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Scaling the information processing demands of occupations

Haase, Richard F.; Jome, LaRae M.; Ferreira, Joaquim Armando; Santos, Eduardo J. R.; Connacher, Christopher C.; Sendrowitz, Kerrin
Fonte: Elsevier B.V. Publicador: Elsevier B.V.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.03%
The purpose of this study was to provide additional validity evidence for a model of person–environment fit based on polychronicity, stimulus load, and information processing capacities. In this line of research the confluence of polychronicity and information processing (e.g., the ability of individuals to process stimuli from the environment along five dimensions of information load, interpersonal load, change load, time structure, and activity structure) is applied to the occupational environment. Using magnitude estimation scaling, college students in the United States and Portugal rated 42 occupations across five information processing demand characteristics. Results indicated that occupations could be differentiated by the information load conditions, thus producing a profile of information processing demand characteristics unique to each of the occupations tested. Additional findings provided evidence for the validity of the scaled occupational values; ratings differed reliably across Holland categories, were fairly consistent across the two cultural groups, and showed expected relationships with salary and educational level.

Processamento da informação em gestores de alto desempenho; Information processing among high-performance managers

Garcia-Santos, S. C.; Almeida, Leandro S.; Werlang, B. S. G.; Veloso, Ana Luísa de Oliveira Marques
Fonte: Fundação Técnica e Científica do Desporto (FTCD) Publicador: Fundação Técnica e Científica do Desporto (FTCD)
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2010 POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.97%
O propósito deste estudo foi avaliar o processamento da informação de 43 gestores empresariais de desempenho superior. No seu enquadramento teórico recorremos a três modelos: a Teoria dos Papéis Gerenciais de Henry Mintzberg, a Teoria do Processamento da Informação e o Modelo de Processo de Resposta ao Rorschach de John Exner. A ava-liação dos sujeitos recorreu ao método do Rorschach. Os resultados deste estudo mos-traram que esses gerentes são capazes de recolher dados, avaliá-los e estabelecer ran-kings de maneira adequada. Ao mesmo tempo, verifica-se que são capazes de ser objeti-vos e precisos na avaliação dos problemas. Este estilo de processamento de informação possibilita uma interpretação do mundo a partir de um modo de processamento ou de um estilo cognitivo, próprio e característico.; The purpose of this study was to evaluate the information processing of 43 business managers with a professional superior performance. The theoretical framework consid-ers three models: the Theory of Managerial Roles of Henry Mintzberg, the Theory of In-formation Processing, and Process Model Response to Rorschach by John Exner. The participants have been evaluated by Rorschach method. The results show that these managers are able to collect data...

Dynamic information processing states revealed through neurocognitive models of object semantics

Clarke, Alex
Fonte: Routledge Publicador: Routledge
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.96%
Recognising objects relies on highly dynamic, interactive brain networks to process multiple aspects of object information. To fully understand how different forms of information about objects are represented and processed in the brain requires a neurocognitive account of visual object recognition that combines a detailed cognitive model of semantic knowledge with a neurobiological model of visual object processing. Here we ask how specific cognitive factors are instantiated in our mental processes and how they dynamically evolve over time. We suggest that coarse semantic information, based on generic shared semantic knowledge, is rapidly extracted from visual inputs and is sufficient to drive rapid category decisions. Subsequent recurrent neural activity between the anterior temporal lobe and posterior fusiform supports the formation of object-specific semantic representations – a conjunctive process primarily driven by the perirhinal cortex. These object-specific representations require the integration of shared and distinguishing object properties and support the unique recognition of objects. We conclude that a valuable way of understanding the cognitive activity of the brain is though testing the relationship between specific cognitive measures and dynamic neural activity. This kind of approach allows us to move towards uncovering the information processing states of the brain and how they evolve over time.

