir que todos os tratamentos com fertilizantes aplicados via sementes aumentaram significativamente a altura de planta...

Análise térmica de ligas Al-Si com adição de inoculante.; Thermal analysis of the Al-Si alloys with addition of inoculant.

Rojas Arango, Juan Marcelo
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 18/12/2009 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.55%
As ligas Al-Si hipoeutéticas têm grande importância na indústria de fundição de peças devido às excelentes propriedades de fundição, como baixo ponto de fusão e alta fluidez. A análise térmica das curvas de resfriamento medidas durante a solidificação destas ligas pode ser utilizada para controlar a formação da macroestrutura de grãos. Esta análise envolve a determinação das temperaturas de início e final de solidificação, bem como a evolução da fração de sólido com o tempo a partir da chamada análise térmica de Fourier. Apesar desta técnica ter sido aplicada a diversas ligas comerciais, existem poucos dados referentes às ligas Al-Si binárias. Os dados são ainda mais escassos quando se deseja examinar o efeito do tratamento de inoculação do metal líquido para refino de grão. O objetivo do presente trabalho é investigar o efeito do tratamento de inoculação nas ligas binárias Al-3%Si, Al-7%Si e Al-11%Si através da análise térmica e metalográfica. Foram obtidos lingotes cilíndricos a partir do vazamento da liga Al-Si líquida com ou sem a adição de inoculante na forma da liga mãe Al-3%Ti-1%B, adicionada para se obter um teor nominal de 0,05%Ti. Curvas de resfriamento foram medidas a partir de termopares inseridos no interior da cavidade do molde...

Comparação e desenvolvimento de metodologias para identificação molecular das estirpes recomendadas para produção de inoculantes para soja, milho e trigo; Comparison and development of methodologies for molecular identification of recommended strains for inoculant´s production for soybean, corn and wheat

Bruxel, Manuela
Fonte: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul Publicador: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul
Tipo: Dissertação Formato: application/pdf
POR
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O Brasil é o segundo maior produtor de inoculantes do mundo e possui uma das legislações mais rigorosas para qualidade de inoculantes, entretanto com o grande desenvolvimento de novas estirpes e produtos, novas metodologias de análise dos produtos devem ser pesquisadas visando melhor qualidade e praticidade. A utilização de métodos de análise de perfis genômicos, direto do produto inoculante, para a caracterização dos microrganismos recomendados para inoculação no País foi o objetivo do presente estudo. Foram utilizadas as quatro estirpes recomendadas para soja, duas recomendadas pra milho/trigo e vinte produtos inoculantes com misturas dos referidos microrganismos, em diversas formulações. As estirpes isoladas, suas misturas e os inoculantes foram caracterizados quanto ao melhor tipo de extração de DNA, coloração do gel de agarose e através de técnicas moleculares, com análise da distribuição dos elementos repetitivos BOX e ERIC, de oligonucleotídeos iniciadores específicos para bradirrizóbios e eletroforese em gel com gradiente desnaturante (DGGE). Os resultados obtidos mostram que a extração realizada com kit apresenta maior concentração de DNA extraído e melhor qualidade, quando comparada às demais. A coloração dos géis de agarose foi padronizada para utilização do corante Blue green. As análises com a técnica de DGGE permitiu a identificação das estirpes recomendadas para soja dentro do produto inoculante.; Brazil is the second largest producer of inoculants in the world and has one of the more stringent law´s quality...

