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"A influência da família sobre a adesão ao tratamento do dependente químico: um estudo piloto sobre a emoção expressa" ; The influence of family over treatment adherence in substance dependence: a pilot study on expressed emotion

Tissot, Cirilo Liberatori
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 09/08/2006 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.73%
INTRODUÇÃO: O sucesso do tratamento de dependentes de álcool e outras drogas numa comunidade terapêutica (CT) depende fundamentalmente da adesão ao tratamento, ou seja, o tempo de permanência na comunidade. Sabe-se que pacientes que permanecem em tratamento por um período de pelo menos três meses têm uma evolução melhor do que aqueles que abandonam o tratamento precocemente. O ambiente emocional familiar tem grande influência na adesão ao tratamento, e pode ser medido por meio da emoção expressa EE). MÉTODOS: Foram avaliados familiares de 31 dependentes de substâncias psicoativas e/ou de álcool, internados involuntariamente, por meio da versão abreviada e traduzida para o português da Entrevista Familiar de Camberwell (EFC). A partir de então, mediu-se a taxa de permanência na CT após seis, 12 e 18 meses. Foram avaliados os aspectos hostilidade, superenvolvimento e calor afetivo. A hostilidade foi abordada como ausente (pontuação igual a zero) ou presente (pontuação igual a 1, 2 ou 3). O superenvolvimento e o calor afetivo foram considerados de forma contínua (pontuação de zero a 5) e categorizada. Todos os possíveis pontos de corte foram estudados na procura de novas relações e significados dos componentes da EE para esta população específica e os achados da amostra. RESULTADOS: Foram considerados com alta EE para hostilidade 41...

A influência das atividades expressivas e recreativas em crianças hospitalizadas com fissura labiopalatina: a visão dos familiares; The influence of expressive and recreational activities in inpatient children with cleft lip and palate: standpoint of the family

Moraes, Marcia Cristina Almendros Fernandes
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 30/10/2007 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.8%
O presente estudo enfoca as atividades expressivas e recreativas no contexto hospitalar e, sendo os familiares um elemento importante nesse processo, objetiva-se verificar a visão dos familiares a respeito da influência dessas atividades na hospitalização de crianças com fissura labiopalatina, procurando identificar os benefícios dessas atividades no período pré e pós-operatório, a influência no processo de recuperação cirúrgica, a atividade preferencial das crianças e a importância da participação dos familiares nas atividades. Participaram, deste estudo, 138 familiares de crianças com fissura labiopalatina, na faixa etária de 07 a 12 anos, hospitalizados no HRAC, e que freqüentaram o Serviço de Educação e Terapia Ocupacional. Realizou-se um estudo descritivo por meio de aplicação de formulário de entrevista, abordando questões referentes ao tema estudado, envolvendo familiares de criaças, em condição pré e pós-operatória. Dos 138 familiares questionados, 135 (97,83%) acham que as atividades expressivas e recreativas no período pré-operatório deixam a criança mais calma. Todos 138 (100%) responderam que as atividades expressivas e recreativas aceleram o processo de recuperação cirúrgica. Dentre as atividades das quais participaram com a criança...

A influência dos papéis ocupacionais na qualidade de vida de pacientes com esquizofrenia; The influence of occupational roles in schizophrenic patients' quality of life

Silva, Tatiane Grigolatto de Paiva
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 22/07/2011 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.51%
Introdução: Os transtornos esquizofrênicos comprometem as esferas do funcionamento social, afetivo e produtivo. Em decorrência do período da vida em que se manifesta, pode influenciar diretamente na aquisição dos papéis ocupacionais e qualidade de vida. Os papéis ocupacionais são funções e práticas que os indivíduos vão adquirindo ao longo da vida, se relacionam com as fases/anseios e sofrem influência do ambiente e das expectativas sociais. Objetivo: Identificar os papéis ocupacionais e a relação destes com a qualidade de vida em uma amostra de 45 pacientes portadores de esquizofrenia. Método: Participaram deste estudo 45 pacientes com esquizofrenia de acordo com o critério do DSM-IV, com idade média de 29,4 anos (DP= 8,9), sendo 77,8% do sexo masculino e 45 familiares/responsáveis. Foram utilizados: a) Lista de Identificação de Papéis Ocupacionais, cujo propósito é identificar a percepção do indivíduo em sua participação nos principais papéis ocupacionais ao longo da vida (Parte I), bem como o grau de importância que atribui a cada um destes papéis (Parte II); b) Inventário de Habilidades de Vida Independente (ILSS-BR), utilizado para avaliar o grau de habilidades de pacientes psiquiátricos; c) Escala de Avaliação da Qualidade de Vida de Pacientes com Esquizofrenia (QLS-BR)...

