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Avaliação hidrológica da zona ripária através da análise da água subterrânea ao longo das vertentes de uma microbacia experimental; Hydrology assessment of riparian zone by groundwater analyse through the hillslope in an experimental catchment

Moster, Cláudia
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 04/05/2007 PT
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36.92%
Amostras da água subterrânea foram coletadas em poços piezométricos localizados em dois transectos ao longo das vertentes e dois transectos ao longo da cabeceira de drenagem de uma microbacia experimental, durante o período de maio de 2005 a abril de 2006. Em cada transecto os poços piezométricos estavam localizados respectivamente na parte alta da vertente, sob floresta plantada de Eucalyptus, na meia encosta, sob mata ciliar, e adjacente ao riacho. As análises destas amostras também foram comparadas com a análise simultânea da água do riacho, coletada na calha da estação linimétrica da microbacia. As análises químicas incluíram principalmente nitrato (N-NO3 -) e amônio (N-NH4 +), além do ferro, silício, alumínio, carbono orgânico dissolvido (DOC) e pH. O objetivo foi inferir sobre aspectos do funcionamento hidrológico da zona ripária, em termos de alteração da concentração dos íons analisados entre os pontos amostrados. A fim de inferir sobre o efeito da vegetação e das características do solo nas modificações da água subterrânea ao longo da vertente, foi realizado inventário para determinação da área basal da vegetação e análise granulométrica e química do solo. Os principais resultados mostram que na zona ripária adjacente ao riacho há maior concentração de matéria orgânica no solo e de amônio na água subterrânea. As concentrações de amônio e nitrato na água do riacho foram sempre menores do que as concentrações nos piezômetros adjacentes ao riacho próximo ao vertedor. Isso indica que na zona ripária ocorrem modificações na água subterrânea que garantem a manutenção do ecossistema lótico. Também foi possível identificar diferenças ao longo da microbacia...

Modelagem hidrológica de uma microbacia florestada da Serra do Mar, SP, com o modelo TOPMODEL : simulação do comportamento hidrológico em função do corte raso; Modelling the hydrology at subtropical forest small catchment in the Serra do Mar, São Paulo, Brazil, using TOPMODEL : simulation of hydrology behavior subject to clear-cutting

Ranzini, Maurício
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 26/06/2002 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.17%
Utilizou-se o modelo hidrológico TOPMODEL, baseado em aspectos físicos e topográficos, em uma das três microbacias do Laboratório de Hidrologia Florestal Eng. Agr. Walter Emmerich, do Instituto Florestal/SP. O laboratório localiza-se na Serra do Mar, junto às cabeceiras do rio Paraibuna, um dos formadores do rio Paraíba do Sul. O modelo usa um índice topográfico que indica as áreas de contribuição para o deflúvio da microbacia e permite simular a vazão e analisar o comportamento hidrológico da microbacia. A primeira parte do trabalho buscou determinar os valores iniciais dos parâmetros de calibração, testar a validade das premissas do modelo, e, principalmente, compreender melhor o funcionamento hidrológico da bacia D. Os resultados indicam uma eficiência maior para as simulações de eventos isolados do que para as de períodos longos. A simulação do comportamento hidrológico em função do corte raso mostrou uma diminuição do tempo de pico e um aumento significativo do volume de vazão simulado: de 17 a 44%, em comparação a bacia D coberta com floresta. Mostram, também, que de 7 a 93% do deflúvio é gerado a partir das áreas variáveis de afluência (A.V.A.). Recomenda-se que o corte raso seja evitado a qualquer custo. Caso seja necessário...

Assessment of the Impacts of Climate Change on Mountain Hydrology : Development of a Methodology through a Case Study in the Andes of Peru

Vergara, Walter; Deeb, Alejandro; Leino, Irene; Kitoh, Akio; Escobar, Marisa
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.29%
The objective of study of the impacts of climate change on mountain hydrology is to develop a methodology to assess the net impacts of climate change on the hydrological response in mountainous regions. This is done through a case study in the Peruvian Andes. There are few examples of predictions of the impact of climate change on resource availability and even fewer examples of the applications of such predictions to planning for sustainable economic development. This report presents a summary of the efforts of a Bank energy and climate change team to develop methodological tools for the assessment of climate impacts on surface hydrology in the Peruvian Andes. The importance of analyzing the potential climate impacts on hydrology in Peru arises in part from concerns about the retreat of tropical glaciers, the drying of unique Andean wetland ecosystems, as well as increased weather variability and weather extremes, all of which will affect water regulation. The study, together with a recently published report by the World Bank...