The effect of exogenous fibrolytic enzymes and a ferulic acid esterase-producing inoculant on the fibre degradability, chemical composition and conservation characteristics of alfalfa silage

Lynch, J. P.; Jin, L.; Lara, E. C.; Baah, J.; Beauchemin, K. A.
Fonte: Elsevier B.V. Publicador: Elsevier B.V.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 21-31
ENG
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The objective of this study was to determine the effect of applying fibrolytic enzymes at ensiling, either alone or in combination with a ferulic acid esterase-producing bacterial silage inoculant, on the silage conservation characteristics and nutritive value of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L). Second-cut alfalfa (340 g DM/kg fresh crop) was harvested, wilted, chopped and sub-sampled into 24 batches. Samples were randomly allocated in triplicate to one of four enzyme product treatments supplying endoglucanases and xylanases: none (control), EN1, EN2, EN3; applied alone or in combination with a ferulic acid esterase-producing silage inoculant (FAEI). Treatments were arranged in a 4 x 2 factorial design. All enzyme treatments were applied at 2 ml enzyme product/kg herbage DM, and inoculant was applied at 1 x 10(5) cfu/g fresh herbage. Samples were packed into laboratory-scale silos and stored for 7, 27 or 70 days, and analysed for dry matter (DM) losses, aerobic stability, chemical composition and in vitro ruminal degradability. The use of enzymes did not affect (P>0.05) ensilage DM losses or lactic or acetic acid concentrations after 70 days of ensilage, compared to the control silage. Silage produced using EN1 had lesser neutral detergent fibre (aNDF...

Inoculation of sugarcane with diazotrophic bacteria

Schultz,Nivaldo; Silva,Jeferson Alves da; Sousa,Jailson Silva; Monteiro,Rafael Cassador; Oliveira,Renan Pedula; Chaves,Valfredo Almeida; Pereira,Willian; Silva,Marinete Flores da; Baldani,José Ivo; Boddey,Robert Michael; Reis,Veronica Massena; Urquiaga,S
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira de Ciência do Solo Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira de Ciência do Solo
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/04/2014 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
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The sugarcane industry, a strategic crop in Brazil, requires technological improvements in production efficiency to increase the crop energy balance. Among the various currently studied alternatives, inoculation with diazotrophic bacteria proved to be a technology with great potential. In this context, the efficiency of a mixture of bacterial inoculant was evaluated with regard to the agronomic performance and N nutrition of sugarcane. The experiment was carried out on an experimental field of Embrapa Agrobiologia, in Seropédica, Rio de Janeiro, using a randomized block, 2 × 3 factorial design (two varieties and three treatments) with four replications, totaling 24 plots. The varieties RB867515 and RB72454 were tested in treatments consisting of: inoculation with diazotrophic bacteria, N-fertilized control with 120 kg ha-1 N and absolute control (no inoculation and no N fertilizer). The inoculum was composed of five strains of five diazotrophic species. The yield, dry matter accumulation, total N in the shoot dry matter and the contribution of N by biological fixation were evaluated, using the natural 15N abundance in non-inoculated sugarcane as reference. The bacterial inoculant increased the stalk yield of variety RB72454 similarly to fertilization with 120 kg ha-1 N in the harvests of plant-cane and first ratoon crops...

Polymers as carriers for rhizobial inoculant formulations

Fernandes Júnior,Paulo Ivan; Rohr,Tiago Gusmão; Oliveira,Paulo Jansen de; Xavier,Gustavo Ribeiro; Rumjanek,Norma Gouvêa
Fonte: Embrapa Informação Tecnológica; Pesquisa Agropecuária Brasileira Publicador: Embrapa Informação Tecnológica; Pesquisa Agropecuária Brasileira
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/09/2009 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
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The aim of this work was to evaluate the efficiency of carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) and starch blends as carrier materials of rhizobial inoculants regarding their capacity to maintain viable cells and promote cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) nodulation. The experimental design adopted was completely randomized, with three replicates. Forty different compositions of carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) with starch, compatibilized or not with different proportions of MgO or ZnO, were evaluated regarding their ability of maintaining rhizobial viable cells during the storage period of one month at room temperature, in an initial screening. Thereafter, selected inoculant carrier blends were evaluated regarding their ability to maintain viable rhizobial cells for a period of 165 days, and their performance as inoculant carriers was compared to a peat-based inoculant carrier under greenhouse conditions. Rhizobial cells were better maintained in blends containing 50-60% CMC. Compatibilizing agents did not increase survival of rhizobial cells for 30 days of storage. The cowpea nodulation of polymer blends was statistically the same of peat-based inoculants. CMC/starch polymer blends are efficient carriers to rhizobial inoculants for up to 165 days of storage...