Atitudes de familiares de portadores de transtornos mentais frente aos transtornos mentais: a influência do grupo de autoajuda; Attitudes of mental disorder patients' relatives towards the mental disorders: the influence of a self-help group

Machado, Angelina Moda
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 09/08/2011 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.8%
Diferentes pessoas podem ter atitudes diferentes frente a um mesmo objeto, mas esta diversidade de posicionamento não deve ser encarada como características idiossincráticas ou estáveis, não nascem num vazio social, são fruto de interação social, de processo de comparação, identificação e diferenciação social que permite situar uma posição frente a outras em um determinado momento. A família, enquanto grupo, atravessa os tempos passando por inúmeras transformações e críticas, sem se afastar da responsabilidade e das exigências dos papéis socialmente atribuídos a ela. O transtorno mental permanece ainda obscuro, não existindo uma causa que o explique como tão estigmatizante, mas, o adoecer psíquico, é facilmente percebido, pois, os indivíduos que adoecem, apresentam comportamentos diferentes daqueles normalmente aceitos pela sociedade. Os grupos de autoajuda são homogêneos, seus participantes passam pelo mesmo sofrimento, são de apoio mútuo e educacional, a liderança vem do interior do grupo, reporta-se somente a um único evento desestruturador de vida, os membros participam voluntariamente, sem fins lucrativos, objetivam o crescimento pessoal dos integrantes e tem caráter anônimo e confidencial. Partindo-se do princípio de que as atitudes frente aos transtornos mentais e seus portadores são passíveis de serem trabalhadas e modificadas...

Entre a periferia e uma escola de elite: um estudo sobre trajetórias de jovens bolsistas de camadas populares; Between the city outskirts and a elite school: a study about the trajectories of young scholarship students from lower classes

Oliveira, Amanda Prado de
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 26/11/2013 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.54%
Essa dissertação tem como principal objetivo analisar os efeitos da passagem de alunos de camadas populares por um projeto de escolarização concebido por uma escola de elite, que desenvolveu uma unidade escolar para atendimento exclusivo e gratuito de moradores de regiões periféricas da cidade de São Paulo. A análise das relações entre família e escola constitui um tema já clássico da Sociologia da Educação, que assume, em um país desigual como o Brasil, uma dimensão ainda mais importante para a compreensão da transmissão de vantagens e desvantagens de uma geração a outra. Nessa pesquisa, tal discussão foi feita por meio da compreensão de diferentes aspectos de um projeto de escolarização atípico, ou seja, uma escola concebida por um colégio de elite para alunos moradores da periferia de São Paulo. Interessamo-nos, principalmente, entender tanto os efeitos concretos, quanto aqueles subjetivos dessa experiência na vida desses jovens estudantes. Analisamos as trajetórias de ex-alunos dessa instituição escolar utilizando a metodologia qualitativa de pesquisa, tendo em vista compreender, por meio da realização de entrevistas semiestruturadas com os ex-alunos e familiares, como a família se relaciona com a escola em uma situação tão pouco comum...

Influence of Mom and Dad: Quantitative Genetic Models for Maternal Effects and Genomic Imprinting

Santure, Anna W.; Spencer, Hamish G.
Fonte: Copyright © 2006 by the Genetics Society of America Publicador: Copyright © 2006 by the Genetics Society of America
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /08/2006 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.57%
The expression of an imprinted gene is dependent on the sex of the parent it was inherited from, and as a result reciprocal heterozygotes may display different phenotypes. In contrast, maternal genetic terms arise when the phenotype of an offspring is influenced by the phenotype of its mother beyond the direct inheritance of alleles. Both maternal effects and imprinting may contribute to resemblance between offspring of the same mother. We demonstrate that two standard quantitative genetic models for deriving breeding values, population variances and covariances between relatives, are not equivalent when maternal genetic effects and imprinting are acting. Maternal and imprinting effects introduce both sex-dependent and generation-dependent effects that result in differences in the way additive and dominance effects are defined for the two approaches. We use a simple example to demonstrate that both imprinting and maternal genetic effects add extra terms to covariances between relatives and that model misspecification may over- or underestimate true covariances or lead to extremely variable parameter estimation. Thus, an understanding of various forms of parental effects is essential in correctly estimating quantitative genetic variance components.