Duration of Recovery and Susceptibility to Criticism-Induced Information-Processing Biases in Major Depression

Angel, Jason
Fonte: Harvard University Publicador: Harvard University
Tipo: Thesis or Dissertation
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.08%
Major depression is a highly prevalent disorder that affects millions of individuals worldwide each year. Theorists such as Aaron T. Beck (1967; 1976) revolutionized how depression is understood by proposing that cognitive factors are involved in the etiology and maintenance of depression. Inspired by his and other cognitive theories, researchers have documented negative biases in attentional and interpretive cognitive processing of emotional stimuli in individuals with major depressive disorder. However, very little cognitive research has been conducted on individuals with a past history of depression or at different time points since their depressive episode. Also, researchers have not tested whether criticism, a known psychosocial predictor of relapse, exacerbates information-processing biases in people with major depression or reactivates such biases in people in various stages of recovery from the disorder (Butzlaff & Hooley, 1998; Hooley & Gotlib, 2000). As criticism has been implicated in psychiatric relapse, its impact was tested on both formerly depressed persons who are potentially at risk for relapse and recurrence of a depressive episode. The current study was designed to test whether criticism was capable of evoking information-processing biases in attending to and interpreting ambiguous stimuli. Participants (n = 115) at different points in their recovery from depression (i.e. remitted [n = 33] and recovered depressed participants [n = 24])...

Homoepitaxial Growth of Single Crystal Diamond Membranes for Quantum Information Processing

Lee, Jonathan C.; Magyar, Andrew; Buckley, Bob B.; Yale, Christopher G.; Awschalom, David D.; Hu, Evelyn; Aharonovich, Igor
Fonte: Wiley Blackwell Publicador: Wiley Blackwell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.9%
Fabrication of devices designed to fully harness the unique properties of quantum mechanics through their coupling to quantum bits (qubits) is a prominent goal in the field of quantum information processing (QIP). Among various qubit candidates, nitrogen vacancy (NV) centers in diamond have recently emerged as an outstanding platform for room temperature QIP. However, formidable challenges still remain in processing diamond and in the fabrication of thin diamond membranes, which are necessary for planar photonic device engineering. Here we demonstrate epitaxial growth of single crystal diamond membranes using a conventional microwave chemical vapor deposition (CVD) technique. The grown membranes, only a few hundred nanometers thick, show bright luminescence, excellent Raman signature and good NV center electronic spin coherence times. Microdisk cavities fabricated from these membranes exhibit quality factors of up to 3000, overlapping with NV center emission. Our methodology offers a scalable approach for diamond device fabrication for photonics, spintronics, optomechanics and sensing applications.; Engineering and Applied Sciences

Distinguishing impairments in speed of information processing between traumatic brain injury and chronic pain

Acreman, Mary
Fonte: Quens University Publicador: Quens University
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.01%
Speed of information processing deficits are hallmark symptoms of, and a primary consideration, in the differential diagnosis of mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI). Chronic pain is a common comorbid symptom following trauma-induced brain injury and can impact information processing speed thereby creating a potential confound in a differential diagnosis. Examining Chronic Pain, MTBI, Severe Traumatic Brain Injury (STBI), and a Healthy Control group, the Computerized Tests of Information Processing (CTIP) were used to assess processing speed. CTIP results were contrasted with traditional paper and pencil neuropsychological (NP) tests (Digit Span, Digit Symbol, Trails A & B) across groups. The Chronic Pain group performed significantly worse than the MTBI and Control groups on the CTIP with no significant differences between the Chronic Pain and Control group on any traditional NP test. Notably, there were no significant differences in scores on the CTIP or traditional NP tests between the Chronic Pain and the STBI groups. Discriminant analyses indicated the Semantic test was the strongest predictor of group membership among CTIP tasks, correctly predicting 41% of the present sample and estimating 34% correct prediction in a new sample. Digit Span was the strongest predictor when the CTIP and traditional NP tests were examined together with the model correctly predicting 47.5% in the present sample and estimating 35% correct prediction in a new sample. In regression analyses...