Mixed sugarcane and elephant grass silages with or without bacterial inoculant

Cavali,Jucilene; Pereira,Odilon Gomes; Valadares Filho,Sebastião de Campos; Porto,Marlos Oliveira; Fernandes,Francisco Eden Paiva; Garcia,Rasmo
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira de Zootecnia Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira de Zootecnia
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/03/2010 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.7%
The effects of different ratios of sugarcane and elephant grass (0:100, 25:75, 50:50, 75:25 and 100:0% of the natural basis) were assessed on the chemical composition and losses in silages treated with a bacterial inoculant, using laboratory silos. A 2 × 5 factorial arrangement (with and without inoculant and five elephant grass ratios) in a randomized blocks design with three replications was used. Interaction was observed in the sugarcane and elephant grass ratio × bacterial inoculant for crude protein (CP) and pH. The other variables were influenced only by the increasing proportions of elephant grass. The contents of dry matter, neutral detergent fiber corrected for ashes and protein, acid detergent fiber, insoluble protein in acid detergent fiber, hemicellulose and lignin in the silages increased linearly with the proportions of elephant grass. The water soluble carbohydrate contents and dry matter in vitro digestibility of the silages decreased linearly with the increase in the proportion of elephant grass. The mean value of ammonia nitrogen in relation to total N was 7.0% (% of DM). The CP values of the inoculated and non-inoculated silage fitted linear models. The highest CP content was observed in the silage treated with inoculant. The pH values of the silages...

Nutritional and fermentation parameters of Xaraés grass silage produced with bacterial additive

Silva,Erickson Tiago Pinheiro da; Guimarães,Kátia Cylene; Marques,Karolyna Oliveira; Carvalho,Thony Assis; Antonio,Patricia; Vieira Junior,Marcos Ires Rodrigues
Fonte: Editora da Universidade Estadual de Maringá - EDUEM Publicador: Editora da Universidade Estadual de Maringá - EDUEM
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/09/2014 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
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The use of bacterial additives in forage silages with low content of dry matter prevents undesirable fermentation and reduces losses by gases (PG) and effluents (PE) during the ensiling process. This study aimed to evaluate the fermentation parameters, chemical composition and in vitro digestibility of silage of Urochloa brizantha cv. Xaraés produced with bacterial additive. The inoculant contained the following strains: Propionibacterium acidipropionici + Lactobacillus plantarum; Lactobacillus buchnari; Propionibacterium acipropionici + commercial enzymes and Lactobacillus plantarum and Pediococcus pentosaccus, at 0, 25, 50, 75, 100, and 125% of the recommended level for sugarcane (2 g ton-1). The experiment was a completely randomized design with four replications, and six levels of inoculant (0, 25, 50, 75, 100, and 125%). There was a quadratic relationship between the inoculant addition and the levels of pH, PE, DMIVD, NDF, ADF and LIG of the silage. PG and MM increased linearly with the addition of inoculant. The N-NH3, DM, CP, CEL, HEM and EE were not affected by the inoculant. Bacterial additive at 50% provided increased DMIVD. Appropriate values were found for pH and NH3.