Retrograde influence of muscle fibers on their innervation revealed by a novel marker for slow motoneurons

Chakkalakal, Joe V.; Nishimune, Hiroshi; Ruas, Jorge L.; Spiegelman, Bruce M.; Sanes, Joshua R.
Fonte: Company of Biologists Publicador: Company of Biologists
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 15/10/2010 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.55%
Mammalian limb and trunk skeletal muscles are composed of muscle fibers that differ in contractile and molecular properties. They are commonly divided into four categories according to the myosin heavy chain that they express: I, IIA, IIX and IIB, ranging from slowest to fastest. Individual motor axons innervate tens of muscle fibers, nearly all of which are of the same type. The mechanisms accounting for this striking specificity, termed motor unit homogeneity, remain incompletely understood, in part because there have been no markers for motoneuron types. Here we show in mice that the synaptic vesicle protein SV2A is selectively localized in motor nerve terminals on slow (type I and small type IIA) muscle fibers; its close relatives, SV2B and SV2C, are present in all motor nerve terminals. SV2A is broadly expressed at birth; fast motoneurons downregulate its expression during the first postnatal week. An inducible transgene incorporating regulatory elements from the Sv2a gene permits selective labeling of slow motor units and reveals their composition. Overexpression of the transcriptional co-regulator PGC1α in muscle fibers, which converts them to a slow phenotype, leads to an increased frequency of SV2A-positive motor nerve terminals...

Does DNA Methylation of PPARGC1A Influence Insulin Action in First Degree Relatives of Patients with Type 2 Diabetes?

Gillberg, Linn; Jacobsen, Stine; Ribel-Madsen, Rasmus; Gjesing, Anette Prior; Boesgaard, Trine W.; Ling, Charlotte; Pedersen, Oluf; Hansen, Torben; Vaag, Allan
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 07/03/2013 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.63%
Epigenetics may play a role in the pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes (T2D), and increased DNA methylation of the metabolic master regulator peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1 alpha (PPARGC1A) has been reported in muscle and pancreatic islets from T2D patients and in muscle from individuals at risk of T2D. This study aimed to investigate DNA promoter methylation and gene expression of PPARGC1A in skeletal muscle from first degree relatives (FDR) of T2D patients, and to determine the association with insulin action as well as the influence of family relation. We included 124 Danish FDR of T2D patients from 46 different families. Skeletal muscle biopsies were excised from vastus lateralis and insulin action was assessed by oral glucose tolerance tests. DNA methylation and mRNA expression levels were measured using bisulfite sequencing and quantitative real-time PCR, respectively. The average PPARGC1A methylation at four CpG sites situated 867-624 bp from the transcription start was associated with whole-body insulin sensitivity in a paradoxical positive manner (β = 0.12, P = 0.03), supported by a borderline significant inverse correlation with fasting insulin levels (β = −0.88, P = 0.06). Excluding individuals with prediabetes and overt diabetes did not affect the overall result. DNA promoter methylation was not associated with PPARGC1A gene expression. The familiality estimate of PPARGC1A gene expression was high (h2 = 79±27% (h2±SE)...