Neuropsychological and information processing deficits following mild traumatic brain injury

Mathias, J.; Beall, J.; Bigler, E.
Fonte: Cambridge Univ Press Publicador: Cambridge Univ Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2004 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.94%
Neuroradiological and neuropathological investigations have found evidence of diffuse brain damage in the frontal and temporal lobes, corpus callosum, and fornices in patients who have sustained a mild traumatic brain injury (TBI). However, neuropsychological assessments of these patients do not typically target many of the subtle information processing deficits that may arise from diffuse damage involving the frontotemporal regions of the brain as well as white matter pathology, including the corpus callosum. Consequently, we have a limited understanding of the deficits that may be attributable to temporary or permanent disruptions to these functional pathways. This study assessed a group of mild TBI patients (N = 40) and a matched control group (N = 40) on a number of standard neuropsychological tests of selective and sustained attention, verbal and non-verbal fluency, and verbal memory. In addition, reaction time (RT) tasks, requiring both the inter- and intra-hemispheric processing of visual and tactile information, were used to assess the functional integrity of the tracts that are likely to be affected by diffuse damage. In the 1st month after sustaining their injury, the mild TBI group demonstrated deficits in attention, non-verbal fluency...

Neuropsychological and information processing performance and its relationship to white matter changes following moderate and severe traumatic brain injury: a preliminary study

Mathias, J.; Bigler, E.; Jones, N.; Bowen, S.; Barrett-Woodbridge, M.; Brown, G.; Taylor, D.
Fonte: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc. Publicador: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2004 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.01%
Reductions in information processing speed have frequently been reported following moderate and severe traumatic brain injuries (TBIs), consistent with the effects of diffuse white matter damage. Although the corpus callosum (CC) is a common site for diffuse damage following TBI, the effects of this damage on information processing speed have not been adequately examined. This study assessed a TBI group and a matched control group on tests of attention, memory, fluency, and set shifting ability, together with reaction time (RT) tasks requiring the inter- and intrahemispheric processing of visual and tactile information. The RT tasks were designed to target the cognitive functions that are likely to be affected by diffuse white matter damage, including damage to the CC. The TBI group demonstrated deficits in verbal and visual fluency and verbal memory. They were also slower on the visual and tactile RT tasks, were more affected by task complexity, and slower on RT tasks requiring the interhemispheric transfer of information. In fact, one of the interhemispheric tactile RT tasks proved to be the most discriminating of all the cognitive and RT measures. MRIs completed on a subset of TBI participants indicated that the mean CC measurements were 5%to 19% smaller than a normative control group...

Collaborative information processing techniques for target tracking in wireless sensor networks.

Ma, Hui
Fonte: Universidade de Adelaide Publicador: Universidade de Adelaide
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Publicado em //2008
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.08%
Target tracking is one of the typical applications of wireless sensor networks: a large number of spatially deployed sensor nodes collaboratively sense, process and estimate the target state (e.g., position, velocity and heading). This thesis aimed to develop the collaborative information processing techniques that jointly address information processing and networking for the distributive estimation of target state in the highly dynamic and resources constrained wireless sensor networks. Taking into account the interplay between information processing and networking, this thesis proposed a collaborative information processing framework. The framework integrates the information processing which is responsible for the representation, fusion and processing of data and information with networking which caters for the formation of network, the delivery of information and the management of wireless channels. Within the proposed collaborative information processing framework, this thesis developed a suite of target tracking algorithms on the basis of the recursive Bayesian estimation method. For tracking a single target in wireless sensor networks, this thesis developed the sequential extended Kalman filter (S-EKF), the sequential unscented Kalman filter (S-UKF) and the Particle filter (PF). A novel extended Kalman filter and Particle filter hybrid algorithm...

Basics of information processing

Johnson, Don; Johnson, Don
Fonte: Universidade Rice Publicador: Universidade Rice
Tipo: documents
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
75.95%
Internal Document; Basic probability theory, statistical signal processing and information theory, and inter-relationships among these disciplines form the foundations of a theory of information processing. Examples are drawn from point-process applications.

Information processing of linear block decoders

Lexa, Michael; Johnson, Don; Lexa, Michael; Johnson, Don
Fonte: Universidade Rice Publicador: Universidade Rice
Tipo: Conference paper
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
75.92%
Conference Paper; This paper develops a systematic method of studying the benefits of soft decoding for linear block codes by applying the concepts of information processing. We show that soft decoding uniformly improves decoder performance in terms of the information transfer ratio.