The Forest-Hydrology-Poverty Nexus in Central America: An Heuristic Analysis

Nelson, Andrew; Chomitz, Kenneth M.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, D.C. Publicador: World Bank, Washington, D.C.
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.92%
A "forest-hydrology-poverty nexus" hypothesis asserts that deforestation in poor upland areas simultaneously threatens biodiversity and increases the incidence of flooding, sedimentation, and other damaging hydrological processes. The authors use rough heuristics to assess the applicability of this hypothesis to Central America. They do so by using a simple rule of thumb to identify watersheds at greater risk of hydrologically significant land use change: these are watersheds where there is a relatively large interface between agriculture and forest, and where this interface is on a steep slope. The authors compare the location of these watersheds with spatial maps of poverty and forests (for Guatemala and Honduras) and with maps of population and forests (for Central America at large). The analysis is performed for watersheds defined at different scales. The authors find plausible evidence for a forest-biodiversity-poverty connection in Guatemala, and to a lesser extent in Honduras. In the rest of Central America...

Developing performance measures of mangrove wetlands using simulation models of hydrology, nutrient biogeochemistry, and community dynamics

Twilley, Robert R.; Rivera-Monroy, Victor H.
Fonte: FIU Digital Commons Publicador: FIU Digital Commons
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.07%
The goal of mangrove restoration projects should be to improve community structure and ecosystem function of degraded coastal landscapes. This requires the ability to forecast how mangrove structure and function will respond to prescribed changes in site conditions including hydrology, topography, and geophysical energies. There are global, regional, and local factors that can explain gradients of regulators (e.g., salinity, sulfides), resources (nutrients, light, water), and hydroperiod (frequency, duration of flooding) that collectively account for stressors that result in diverse patterns of mangrove properties across a variety of environmental settings. Simulation models of hydrology, nutrient biogeochemistry, and vegetation dynamics have been developed to forecast patterns in mangroves in the Florida Coastal Everglades. These models provide insight to mangrove response to specific restoration alternatives, testing causal mechanisms of system degradation. We propose that these models can also assist in selecting performance measures for monitoring programs that evaluate project effectiveness. This selection process in turn improves model development and calibration for forecasting mangrove response to restoration alternatives. Hydrologic performance measures include soil regulators...

Crayfish assemblage shifts in a large drought-prone wetland: the roles of hydrology and competition

Dorn, Nathan J.; Trexler, Joel C.
Fonte: FIU Digital Commons Publicador: FIU Digital Commons
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.92%
1. Faster growing, larger and/or more aggressive crayfish species are predicted to dominate permanent waterbodies. We tested this prediction using a 9 year dataset for two species of crayfish (Procambarus alleni and Procambarus fallax) co-existing in a sub-tropical flowing slough in southern Florida. Using a series of laboratory and mesocosm experiments we also compared life history traits and performance of the respective species to test mechanisms that could explain dominance shifts in the local crayfish assemblages. 2. Over the 9-year period, P. alleni densities were the greatest in shallower, shorterhydroperiod areas bordering the slough, while P. fallax densities were higher in deeper, longer-hydroperiod central areas. These areas were separated by 0.8–2 km of continuous wetland with no apparent barriers to movement between them. 3. Density of P. fallax was not strongly affected by any measures of hydrological variation, while P. alleni density increased with more severe drought conditions. Following the strongest droughts, P. alleni colonized areas in the centre of the slough where they had been absent or scarce in wetter years. 4. We conducted experiments to compare growth rates, drought tolerance, and competitive dominance of these species. P. alleni survived drought conditions better...

Phosphorus budgets in Everglades wetland ecosystems: the effects of hydrology and nutrient enrichment

Noe, Gregory B.; Childers, Dan
Fonte: FIU Digital Commons Publicador: FIU Digital Commons
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.92%
The Florida Everglades is a naturally oligotrophic hydroscape that has experienced large changes in ecosystem structure and function as the result of increased anthropogenic phosphorus (P) loading and hydrologic changes. We present whole-ecosystem models of P cycling for Everglades wetlands with differing hydrology and P enrichment with the goal of synthesizing existing information into ecosystem P budgets. Budgets were developed for deeper water oligotrophic wet prairie/slough (‘Slough’), shallower water oligotrophic Cladium jamaicense (‘Cladium’), partially enriched C. jamaicense/Typha spp. mixture (‘Cladium/Typha’), and enriched Typha spp. (‘Typha’) marshes. The majority of ecosystem P was stored in the soil in all four ecosystem types, with the flocculent detrital organic matter (floc) layer at the bottom of the water column storing the next largest proportion of ecosystem P pools. However, most P cycling involved ecosystem components in the water column (periphyton, floc, and consumers) in deeper water, oligotrophic Slough marsh. Fluxes of P associated with macrophytes were more important in the shallower water, oligotrophic Cladium marsh. The two oligotrophic ecosystem types had similar total ecosystem P stocks and cycling rates...