Family and Fertility: Kin Influence on the Progression to a Second Birth in the British Household Panel Study

Mathews, Paul; Sear, Rebecca
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 13/03/2013 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.71%
Particular features of human female life history, such as short birth intervals and the early cessation of female reproduction (menopause), are argued to be evidence that humans are ‘cooperative breeders’, with a reproductive strategy adapted to conditions where mothers receive substantial assistance in childraising. Evolutionary anthropologists have so far largely focussed on measuring the influence of kin on reproduction in natural fertility populations. Here we look at the effect in a present-day low-fertility population, by analysing whether kin affect parity progression in the British Household Panel Study. Two explanatory variables related to kin influence significantly increase the odds of a female having a second birth: i) having relatives who provide childcare and ii) having a larger number of frequently contacted and emotionally close relatives. Both effects were measured subject to numerous socio-economic controls and appear to be independent of one another. We therefore conclude that kin may influence the progression to a second birth. This influence is possibly due to two proximate mechanisms: kin priming through communication and kin assistance with childcare.

The Influence of Relatives on the Efficiency and Error Rate of Familial Searching

Rohlfs, Rori V.; Murphy, Erin; Song, Yun S.; Slatkin, Montgomery
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 14/08/2013 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.63%
We investigate the consequences of adopting the criteria used by the state of California, as described by Myers et al. (2011), for conducting familial searches. We carried out a simulation study of randomly generated profiles of related and unrelated individuals with 13-locus CODIS genotypes and YFiler® Y-chromosome haplotypes, on which the Myers protocol for relative identification was carried out. For Y-chromosome sharing first degree relatives, the Myers protocol has a high probability () of identifying their relationship. For unrelated individuals, there is a low probability that an unrelated person in the database will be identified as a first-degree relative. For more distant Y-haplotype sharing relatives (half-siblings, first cousins, half-first cousins or second cousins) there is a substantial probability that the more distant relative will be incorrectly identified as a first-degree relative. For example, there is a probability that a first cousin will be identified as a full sibling, with the probability depending on the population background. Although the California familial search policy is likely to identify a first degree relative if his profile is in the database, and it poses little risk of falsely identifying an unrelated individual in a database as a first-degree relative...

Clinical value of the cultural formulation interview in Pune, India

Paralikar, Vasudeo P; Patil, Kanak V; Nulkar, Amit D; Sarmukaddam, Sanjeev B; Weiss, Mitchell Gralnick
Fonte: Medknow Publicador: Medknow
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.82%
Context: Development of the cultural formulation interview (CFI) in DSM‑5 required validation for cross‑cultural and global use. Aims: To assess the overall value (OV) of CFI in the domains of feasibility, acceptability, and utility from the vantage points of clinician‑interviewers, patients and accompanying relatives. Settings and Design: We conducted cross‑sectional semi‑structured debriefing interviews in a psychiatric outpatient clinic of a general hospital. Materials and Methods: We debriefed 36 patients, 12 relatives and eight interviewing clinicians following the audio‑recorded CFI. We transformed their Likert scale responses into ordinal values – positive for agreement and negative for disagreement (range +2 to −2). Statistical Analysis: We compared mean ratings of patients, relatives and clinician‑interviewers using nonparametric tests. Clinician‑wise grouping of patients enabled assessment of clinician effects, inasmuch as patients were randomly interviewed by eight clinicians. We assessed the influence of the presence of relatives, clinical diagnosis and interview characteristics by comparing means. Patient and clinician background characteristics were also compared. Results: Patients, relatives and clinicians rated the CFI positively with few differences among them. Patients with serious mental disorders gave lower ratings. Rating of OV was lower for patients and clinicians when relatives were present. Clinician effects were minimal. Clinicians experienced with culturally diverse patients rated the CFI more positively. Narratives clarified the rationale for ratings. Conclusions: Though developed for the American DSM‑5...

The influence of familial smoking behaviours on adolescent smoking behaviours

Partington, Betsy.
Fonte: Brock University Publicador: Brock University
Tipo: Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.56%
The ability to identify adolescents who are at risk for becoming smokers may prove useful in developing effective smoking prevention programs. The purpose of this stUdy was to assess the importance of familial smoking behaviours on adolescent smoking patterns. The results were based on responses to The Grade 7 Lincoln County Smoking Survey designed by Chudzik and Partington (1994), and are a part of the "Peer Assisted Learning Program· (PAL) presented by the Niagara Regional Health Services Department, with the cooperation of a local Board of Education (Region of Niagara). The results indicate that 12% of the total group of 450 Grade 7 student respondents were current smokers at the time the data were collected (13% males and 11% females), while more than 37% of individuals indicated that they had tried smoking previously. Of the individuals who were classified as smokers, 11% reported that they smoked because their parents smoked, but only 6% reported that they smoked because their siblings smoked. More concerning, however, is the finding that 4% of smokers reported that they felt pressured to smoke by their relatives. In a society that is becoming increasingly concerned about health, it is also alarming to observe that only 50% of the respondents within this sample reported that there were no smokers (parents/siblings) in their homes. The results also indicate that 33% percent of respondents had grandparents who continued to smoke...