An Information processing approach to distributed detection

Lexa, Michael; Johnson, Don; Lexa, Michael; Johnson, Don
Fonte: Universidade Rice Publicador: Universidade Rice
Tipo: Conference paper
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
75.92%
Conference Paper; We apply the recent theory of information processing to a hybrid distributed detection architecture that combines the traditional parallel and tandem architectures. Central to this theory is the Kullback-Leibler discrimination distance and quantity known as the information transfer ratio, defined as defined as the ratio of the KL distances between the distributions characterizing the input and output of a system. We characterize the asymptotic performance of proposed hybrid system and compare it with the performance of the parallel, tandem and centralized architectures. We conclude with an illustrative example.

Information processing during transient responses in the crayfish visual system

Rozell, Chris; Johnson, Don; Glantz, Raymon; Rozell, Chris; Johnson, Don; Glantz, Raymon
Fonte: Universidade Rice Publicador: Universidade Rice
Tipo: Conference paper
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
75.94%
Conference Paper; We analyzed sustaining fiber responses in the crayfish visual system to light pulses using information processing techniques. The light pulse stimuli elicited a transient and a steady-state component in the EPSP input and in the firing rate of the spike train output. The overall information transfer of the system was very low (10-4), with a sharp increase during the transient portion of the response followed by a steady decrease. The change in the information transfer rate is related to the difference in communication rates possible in spike trains with varying rates. This analysis corroborates the observed light reflex behavior.

The effect of culture and the cultural framework of language on online information - processing

Alc??ntara-Pilar, Juan Miguel; Barrio-Garc??a, Salvador del
Fonte: Universidade de Granada Publicador: Universidade de Granada
Tipo: Conferência ou Objeto de Conferência
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.94%
The present work examines the effect of the user???s language, as a vehicle for cultural values, on their processing of the information contained within a website. A sample of 491 internet users from two different cultures (British and Spanish) was created. Half the users were asked to browse the experimental website in their mother tongue, while the other half browsed in their second language (British participants browsing in Spanish and the Spanish browsing in English). The key findings of the research demonstrate that information-processing is moderated by the user???s culture and the language in which they process the information.

Toward a theory of information processing

Sinanovic, Sinan; Johnson, Don; Sinanovic, Sinan; Johnson, Don
Fonte: Universidade Rice Publicador: Universidade Rice
Tipo: Journal article; Text; Text
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
76.07%
Journal Paper; Information processing theory endeavors to quantify how well signals encode information and how well systems, by acting on signals, process information. We use information-theoretic distance measures, the Kullback-Leibler distance in particular, to quantify how well signals represent information. The ratio of distances calculated between two informationally different signals at a system's output and input quantifies the system's information processing properties. Using this approach, we derive the fundamental processing capabilities of simple system architectures that apply universally: the systems and the kinds of signals they process and produce don't affect our general results. Applications in array signal processing and in neural signal analysis illustrate how to apply the theory.; National Science Foundation

Asymptotic rates of the information transfer ratio

Sinanovic, Sinan; Johnson, Don; Sinanovic, Sinan; Johnson, Don
Fonte: Universidade Rice Publicador: Universidade Rice
Tipo: Conference paper; Text; Text
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.05%
Conference paper; Information processing is performed when a system preserves aspects of the input related to what the input represents while it removes other aspects. To describe a system's information processing capability, input and output need to be compared in a way invariant to the way signals represent information. Kullback-Leibler distance, an information-theoretic measure which reflects the data processing theorem, is calculated on the input and output separately and compared to obtain information transfer ratio. We consider the special case where input serves several parallel systems and show that this configuration has the capability to represent the input information without loss. We also derive bounds for asymptotic rates at which the loss decreases as more parallel systems are added and show that the rate depends on the input distribution.; National Science Foundation; National Science Foundation; National Institute of Mental Health

Four top reasons why mutual information does not assess neural information processing

Johnson, Don; Johnson, Don
Fonte: Universidade Rice Publicador: Universidade Rice
Tipo: Conference paper; Text; Text
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
76.05%
Conference Paper; Mutual information between stimulus and response has been advocated as an information theoretic measure of a neural system's capability to process information. Once calculated, the result is a single number that supposedly captures the system's information characteristics over the range of stimulus conditions used to measure it. I show that mutual information is a flawed measure, the standard approach to measuring it has theoretical difficulties, and that relating capacity to information processing capability is quite complicated.; National Institute of Mental Health