Soybean silage in the diet for beef cattle

Rigueira,João Paulo Sampaio; Pereira,Odilon Gomes; Filho,Sebastião de Campos Valadares; Ribeiro,Karina Guimarães; Garcia,Rasmo; Cezário,Andréia Santos
Fonte: Editora da Universidade Estadual de Maringá - EDUEM Publicador: Editora da Universidade Estadual de Maringá - EDUEM
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/03/2015 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.64%
This experiment evaluated the effect of molasses with or without microbial additive on soybean silage regarding the intake, digestibility and growth performance of beef cattle. The experimental design used was randomized blocks with four treatments (diets with soybean silage (SS), SS with microbial inoculant, SS with molasses and SS with microbial inoculant and molasses) and seven replications. Animal were feedlot fed for 99 days. Diets contained forage: concentrate ratio of 70:30, the forage consisted of 40% soybean silage and 30% corn silage. There was lower intake of nutrients in the diet containing SS in relation to the SS diet added with inoculant and molasses. The diet containing SS with inoculant and molasses presented higher apparent digestibility for DM, CP, NDF, ADF, and NFC. Feed conversion, average daily gain and carcass gain were not influenced by the diets, with mean values of 5.90; 1.49 and 0,91 kg day-1 respectively. The addition of molasses combined or not with bacterial inoculant to soybean at the time of ensiling has no effect on the performance of beef cattle, although favoring the intake and digestibility of nutrients.

Selection and application of Streptococcus bovis as a silage inoculant.

Jones, B A; Muck, R E; Ricke, S C
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /10/1991 EN
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27.86%
Three strains of Streptococcus bovis, a homolactic bacterium capable of utilizing starch, were evaluated for growth kinetics and ability to decrease the pH of alfalfa silage. A selected strain was evaluated for its competitiveness as an inoculant with Enterococcus faecium, an organism used in inoculants, and for its ability to enhance the effect of a commercial inoculant. Testing was completed over three studies using wilted alfalfa (28 to 34% dry matter) ensiled into laboratory silos. Treatments were control, E. faecium, E. faecium and commercial inoculant, S. bovis, and S. bovis and commercial inoculant. Replicate silos were emptied and analyzed at 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 8, and 40 days for pH, fermentation products, and nitrogen fractions. S. bovis alone lowered the pH quicker and improved silage parameters early in the fermentation compared with E. faecium, the commercial inoculant, and control treatments. When combined with a commercial inoculant, S. bovis lowered pH more quickly than the commercial inoculant alone and E. faecium plus commercial inoculant. At 40 days, S. bovis combination had lower pH and ammonia nitrogen and acetate contents than the E. faecium combination. Starch in the silage was not utilized by S. bovis as had been anticipated. Results indicate that S. bovis was more effective than E. faecium as a silage inoculant and could enhance a commercial inoculant on low-dry-matter alfalfa.

Bradyrhizobium japonicum Inoculant Mobility, Nodule Occupancy, and Acetylene Reduction in the Soybean Root System

McDermott, Timothy R.; Graham, Peter H.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /10/1989 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
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In the American Midwest, superior inoculant rhizobia applied to soybeans usually occupy only 5 to 20% of nodules, and response to inoculation is the exception rather than the rule. Attempts to overcome this problem have met with limited success. We evaluated the ability of Bradyrhizobium japonicum, supplied as a seed coat inoculant, to stay abreast of the infectible region of the developing soybean root system. The rhizoplane population of the inoculant strain declined with distance from site of placement, the decrease being more pronounced on lateral than on taproots. This decline was paralleled by a decrease in inoculant-strain nodule occupancy. Inoculant bradyrhizobia contributed little to nodulation of lateral roots, which at pod-fill accounted for more than 50% of nodule number and mass, and were major contributors to acetylene reduction activity. From these data, it appears that inoculant bradyrhizobia are competitive with indigenous soil strains at the point of placement in the soil but have limited mobility and so are incapable of sustaining high populations throughout the developing root system. The result is low nodule occupancy by the inoculant strain in the tapand lateral roots. Future studies should address aspects of inoculant placement and establishment.