Hospitalisation with infection, asthma and allergy in Kawasaki disease patients and their families: Genealogical analysis using linked population data

Webster, R.; Carter, K.; Warrington, N.; Loh, A.; Zaloumis, S.; Kuijpers, T.; Palmer, L.; Burgner, D.
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2011 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.76%
Background: Kawasaki disease results from an abnormal immunological response to one or more infectious triggers. We hypothesised that heritable differences in immune responses in Kawasaki disease-affected children and their families would result in different epidemiological patterns of other immune-related conditions. We investigated whether hospitalisation for infection and asthma/allergy were different in Kawasaki disease-affected children and their relatives. Methods/Major Findings: We used Western Australian population-linked health data from live births (1970–2006) to compare patterns of hospital admissions in Kawasaki disease cases, age- and sex-matched controls, and their relatives. There were 295 Kawasaki disease cases and 598 age- and sex-matched controls, with 1,636 and 3,780 relatives, respectively. Compared to controls, cases were more likely to have been admitted at least once with an infection (cases, 150 admissions (50.8%) vs controls, 210 admissions (35.1%); odds ratio (OR) = 1.9, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.4–2.6, P = 7.2×10−6), and with asthma/allergy (cases, 49 admissions (16.6%) vs controls, 42 admissions (7.0%); OR = 2.6, 95% CI 1.7–4.2, P = 1.3×10−5). Cases also had more admissions per person with infection (cases...

Die Belastung der Angehörigen von Patienten mit schizophrenen Psychosen. Stress, Attributionen und Behandlungsmöglichkeiten; Burden in caregivers of patients with schizophrenic psychosis. Distress, attributions and possible treatments

Hesse, Klaus
Fonte: Universidade de Tubinga Publicador: Universidade de Tubinga
Tipo: Dissertação
DE_DE
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.75%
Hintergrund: Eine schwere Erkrankung ist nicht nur für den Erkrankten, sondern für die ganze Familie ein einschneidendes Ereignis. Chronische Erkrankungen, wie schizophrenen Psychosen, sind für die Angehörigen mit erhöhter Belastung verbunden. Seit mehr als vierzig Jahren wurde der Zusammenhang des sozialen Umfelds der Patienten mit erneuten Exazerbationen untersucht. Man stellte fest, dass Erkrankte von Angehörigen, die emotional involvierter waren und die Erkrankten häufiger kritisierten, öfter Rückfälle erlitten. Versuche, die Familienatmosphäre und darüber die Rückfallquote zu beeinflussen, folgten. In neuerer Zeit rückten die Angehörigen selbst mehr in den Fokus. Angehörige berichten über erhöhte Depressivität und weniger Lebensqualität. Viele fühlen sich durch die komplexen Anforderungen der Pflege eines chronisch Erkrankten überfordert. Ziele: Die vorliegende Dissertation hatte das Ziel, das Verständnis der Belastung von Angehörigen psychotisch Erkrankter zu vertiefen. Es wurde dafür ein Modell der Belastung zugrundegelegt, das auf dem transaktionalen Stressmodell von Richard Lazarus und der Attributionstheorie Bernhard Weiners aufbaut. Zentrale Variablen im neuen, integrierten Modell sind Attributionen...

