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Human capital, mechanisms of technological diffusion and the role of technological shocks in the speed of diffusion: Evidence from a panel of Mediterranean countries

Duarte, Maria Adelaide; Simões, Marta
Fonte: FEUC. Grupo de Estudos Monetários e Financeiros Publicador: FEUC. Grupo de Estudos Monetários e Financeiros
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.11%
Our main goal is to ascertain the importance of human capital as a facilitator of technological diffusion in a sample of seven Mediterranean countries (Algeria, Cyprus, Israel, Egypt, Syria, Tunisia, and Turkey) for the period 1960-2000. First, we estimate the technological progress growth rate and the technological gap between each country in our sample and the technological leader (the USA), following the methodology of Benhabib and Spiegel (2002). We then address the issue of the importance of technology diffusion for the TFP growth rate through the Nelson and Phelps (1966) hypothesis - the potential speed of technology diffusion is inversely related to the degree of technological backwardness of the follower country and its ability to absorb new technologies will depend positively on its human capital level. The non-linear specification of the TFP growth rate proposed by Benhabib and Spiegel (2002) is estimated to control for the type of technological diffusion: logistic or exponential. The empirical analysis is applied to two samples: a smaller one consisting of the above-mentioned countries, and a larger one that includes some European countries. First, we studied the unit root characteristic of the TFP growth rate series using unit root panel tests. The results obtained allowed the use of traditional econometric methods for both equations. For the first equation estimations were performed using the NLLS estimation procedure...

Doutores em ciências contábeis da FEA/USP: análise sob a óptica da teoria do capital humano; Accounting PhD graduates from FEA/USP: analisys in light of human capital theory.

Cunha, Jacqueline Veneroso Alves da
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 17/09/2007 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.11%
Os pressupostos da teoria do capital humano estabelecem que as pessoas se educam e que o principal efeito da educação é a mudança que ela provoca nas habilidades e conhecimentos de quem estuda. Quanto maior o nível de escolaridade alcançado, maior o desenvolvimento das habilidades cognitivas e de produtividade. A conseqüência prevista é uma melhora no nível de renda, na qualidade de vida e nas oportunidades profissionais e sociais. Tendo por base esse arcabouço teórico, o propósito geral desta pesquisa foi identificar e analisar as avaliações e percepções dos doutores em Ciências Contábeis, titulados pela FEA/USP, sobre as influências do doutorado nos seus desenvolvimentos e nas suas responsabilidades sociais. Os achados da pesquisa confirmaram as expectativas, explicações e previsões da teoria. Na percepção dos egressos, os 19 fatores possíveis de ser alterados que lhes foram apresentados, identificados na teoria do capital humano e levantados em duas aplicações da técnica Delphi, foram substancialmente influenciados com a titulação. Foram eles: respeitabilidade e reconhecimento acadêmico/profissional, diferenciação profissional, espírito acadêmico, amadurecimento pessoal, produção acadêmica...

Concentração espacial do capital humano: uma análise empírica para o Estado de São Paulo; Spatial convergence of the human capital: an empirical analysis for the Brazilian State of São Paulo

Costa, Raone Botteon
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 05/12/2008 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.11%
O objetivo desse trabalho é analisar a distribuição espacial do capital humano nos municípios Estado de São Paulo. Para tanto, será usada uma metodologia de investigação composta de regressões que buscam explicar a variação do capital humano municipal com base em seu estoque inicial e em outras variáveis de controle. Os resultados mostram que as pessoas com ensino superior possuem uma tendência apenas moderada de divergência espacial, que se desfaz gradativamente à medida que adicionamos novas variáveis de controle. Por outro lado, as pessoas com ensino básico ou analfabetas apresentam evidências muito mais concretas de convergência espacial. Esse resultado vai contra a literatura internacional da área que sugere existência de concentração espacial nas pessoas com alto capital humano.; This paper investigates the spatial distribution of the human capital in the municipalities of the Brazilian state São Paulo. For that purpose, a methodology consisted by linear regressions that aims to explain the human capital variations using control variables and the initial stock of human capital will be used. The result shows that people with college degrees have a moderate trend of spatial divergence, which is gradually undone once we put new control variables in the regression. On the other side...