Methods To Alter the Recovery and Nodule Location of Bradyrhizobium japonicum Inoculant Strains on Field-Grown Soybeans

Kamicker, Barbara J.; Brill, Winston J.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /08/1987 EN
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Three strains of Bradyrhizobium japonicum, I17, 110, and 61A76, were evaluated for their ability to form nodules on field-grown soybeans in soil with a highly competitive indigenous B. japonicum population. The predominant indigenous strain, 0336, in the field site used was unlike the more common isolates from Midwestern soils which belong to the 123 or 138 serogroups. This strain persisted in the soil for at least 30 years without any soybean crops. The three inoculant strains differed in their ability to compete with indigenous strains for nodule formation. Four different inoculation treatments were tested in three adjacent fields. When the amount of inoculum was increased, a higher proportion of nodules contained the inoculant strain. The most competitive inoculant strain was I17, a recent field isolate. Strain 61A76 was better than 110. There was no difference in recovery of the inoculant strains on the Hodgson or Corsoy soybean cultivars, nor was there a difference in recovery of the inoculant strains during the growing season. The vertical distribution of nodules containing the inoculant strains was affected by the method of adding the inoculant to the soil. Inoculant added to the seed furrow produced nodules mainly in the top region of the soybean root. Inoculant tilled into the soil produced nodules primarily in the bottom part of the root. The nodules that were produced in the bottom part of the root are younger and may contribute significant amounts of fixed nitrogen to the soybean during seed formation.

Dilution of Liquid Rhizobium Cultures To Increase Production Capacity of Inoculant Plants †

Somasegaran, Padmanabhan; Halliday, Jake
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /08/1982 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.44%
Experiments were undertaken to test whether peat-based legume seed inoculants, which are prepared with liquid cultures that have been deliberately diluted, can attain and sustain acceptable numbers of viable rhizobia. Liquid cultures of Rhizobium japonicum and Rhizobium phaseoli were diluted to give 108, 107, or 106 cells per ml, using either deionized water, quarter-strength yeast-mannitol broth, yeast-sucrose broth, or yeast-water. The variously diluted cultures were incorporated into gamma-irradiated peat, and the numbers of viable rhizobia were determined at intervals. In all of the inoculant formulations, the numbers of rhizobia reached similarly high ceiling values by 1 week after incorporation, irrespective not only of the number of cells added initially but also of the nature of the diluent. During week 1 of growth, similar multiplication patterns of the diluted liquid cultures were observed in two different peats. Numbers of rhizobia surviving in the various inoculant formulations were not markedly different after 6 months of storage at 28°C. The method of inoculant preparation did not affect the nitrogen fixation effectiveness of the Rhizobium strains.

Evidence of Horizontal Transfer of Symbiotic Genes from a Bradyrhizobium japonicum Inoculant Strain to Indigenous Diazotrophs Sinorhizobium (Ensifer) fredii and Bradyrhizobium elkanii in a Brazilian Savannah Soil▿

Barcellos, Fernando Gomes; Menna, Pâmela; da Silva Batista, Jesiane Stefânia; Hungria, Mariangela
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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27.44%
The importance of horizontal gene transfer (HGT) in the evolution and speciation of bacteria has been emphasized; however, most studies have focused on genes clustered in pathogenesis and very few on symbiosis islands. Both soybean (Glycine max [L.] Merrill) and compatible Bradyrhizobium japonicum and Bradyrhizobium elkanii strains are exotic to Brazil and have been massively introduced in the country since the early 1960s, occupying today about 45% of the cropped land. For the past 10 years, our group has obtained several isolates showing high diversity in morphological, physiological, genetic, and symbiotic properties in relation to the putative parental inoculant strains. In this study, parental strains and putative natural variants isolated from field-grown soybean nodules were genetically characterized in relation to conserved genes (by repetitive extragenic palindromic PCR using REP and BOX A1R primers, PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism, and sequencing of the 16SrRNA genes), nodulation, and N2-fixation genes (PCR-RFLP and sequencing of nodY-nodA, nodC, and nifH genes). Both genetic variability due to adaptation to the stressful environmental conditions of the Brazilian Cerrados and HGT events were confirmed. One strain (S 127) was identified as an indigenous B. elkanii strain that acquired a nodC gene from the inoculant B. japonicum. Another one (CPAC 402) was identified as an indigenous Sinorhizobium (Ensifer) fredii strain that received the whole symbiotic island from the B. japonicum inoculant strain and maintained an extra copy of the original nifH gene. The results highlight the strategies that bacteria may commonly use to obtain ecological advantages...