Modelling Climate - Surface Hydrology Interactions in Data Sparse Areas

Evans, Jason Peter
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Thesis (PhD); Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.92%
This thesis develops tools aimed at the study and prediction of climate effects on land-surface hydrology (in particular streamflow), which require a minimum amount of site specific data. This minimum data requirement allows studies to be performed in areas that are data sparse, such as the developing world. ¶ ...; yes

Contributions to computational hydrology : non-linear flow processes in subsurface and surface hydrosystems

Beinhorn, Martin
Fonte: Universität Tübingen Publicador: Universität Tübingen
Tipo: Buch (Monographie)
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.07%
Research in computational hydrology aims at the development and improvement of mathematical and numerical methods used to understand and predict the behavior of hydrologic systems. A hydrologic system consists of a subsurface- and a surface system, both interacting to various degrees. Interaction of different system components is achieved by process coupling and has received considerable attention by the modelling community. The issue of process coupling is not addressed in this work. The work presented here deals with subsurface- and surface systems as stand alone components, but is to be looked at in a wider context: The new features incorporated into the finite element (FE) program GeoSys/RockFlow (Kolditz et al. (2003)) serve to achieve the overall aim to create a software package to simulate large scale hydrologic systems within one integrating numerical model by closing some existing gaps of the program version from 2002. Due to the layered structure of most subsurface systems they can best be discretized with triangular prismatic elements. The computationally most efficient method for the calculation of their element matrices is the analytical integration of element matrix expressions. Hence triangular prismatic elements were implemented using an analytical integration for the element matrix expressions. The porous medium processes fluid flow and tracer transport were considered. The new method was crosschecked using results of the traditional numerical evaluation scheme and partly verified with analytical results. The performance of the new method was evaluated using a transport example. A comparison of the new analytical method with the traditional numerical method did show that the computation time required for setting up the element matrices is reduced by a factor 0.2. Hydrogeological systems are often formed by unconfined aquifers so that the model must be capable to properly represent unconfined groundwater flow. A method to calculate unconfined groundwater flow was therefore implemented into the existing simulator GeoSys/RockFlow. The method chosen is the moving mesh approach realized with a Picard iteration. The implemented method was also verified using analytical results. The next important process on the land phase of the hydrological cycle that has been implemented is overland flow. Based on a literature study a choice has been made in favor of the diffusive wave approach. Results were compared to analytical solutions and crosschecked with results from another numerical model. Application examples are a modelling study of a shallow aquifer in the Jericho area...

Land Use and Climate Change Impacts on the Hydrology of the Upper Mara River Basin, Kenya: Results of a Modeling Study to Support Better Resource Management

Mango, Liya M.; Melesse, Assefa M.; McClain, Michael E.; Gann, Daniel; Setegen, S. G.
Fonte: FIU Digital Commons Publicador: FIU Digital Commons
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.92%
Some of the most valued natural and cultural landscapes on Earth lie in river basins that are poorly gauged and have incomplete historical climate and runoff records. The Mara River Basin of East Africa is such a basin. It hosts the internationally renowned Mara-Serengeti landscape as well as a rich mixture of indigenous cultures. The Mara River is the sole source of surface water to the landscape during the dry season and periods of drought. During recent years, the flow of the Mara River has become increasingly erratic, especially in the upper reaches, and resource managers are hampered by a lack of understanding of the relative influence of different sources of flow alteration. Uncertainties about the impacts of future climate change compound the challenges. We applied the Soil Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) to investigate the response of the headwater hydrology of the Mara River to scenarios of continued land use change and projected climate change. Under the data-scarce conditions of the basin, model performance was improved using satellite-based estimated rainfall data, which may also improve the usefulness of runoff models in other parts of East Africa. The results of the analysis indicate that any further conversion of forests to agriculture and grassland in the basin headwaters is likely to reduce dry season flows and increase peak flows...