Estratégia e ação empreendedora em empresas familiares: uma análise sobre capital humano e capital social; Entrepreneurial strategy and action in family business: an analysis of human capital and social capital

Mizumoto, Fabio Matuoka
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 16/12/2009 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.18%
A ocorrência de desequilíbrio no ambiente econômico impõe ajustes na estratégia e na alocação de recursos pelas firmas. A literatura em estratégia prediz a reação da firma ao desequilíbrio de acordo com seus recursos, as forças competitivas de mercado e os mecanismos para economizar em custos de transação. Entretanto, estas perspectivas assumem homogeneidade nas capacidades gerenciais, habilidades e experiências das firmas; em outras palavras, não há espaço para o empreendedor. De fato, as investigações sobre o empreendedor focam o seu comportamento ao risco, o processo de julgamento relacionado ao seu modelo mental e outros conceitos que não são diretamente observáveis. Esta tese de doutorado propõe um modelo baseado em capital humano e capital social para conectar as teorias isoladas sobre estratégia e empreendedorismo. Ainda mais, este modelo integra a teoria sobre empresas familiares pela sua importância na formação de capital humano e capital social das firmas. O estudo empírico investigou a escolha estratégica e a ação empreendedora de famílias de produtores rurais no Brasil. Especificamente, avaliou os produtores que mudaram de uma estratégia de liderança em custo para uma estratégia de diferenciação...

Estudo da relação entre comércio internacional, capital humano e crescimento econômico no Brasil no período de 1995 a 2006; Study of the relationship between international trade, human capital and economic growth in Brazil between 1995 thru 2006

Fraga, Gilberto Joaquim
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 18/07/2011 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.16%
Existe uma ampla literatura tratando dos efeitos da abertura comercial sobre a taxa de crescimento econômico e outra que trata dos efeitos do capital humano sobre esse crescimento. No entanto, é bastante limitada a literatura que ressalta a interligação da abertura comercial e do capital humano sobre o crescimento econômico. Os poucos trabalhos existentes nesse último grupo se concentram em análises considerando diferenças entre países. No entanto, o Brasil tem grandes dimensões e a análise dos fatores que explicam o crescimento do PIB de seus estados é de suma importância para os planejadores econômicos. Diante desse cenário, procura-se nesta tese quantificar e analisar os impactos de variações no capital humano dos indivíduos e da abertura comercial dos estados brasileiros sobre o crescimento econômico dos respectivos estados. O capital humano aqui é entendido como o número médio de anos de estudos da parcela da PEA ocupada em cada unidade da federação e a abertura comercial é definida como a proporção entre o volume de comércio internacional (exportações mais importações) em relação ao PIB dos respectivos estados. A análise compreende o período de 1995 a 2006 e os dados anuais estão organizados no formato de painel...

Os efeitos da qualidade da educação sobre a acumulação de capital humano e o crescimento econômico no Brasil; The effects of the education quality on human capital accumulation and economic growth in Brazil

Gama, Victor Azambuja
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 08/05/2014 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.13%
O objetivo do presente trabalho é analisar empiricamente a relação entre indicadores de qualidade da educação e o crescimento econômico no Brasil, com ênfase em medidas de qualidade da educação, representadas pelos resultados de provas em proficiência escolar ao nível dos estados brasileiros. A análise empírica, seguindo os conceitos de Hanushek e Kimko (2000) sobre a qualidade da educação, utilizou como referência metodológica dois modelos macroeconômicos tradicionais da análise do crescimento com capital humano: (i) o modelo de crescimento baseado na equação de Mincer; (ii) modelo de Solow estendido sugerido por Mankiw, Romer e Weil (1992). Utilizando a metodologia de dados em painel, os resultados sugerem que a quantidade de capital humano teve uma contribuição maior para o crescimento do produto por trabalhador do que a qualidade da força de trabalho. Alguns fatores que podem explicar a baixa contribuição da qualidade do capital humano para o crescimento são: o curto período de análise, a dificuldade em se obter medidas mais precisas de qualidade do capital humano, e na média, a qualidade do capital humano no país é comparativamente baixa (em relação a outros países), como resultado das muitas e reconhecidas deficiências do sistema educacional brasileiro.; This research aims analyze empirically the relationship between indicators of education quality and economic growth in Brazil...