Evidence of horizontal transfer of symbiotic genes from a Bradyrhizobium japonicum inoculant strain to indigenous diazotrophs Sinorhizobium (Ensifer) fredii and Bradyrhizobium elkanii in a brazilian savannah soil.

BARCELLOS, F. G.; MENNA, P.; BATISTA, J. S. da S.; HUNGRIA, M.
Fonte: Applied and Environmental Microbiology, v. 73, n. 8, p. 2635-2643, Apr. 2007. Publicador: Applied and Environmental Microbiology, v. 73, n. 8, p. 2635-2643, Apr. 2007.
Tipo: Artigo em periódico indexado (ALICE)
EN
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The importance of horizontal gene transfer (HGT) in the evolution and speciation of bacteria has been emphasized; however, most studies have focused on genes clustered in pathogenesis and very few on symbiosis islands. Both soybean (Glycine max [L.] Merrill) and compatible Bradyrhizobium japonicum and Bradyrhizobium elkanii strains are exotic to Brazil and have been massively introduced in the country since the early 1960s, occupying today about 45% of the cropped land. For the past 10 years, our group has obtained several isolates showing high diversity in morphological, physiological, genetic, and symbiotic properties in relation to the putative parental inoculant strains. In this study, parental strains and putative natural variants isolated from field-grown soybean nodules were genetically characterized in relation to conserved genes (by repetitive extragenic palindromic PCR using REP and BOX A1R primers, PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism, and sequencing of the 16SrRNA genes), nodulation, and N2-fixation genes (PCR-RFLP and sequencing of nodY-nodA, nodC, and nifH genes). Both genetic variability due to adaptation to the stressful environmental conditions of the Brazilian Cerrados and HGT events were confirmed. One strain (S 127) was identified as an indigenous B. elkanii strain that acquired a nodC gene from the inoculant B. japonicum. Another one (CPAC 402) was identified as an indigenous Sinorhizobium (Ensifer) fredii strain that received the whole symbiotic island from the B. japonicum inoculant strain and maintained an extra copy of the original nifH gene. The results highlight the strategies that bacteria may commonly use to obtain ecological advantages...

Performance of polymer compositions as carrier to cowpea rhizobial inoculant formulations: Survival of rhizobia in pre-inoculated seeds and field efficiency.

FERNANDES JUNIOR, P. I.; SILVA JÚNIOR, E. B. da; SILVA JÚNIOR, S. da; SANTOS, C. E. R. da S. e; OLIVEIRA, P. J. de; RUMJANEK, N. G.; XAVIER, G. R.; MARTINS, L. M. V.
Fonte: African Journal of Biotechnology, v. 11, n. 12, p. 2945-2951, 2012. Publicador: African Journal of Biotechnology, v. 11, n. 12, p. 2945-2951, 2012.
Tipo: Artigo em periódico indexado (ALICE)
EN
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Rhizobial-legume association is a symbiosis that is exploited in agriculture by inoculant production. Efficient inoculant formulations are needed to increase the biological nitrogen fixation rates in agroecosystems. The aim of this work was to evaluate inoculant formulations to cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) containing polymers as carrier materials and rhizobial strains. To assess the efficiency of the new inoculants formulations, the rhizobial survival in inoculated and stored seeds and the field performance of a selected formulation were evaluated. The rhizobial survival was higher in cowpea seeds inoculated with MgO compatibilized polymeric formulations, compared to standard peat-based inoculant and compatibilized polymeric formulations compatibilized with ZnO. Seeds inoculated with IPC 2.2 formulation presented more than 106 cells per seed through 35 days of storage with low contamination levels. The field performance of the polymeric compositions was the same as that observed in the peat-based inoculant treatments. Among the three rhizobial strains isolated, two of them were able to provide the same shoot nitrogen content and productivity in comparison to the recommended strain. These results indicate the feasibility of inoculants with the polymer blends as carrier materials and the efficiency of the new fast growing rhizobia from Brazilian semi-arid.; 2012