Land Use and Climate Change Impacts on the Hydrology of the Upper Mara River Basin, Kenya: Results of a Modeling Study to Support Better Resource Management

Mango, Liya M.; Melesse, Assefa M.; McClain, Michael E.; Gann, Daniel; Setegen, S. G.
Fonte: SelectedWorks Publicador: SelectedWorks
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.92%
Some of the most valued natural and cultural landscapes on Earth lie in river basins that are poorly gauged and have incomplete historical climate and runoff records. The Mara River Basin of East Africa is such a basin. It hosts the internationally renowned Mara-Serengeti landscape as well as a rich mixture of indigenous cultures. The Mara River is the sole source of surface water to the landscape during the dry season and periods of drought. During recent years, the flow of the Mara River has become increasingly erratic, especially in the upper reaches, and resource managers are hampered by a lack of understanding of the relative influence of different sources of flow alteration. Uncertainties about the impacts of future climate change compound the challenges. We applied the Soil Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) to investigate the response of the headwater hydrology of the Mara River to scenarios of continued land use change and projected climate change. Under the data-scarce conditions of the basin, model performance was improved using satellite-based estimated rainfall data, which may also improve the usefulness of runoff models in other parts of East Africa. The results of the analysis indicate that any further conversion of forests to agriculture and grassland in the basin headwaters is likely to reduce dry season flows and increase peak flows...

Simulating everglades national park hydrology and phosphorus transport under existing and future scenarios using numerical modeling

Long, Stephanie A
Fonte: FIU Digital Commons Publicador: FIU Digital Commons
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.17%
The Florida Everglades has a long history of anthropogenic changes which have impacted the quantity and quality of water entering the system. Since the construction of Tamiami Trail in the 1920's, overland flow to the Florida Everglades has decreased significantly, impacting ecosystems from the wetlands to the estuary. The MIKE Marsh Model of Everglades National Park (M3ENP) is a numerical model, which simulates Everglades National Park (ENP) hydrology using MIKE SHE/MIKE 11software. This model has been developed to determine the parameters that effect Everglades hydrology and understand the impact of specific flow changes on the hydrology of the system. ^ As part of the effort to return flows to the historical levels, several changes to the existing water management infrastructure have been implemented or are in the design phase. Bridge construction scenarios were programed into the M3ENP model to review the effect of these structural changes and evaluate the potential impacts on water levels and hydroperiods in the receiving Northeast Shark Slough ecosystem. These scenarios have shown critical water level increases in an area which has been in decline due to low water levels. Results from this work may help guide future decisions for restoration designs. ^ Excess phosphorus entering Everglades National Park in South Florida may promote the growth of more phosphorus-opportunistic species and alter the food chain from the bottom up. Two phosphorus transport methods were developed into the M3ENP hydrodynamic model to determine the factors affecting phosphorus transport and the impact of bridge construction on water quality. Results showed that while phosphorus concentrations in surface waters decreased overall...

Simulating Everglades National Park hydrology and phosphorus transport under existing and future scenarios using numerical modeling

Long, Stephanie
Fonte: FIU Digital Commons Publicador: FIU Digital Commons
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.17%
The Florida Everglades has a long history of anthropogenic changes which have impacted the quantity and quality of water entering the system. Since the construction of Tamiami Trail in the 1920's, overland flow to the Florida Everglades has decreased significantly, impacting ecosystems from the wetlands to the estuary. The MIKE Marsh Model of Everglades National Park (M3ENP) is a numerical model, which simulates Everglades National Park (ENP) hydrology using MIKE SHE/MIKE 11software. This model has been developed to determine the parameters that effect Everglades hydrology and understand the impact of specific flow changes on the hydrology of the system. As part of the effort to return flows to the historical levels, several changes to the existing water management infrastructure have been implemented or are in the design phase. Bridge construction scenarios were programed into the M3ENP model to review the effect of these structural changes and evaluate the potential impacts on water levels and hydroperiods in the receiving Northeast Shark Slough ecosystem. These scenarios have shown critical water level increases in an area which has been in decline due to low water levels. Results from this work may help guide future decisions for restoration designs. Excess phosphorus entering Everglades National Park in South Florida may promote the growth of more phosphorus-opportunistic species and alter the food chain from the bottom up. Two phosphorus transport methods were developed into the M3ENP hydrodynamic model to determine the factors affecting phosphorus transport and the impact of bridge construction on water quality. Results showed that while phosphorus concentrations in surface waters decreased overall...