Avaliação funcional das habilidades de comunicação - ASHA FACS para população com doença de Alzheimer; Functional assessment of communication skills - ASHA FACS for patient with Alzheimer\'s disease

Carvalho, Isabel Albuquerque Maranhão de
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 06/02/2007 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.57%
INTRODUÇÃO: Desde o início da doença de Alzheimer (DA), alterações de linguagem comprometem o engajamento, o exercício da vida social do indivíduo e, têm impacto em sua independência. A informação sobre essas alterações contribui para a caracterização do diagnóstico da doença. A limitação da capacidade de comunicação funcional, ou seja, a capacidade de emitir e compreender uma mensagem de maneira independente e eficiente em resposta à demanda do cotidiano, é uma das queixas mais importantes de familiares e cuidadores, daí a necessidade de se disponibilizar instrumento, em língua portuguesa, que avalie a comunicação, em contexto natural, para fins de diagnóstico e de acompanhamento de indivíduos acometidos. O objetivo deste estudo foi validar a escala de Avaliação Funcional das Habilidades de Comunicação - ASHA FACS para uso na população brasileira. A ASHA FACS é composta pelos domínios: Comunicação Social, Comunicação de Necessidades Básicas, Leitura, Escrita e Conceitos Numéricos, e Planejamento Diário. MÉTODOS: Foram realizadas a tradução e a adaptação da escala. Foram examinados 32 idosos com DA leve, 25 com DA moderada e 51 idosos sem demência. Os idosos com DA e os controles responderam ao Miniexame do Estado Mental (MEEM)...

The Phrenic Component of Acute Schizophrenia – A Name and Its Physiological Reality

Bär, Karl-Jürgen; Rachow, Tobias; Schulz, Steffen; Bassarab, Katharina; Haufe, Stefanie; Berger, Sandy; Koch, Kathrin; Voss, Andreas
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 16/03/2012 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.67%
Decreased heart rate variability (HRV) was shown for unmedicated patients with schizophrenia and their first-degree relatives, implying genetic associations. This is known to be an important risk factor for increased cardiac mortality in other diseases. The interaction of cardio-respiratory function and respiratory physiology has never been investigated in the disease although it might be closely related to the pattern of autonomic dysfunction. We hypothesized that increased breathing rates and reduced cardio-respiratory coupling in patients with acute schizophrenia would be associated with low vagal function. We assessed variability of breathing rates and depth, HRV and cardio-respiratory coupling in patients, their first-degree relatives and controls at rest. Control subjects were investigated a second time by means of a stress task to identify stress-related changes of cardio-respiratory function. A total of 73 subjects were investigated, consisting of 23 unmedicated patients, 20 healthy, first-degree relatives and 30 control subjects matched for age, gender, smoking and physical fitness. The LifeShirt®, a multi-function ambulatory device, was used for data recording (30 minutes). Patients breathe significantly faster (p<.001) and shallower (p<.001) than controls most pronouncedly during exhalation. Patients' breathing is characterized by a significantly increased amount of middle- (p<.001)...

A Selfish Gene Governing Pollen-Pistil Compatibility Confers Reproductive Isolation Between Maize Relatives

Kermicle, Jerry L.
Fonte: Copyright © 2006 by the Genetics Society of America Publicador: Copyright © 2006 by the Genetics Society of America
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /01/2006 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.57%
Some populations of maize's closest relatives, the annual teosintes of Mexico, are unreceptive to maize pollen. When present in the pistil (silk and ovary) a number of maize genes discriminate against or exclude pollen not carrying the same allele. An analogous gene Tcb1-s was found in some teosinte populations but not in sympatric or parapatric maize. It was polymorphic among populations of teosinte growing wild, but regularly present in populations growing in intimate association with maize as a weed. Introduction of Tcb1-s into maize substantially to fully restored compatibility with Tcb1-s carrying teosintes. Although Tcb1-s pollen can fertilize tcb1 tcb1 maize, it is at a competitive disadvantage relative to tcb1 pollen. Hence, the influence of Tcb1-s on crossability is bidirectional. In the absence of maize, Tcb1-s can increase in teosinte populations without improving their fitness. In the presence of maize, Tcb1-s appears to have been co-opted to provide reproductive isolation for adaptation to a cultivated habitat.