Analyzing Dynamics and Stimulus Feature Dependence in the Information Processing of Crayfish Sustaining Fibers

Rozell, Chris; Rozell, Chris
Fonte: Universidade Rice Publicador: Universidade Rice
Tipo: Thesis; Text; Text
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
76.04%
Masters Thesis; The sustaining fiber (SF) stage of the crayfish visual system converts analog stimulus representations to spike train signals. A recent theory quantifies a system's information processing capabilities and relates to statistical signal processing. To analyze SF responses to light stimuli, we extend a wavelet-based algorithm for separating analog input signals and spike output waveforms in composite intracellular recordings. We also present a time-varying RC circuit model to capture nonstationary membrane noise spectral characteristics. In our SF anlysis, information transfer ratios are generally on the order of (10-4). The SF information processing dynamics show transient peaks followed by decay to steady-state values. A simple theoretical spike generator is analyzed analytically and shows general dynamic and steady-state properties similar to SFs. The information transfer ratios increase with spike rate and dynamic properties are due to direct spike generator dependence on input changes.; Texas Instruments; National Science Foundation; National Institute of Mental Health

Distinguishing impairments in speed of information processing between traumatic brain injury and chronic pain

Acreman, MARY
Fonte: Quens University Publicador: Quens University
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
EN; EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.01%
Speed of information processing deficits are hallmark symptoms of, and a primary consideration, in the differential diagnosis of mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI). Chronic pain is a common comorbid symptom following trauma-induced brain injury and can impact information processing speed thereby creating a potential confound in a differential diagnosis. Examining Chronic Pain, MTBI, Severe Traumatic Brain Injury (STBI), and a Healthy Control group, the Computerized Tests of Information Processing (CTIP) were used to assess processing speed. CTIP results were contrasted with traditional paper and pencil neuropsychological (NP) tests (Digit Span, Digit Symbol, Trails A & B) across groups. The Chronic Pain group performed significantly worse than the MTBI and Control groups on the CTIP with no significant differences between the Chronic Pain and Control group on any traditional NP test. Notably, there were no significant differences in scores on the CTIP or traditional NP tests between the Chronic Pain and the STBI groups. Discriminant analyses indicated the Semantic test was the strongest predictor of group membership among CTIP tasks, correctly predicting 41% of the present sample and estimating 34% correct prediction in a new sample. Digit Span was the strongest predictor when the CTIP and traditional NP tests were examined together with the model correctly predicting 47.5% in the present sample and estimating 35% correct prediction in a new sample. In regression analyses...

Percepção Emocional e Processamento de Informações Emocionais no Reconhecimento de Expressões Faciais: origens psicológicas do julgamento social; Emotional Perception and Emotional Information Processing of Facial Expression Recognition: psychological origins of social judgment

Ferreira Almada, Leonardo; Instituto de Filosofia da Universidade Federal de Uberlândia
Fonte: UFPR Publicador: UFPR
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; Avaliado Por Pares; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 24/12/2012 POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.94%
Neste artigo, pretendemos defender a tese segundo a qual julgamentos sociais se iniciam com a percepção emocional e com o processamento de informações emocionais no reconhecimento de expressões faciais. Para tanto, revisaremos modelos que discutem (i) os mecanismos pelos quais as expressões faciais são codificadas para transmitir informações e ser percebidas pelos outros, (ii) os mecanismos perceptivos de decodificação e categorização de expressões faciais e, por fim, (iii) os mecanismos pelos quais o reconhecimento de expressões faciais geram respostas emocionais e ajustes comportamentais e, por fim, (iv) a eficiência de nosso sistema perceptual na decodificação desses processos. Com essa discussão, nossa intenção é a de (i) explicitar em que sentido nossa percepção emocional de expressões faciais é um dos principais mecanismos evolutivos de regulação da vida e que (ii) o processamento de informações emocionais é um poderoso instrumento para assegurar a sobrevivência e sustentar razoáveis interações sociais.; In this paper...