A Review of Selected Hydrology Topics to Support Bank Operations

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Infrastructure Study; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.07%
The World Bank's 2004 Water Resources Sector Strategy focused on the need for both water resources management and development in dealing with growth and poverty alleviation. Planning and design of new hydraulic infrastructure for water supply and sanitation, food production, hydropower generation, flood protection, ecosystem restoration or other such purposes require dealing with all elements in the interaction among land, water, vegetation, human intervention and climate variability and change, with an emphasis on the end-user. They also require the simultaneous consideration of technical, economic, institutional (governance), political, financial, environmental and social factors, as called for in the Bank s 1993 Water Resources Management Policy. To provide high-level insight on the key hydrology issues involved, a group of world class experts gathered at a workshop held at World Bank Headquarters in November 2008. The workshop was organized by the Hydrology Expert Facility (HEF) of the Water Anchor. The presenters discussed advancements in key hydrologic topics that were selected for their relevance to Bank operations. The focus was on potential implications for the Bank s development assistance on water projects...

Rainfall-runoff modelling and palaeoflood hydrology applied to reconstruct centennial scale records of flooding and aquifer recharge in ungauged ephemeral rivers

Benito G.; Botero B.A.; Thorndycraft V.R.; Rico M.; Sanchez-Moya Y.; Sopena A.; MacHado M.J.; Dahan O.
Fonte: Universidade de Medellín Publicador: Universidade de Medellín
Tipo: Article; info:eu-repo/semantics/article
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.07%
In this study we propose a multi-source data approach for quantifying long-term flooding and aquifer recharge in ungauged ephemeral rivers. The methodology is applied to the Buffels River, at 9000 km2 the largest ephemeral river in Namaqualand (NW South Africa), a region with scarce stream flow records limiting research investigating hydrological response to global change. Daily discharge and annual flood series (1965-2006) were estimated from a distributed rainfall-runoff hydrological model (TETIS) using rainfall gauge records located within the catchment. The model was calibrated and validated with data collected during a two year monitoring programme (2005-2006) at two stream flow stations, one each in the upper and lower reaches of the catchment. In addition to the modelled flow records, non-systematic flood data were reconstructed using both sedimentary and documentary evidence. The palaeoflood record identified at least 25 large floods during the last 700 yr; with the largest floods reaching a minimum discharge of 255 m3 s-1 (450 yr return period) in the upper basin, and 510 m3 s-1 (100 yr return period) in the lower catchment. Since AD 1925, the flood hydrology of the Buffels River has been characterised by a decrease in the magnitude and frequency of extreme floods...

Historical hydrology for studying flood risk in Europe; L'hydrologie historique pour une meilleure connaissance du risque inondation en Europe

Brázdil, Rudolf; Kundzewicz, Zbigniew W.; Benito, Gerardo
Fonte: Blackwell Publishing Publicador: Blackwell Publishing
Tipo: Artículo Formato: 5160 bytes; image/gif
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.17%
[EN] Historical hydrology can be defined as a research field occupying the interface between hydrology and history, with the objectives: to reconstruct temporal and spatial patterns of river flow and, in particular, extreme events (floods, ice phenomena, hydrological droughts) mainly for the period prior to the creation of national hydrological networks; and to investigate the vulnerability of past societies and economies to extreme hydrological events. It is a significant tool for the study of flood risk. Basic sources of documentary data on floods and methods of data collection and analysis are discussed. Research progress achieved in Europe in reconstructing past runoff conditions, hydrological and hydraulic analyses of historical floods, their meteorological causes, impacts and relation to climate change, as well as use of combined series of palaeofloods, instrumental and historical floods for reconstructing long-term flood records, is reviewed. Finally, the future research needs of historical hydrology are discussed.; [FR] L'hydrologie historique peut être définie comme un champ de recherche positionné à la rencontre de l'hydrologie et de l'histoire. Ses objectifs visent, d'une part, la reconstitution dans le temps et l'espace de séries de crues fluviales...