Avaliação da sobrevivência de bradirrizóbios em sementes de soja tratadas com fungicidas, protetor celular "power" e o inoculante "nitragin optimize"

Marks, Bettina Berquó
Fonte: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul Publicador: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul
Tipo: Trabalho de Conclusão de Curso Formato: application/pdf
POR
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O Brasil é considerado o segundo maior produtor de soja do mundo, e ocupa o primeiro lugar em exportação desse grão. A aplicação de técnicas agrícolas modernas tem grande importância no alcance e manutenção desse patamar. Entre essas técnicas destacam-se o surgimento do inoculante, o tratamento de sementes com fungicida e a adubação de micronutrientes via semente. Atualmente as sementes de soja veiculam fungicida, micronutriente e inoculante. Entretanto, estudos já realizados demonstraram incompatibilidade entre as bactérias inoculadas com as demais práticas de tratamento de sementes. Em função disso, algumas indústrias elaboraram aditivos celulares, que aumentariam a sobrevivência de microorganismos inoculados nas sementes, mesmo em presença de fungicidas e micronutriente. Esse estudo teve como objetivo avaliar o efeito do aditivo celular "Power" na sobrevivência de bradirrizóbios presentes no inoculante "Nitragin Optimize", e a taxa de nodulação em sementes tratadas com fungicidas. O ensaio foi conduzido no Laboratório de Fixação Biológica do Nitrogênio (LFBN) da FEPAGRO e na casa de vegetação da Faculdade de Agronomia da UFRGS. Sementes de soja foram tratadas com quatro tipos de fungicidas ("Protreat 2" (PT2)...

Effect of bacterial inoculant on pH and bromatological composition of sorghum silage (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench; EFEITO DO USO DE INOCULANTES SOBRE O pH E A COMPOSIÇÃO BROMATOLÓGICA DA SILAGEM DE SORGO (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench)

GRISE, M.M.; MARTINS, R.L.; FERNANDES, A.C.; ROSSI JUNIOR, P.; PIAZZETTA, R.G.
Fonte: UFPR Publicador: UFPR
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; Artigo Avaliado pelos Pares Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 11/12/2006 POR
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The objective of this work was to study the effect of three doses of commercial bacterial inoculant Sil-All (Alltech®), on the pH and the quality of the silage of sorgo, variety AG 2005. Sixteen experimental silos had been used, with capacity for 20kg of silage. The tested treatments had been T1 without the inoculante addition, T2: 2,5g/L of inoculante, T3: 5,0 g/L of inoculante and T4: 7,5 g/L of inoculante. After 60 days, the silos had been opened and samples removed for determination of pH, PB, FDN and FDA. The delineation was completely randomized, with four treatments and four repetitions. The different applied doses had resulted in significant difference (P < 0,05) for the MS content, being inferior for the treatment without inoculante (T1). The presence of inoculant in the silages had not significantly affected (P>0,05) values of pH, PB, FDN and FDA.; O objetivo do presente trabalho foi estudar o efeito de três doses do aditivo bacteriano comercial Sil-All (Alltech®), sobre o pH e a composição bromatológica da silagem de sorgo, variedade AG 2005. Foram utilizados 16 silos experimentais, com capacidade para 20kg de silagem. Os tratamentos testados foram T1: sem a adição de inoculante...