Low paternity skew and the influence of maternal kin in an egalitarian, patrilocal primate

Strier, Karen B.; Chaves, Paulo B.; Mendes, Sérgio L.; Fagundes, Valéria; Di Fiore, Anthony
Fonte: National Academy of Sciences Publicador: National Academy of Sciences
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.51%
Levels of reproductive skew vary in wild primates living in multimale groups depending on the degree to which high-ranking males monopolize access to females. Still, the factors affecting paternity in egalitarian societies remain unexplored. We combine unique behavioral, life history, and genetic data to evaluate the distribution of paternity in the northern muriqui (Brachyteles hypoxanthus), a species known for its affiliative, nonhierarchical relationships. We genotyped 67 individuals (22 infants born over a 3-y period, their 21 mothers, and all 24 possible sires) at 17 microsatellite marker loci and assigned paternity to all infants. None of the 13 fathers were close maternal relatives of females with which they sired infants, and the most successful male sired a much lower percentage of infants (18%) than reported for the most successful males in other species. Our findings of inbreeding avoidance and low male reproductive skew are consistent with the muriqui's observed social and sexual behavior, but the long delay (≥2.08 y) between the onset of male sexual behavior and the age at which males first sire young is unexpected. The allocation of paternity implicates individual male life histories and access to maternal kin as key factors influencing variation in paternal—and grandmaternal—fitness. The apparent importance of lifelong maternal investment in coresident sons resonates with other recent examinations of maternal influences on offspring reproduction. This importance also extends the implications of the “grandmother hypothesis” in human evolution to include the possible influence of mothers and other maternal kin on male reproductive success in patrilocal societies.

The influence of relatives on the efficiency and error rate of familial searching

Rohlfs, Rori V.; Murphy, Erin; Song, Yun S.; Slatkin, Montgomery
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.63%
We investigate the consequences of adopting the criteria used by the state of California, as described by Myers et al. (2011), for conducting familial searches. We carried out a simulation study of randomly generated profiles of related and unrelated individuals with 13-locus CODIS genotypes and YFiler Y-chromosome haplotypes, on which the Myers protocol for relative identification was carried out. For Y-chromosome sharing first degree relatives, the Myers protocol has a high probability (80 - 99%) of identifying their relationship. For unrelated individuals, there is a low probability that an unrelated person in the database will be identified as a first-degree relative. For more distant Y-haplotype sharing relatives (half-siblings, first cousins, half-first cousins or second cousins) there is a substantial probability that the more distant relative will be incorrectly identified as a first-degree relative. For example, there is a 3 - 18% probability that a first cousin will be identified as a full sibling, with the probability depending on the population background. Although the California familial search policy is likely to identify a first degree relative if his profile is in the database, and it poses little risk of falsely identifying an unrelated individual in a database as a first-degree relative...

Integridade Familiar em Pessoas Idosas Cuidadores de Familiares com Demência; Integridad Familiar en Cuidadores Ancianos de Familiares con Demencia; Family Integrity Among Older Caregivers of Relatives With Dementia

Guerra, Sara; Figueiredo, Daniela; Patrão, Marta; Sousa, Liliana
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Filosofia, Ciências e Letras de Ribeirão Preto Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Filosofia, Ciências e Letras de Ribeirão Preto
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; ; ; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 01/04/2016 ENG
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O construto integridade familiar significa que o processo de construção da integridade do ego em pessoas idosas está associado às relações familiares. A integridade familiar (satisfação com a vida e relações familiares) é o resultado positivo; desconexão (insatisfação) e alienação (afastamento) constituem resultados negativos. O objetivo deste estudo foi investigar pessoas idosas, cuidadores primários de familiares com demência, examinando a sua experiência de eventos relacionados com esse papel, percebidos como influenciando o seu sentido de integridade familiar. A amostra compreendeu 26 participantes idosos, cuidadores de familiares com demência. Foram realizadas entrevistas abertas com roteiro semiestruturado. As transcrições das entrevistas foram submetidas a análise de conteúdo. Os principais resultados sugerem que os cuidadores no caminho da integridade familiar reveem os seus projetos de vida anteriores, enquanto aqueles em desconexão lutam para manter os projetos anteriores e aqueles na via de alienação tendem a abandonar os projetos. Cuidar de um familiar com demência apresenta múltiplos impactos na vida familiar.; The construct of family integrity denotes that older persons' attainment of ego integrity is linked to family relationships. Family integrity is the positive outcome (overall satisfaction with life); disconnection (dissatisfaction) and alienation (estrangement) are the negative outcomes. This study focuses on elderly people who are primary caregivers of relatives with dementia...