Palaeoflood hydrology and its role in applied hydrological sciences

Benito, Gerardo; Thorndycraft, V. R.
Fonte: Elsevier Publicador: Elsevier
Tipo: Artículo Formato: 5160 bytes; image/gif
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.17%
This paper is a review of the methodology of palaeoflood hydrology. In particular, we focus on recent developments and the credibility of the palaeoflood data produced. The use of slackwater flood deposits as a physical record of water surface elevations reached by past floods enables the calculation of robust palaeodischarge estimates for floods that occurred during recent centuries or millennia. Over these time intervals the chronological precision from numerical age dating, such as radiocarbon, is sufficient for the structuring of the palaeoflood discharge data into different threshold levels that are exceeded by floodwaters over specific periods of time, the input data necessary for new methodologies of flood frequency analysis. The value of palaeoflood hydrology to hydrological sciences is discussed through its application in varying multidisciplinary research themes. We demonstrate the use of palaeoflood hydrology in: (1) flood risk estimation; (2) determination of the maximum limit of flood magnitude and non-exceedances as a check of the probable maximum flood (PMF) and its application in producing regional, long-term envelope curves; (3) Holocene climatic variability and (4) assessing sustainability of water resources in dryland environments where floods are an important source of water to alluvial aquifers.; Our palaeoflood research has been funded by the European Commission through the projects ‘Systematic...

The influence of subglacial hydrology on the flow of West Antarctic ice streams

Baker, Narelle Paula Marie
Fonte: University of Cambridge; Scott Polar Research Institute; Trinity College Publicador: University of Cambridge; Scott Polar Research Institute; Trinity College
Tipo: Thesis; doctoral; PhD
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.24%
Subglacial hydrology is known to influence the flow of ice. However, difficulty in accessing the base of large ice sheets has made determining the interaction between ice streams, basal sediment and water difficult to discern. The aim of this thesis is to determine the influence of subglacial hydrology on the flow of the West Antarctic ice streams. This is achieved through development of a numerical flowline model, the Hydrology, Ice and Till (HIT) model. Ice thermodynamics are coupled to a till layer of Coulomb plastic rheology. The porosity of the till changes with basal melt and freeze and can be augmented by water transported through a subglacial conduit system. Water availability strongly affects ice flow, as till porosity influences the till failure strength and thereby the basal resistance of the ice. The model was developed in four stages and a number of sensitivity tests were performed. It was then applied to Kamb Ice Stream (Ice Stream C) and Whillians Ice Stream (Ice Stream B), West Antarctica. Results confirm that ice streams are capable of oscillating between fast and slow velocity states. Cycles are generated at the grounding line of an ice stream and the speed of the transition from slow to fast flow is governed by water availability. The period of oscillation of the cycles for the West Antarctic ice streams was found to be several hundred years...

Measurement and Modeling of Snow Physical Properties

KANG, DO HYUK
Fonte: Universidade Duke Publicador: Universidade Duke
Tipo: Dissertação
Publicado em //2010
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.29%

The overall objective of this thesis is to characterize the space-time variability of snowpack physical properties at high spatial and temporal resolution for downscaling of remote-sensing products of snow cover, snow depth and snow water equivalent. The hypothesis is that the temporal evolution of the sub grid-scale statistical structure of relative permittivity fields and other snow properties can be related to the temporal evolution of the areal averages obtained from remote-sensing, thus enabling downscaling of snow water equivalent and snow depth even in the absence of ground-based measurements. For this purpose, research was conducted on ground-based measurements of subgrid-scale properties, and on the development and evaluation of a microwave simulation system consisting of coupled snow hydrology and radiative transfer models.

First, an L-band TX-RX wireless sensor to monitor snow accumulation and snow wetness was designed, fabricated, and tested under laboratory conditions. The sensor was designed to operate at 39 discrete frequencies (39 channels) in the 1.00-1.76-GHz frequency range (0.02-GHz increments). Full-system testing of the first-generation system was conducted using commercial attenuators up to 20.0 dB to test the prototypes against design specifications. It was determined that performance was nearly optimal in the 1-1.2-GHz range. Next...

Model design for the hydrology of tree belt plantations on hillslopes

Ticehurst, Jenifer Lyn; Croke, Barry; Jakeman, Anthony
Fonte: Elsevier Publicador: Elsevier
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.24%
When selecting or developing a model to use for research it is important that the model structure and complexity meet the objectives of the research while avoiding problems from overparameterisation. In this paper a procedure is outlined for the selection or development of a model to be used to assist in locating and designing tree belt plantations on hillslopes. Sensitivity analysis and field data interpretation are used to define the important hillslope properties and processes occurring at a field site in southern New South Wales. These are combined with the research objectives to identify the model requirements for further study on tree belt plantations. A brief review of potentially suitable models available reveals that no single model meets all of the requirements. It is concluded that field data should be used to develop a simple cascading bucket model for hillslope hydrology using a top-down approach.