A Wage based measure of regional aggregate human capital

Silva, João C. Cerejeira da
Fonte: Universidade do Porto. Faculdade de Economia. Publicador: Universidade do Porto. Faculdade de Economia.
Tipo: Conferência ou Objeto de Conferência
Publicado em /08/2004 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.11%
The role of the accumulation of human capital to per capita income growth has been sharply debated among economists and policy makers. One open question of this debate is how to measure human capital. The standard approach is to use the average years of education of the labour force or the school enrolment rates as proxies for the stock of human capital. However, formal schooling achievement does not fully capture all the human capital stock. In fact, other formsof human capital accumulation are unmeasured. Also, it is assumed that the productivity differentials among workers with different levels of schooling are proportional to their years of education. In order to solve these problems, we develop the Mulligan and Sala-i-Martin’s measure of human capital based, on labour income. This measure has some nice properties: is consistent with variable elasticities of substitution across types of workers, and does not impose all workers with the same amount of education to have the same amount of skill. It is also allowed for changes in the relative productivities over time and across different economies.We compute the index at the firm level and, finally, and we compare the evolution of our index with the evolution of average years of education for the Portuguese regions...

Estimating the impact of innovative human capital on firm-level innovation

McGuirk, Helen
Fonte: University of Limerick Publicador: University of Limerick
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/doctoralThesis; all_ul_research; ul_published_reviewed; ul_theses_dissertations
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.14%
peer-reviewed; Innovation is a well-recognised determinant of growth in firms, regions and the economy as a whole. Many studies focus on tangible conditions and factors related to innovation, including human capital. Human capital is an essential part of innovation and is traditionally measured by a uni-dimensional approach: the tangible elements of education and training. Increases in levels of education, especially in developed countries, are causing uncertainty about the competitive advantage afforded by the traditional measure of human capital. From the literature presented in this thesis, it is also evident that such measures of human capital are limited, and a more encompassing measure and concept of human capital is called for. To overcome these limitations and address the lack of a holistic measure of human capital in the literature, this research extends the traditional measure by developing a unique and far-reaching concept of Innovative Human Capital (IHC). The novel and multi-dimensional IHC concept encapsulates four elements of the individual employee-manager: the tangible and standard measures of educational attainment and training, as well as the intangible and more innovative elements of willingness to change in the workplace and job satisfaction. Using Ireland as a laboratory...

Economic Freedom, Human Rights, and the Returns to Human Capital : An Evaluation of the Schultz Hypothesis

King, Elizabeth M.; Montenegro, Claudio E.; Orazem, Peter F.
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.11%
According to T.W. Schultz, the returns to human capital are highest in economic environments experiencing unexpected price, productivity, and technology shocks that create "disequilibria." In such environments, the ability of firms and individuals to adapt their resource allocations to shocks becomes most valuable. In the case of negative shocks, government policies that mitigate the impact of the shock will also limit the returns to the skills of managing risk or adapting resources to changing market forces. In the case of positive shocks, government policies may restrict access to credit, labor, or financial markets in ways that limit reallocation of resources toward newly emerging profitable sectors. This paper tests the hypothesis that the returns to skills are highest in countries that allow individuals to respond to shocks. Using estimated returns to schooling and work experience from 122 household surveys in 86 developing countries, this paper demonstrates a strong positive correlation between the returns to human capital and economic freedom...

Human Capital, Tangible Wealth, and the Intangible Capital Residual

Hamilton, Kirk; Liu, Gang
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.15%
Since income is the return on wealth, the total wealth of any given country should be on the order of 20 times its gross domestic product. Instead the average observed ratio from the balance sheet accounts of the System of National Accounts is a factor of 2.6 to 6.6, depending on whether natural resource stocks are included in the balance sheet. The clear implication is that the System of National Accounts wealth accounts are incomplete, with the most obvious omission being human capital. Estimating the value of human capital using the lifetime income approach for a sample of 13 (mostly high-income) countries yields a mean share of human capital in total wealth of 62 percent -- four times the value of produced capital and 15 times the value of natural capital. But for selected high-income countries in the sample there is still an average of 25 percent of total wealth that is unaccounted -- it is neither produced, nor natural, nor human capital. This residual intangible wealth is arguably the "stock equivalent" of total factor productivity -- the value of assets such as institutional quality and social capital that augment the capacity of produced...

Institutional Quality Mediates the Effect of Human Capital on Economic Performance

Adams-Kane, Jonathon; Lim, Jamus Jerome
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.15%
This paper considers the relationship between institutional quality, educational outcomes, and economic performance. More specifically, it seeks to establish the linkages by which government effectiveness affects per capita income, via its mediating effect on human capital formation. The empirical approach adopts a two-stage strategy that estimates national-level educational production functions that include government effectiveness as a covariate, and then uses these estimates as instruments for human capital in cross-country regressions of per capita income. The results identify a significant and positive effect of human capital on per capita income levels, and partially resolves the inconsistency between macro- and micro-level studies of the effect of human capital on income. The results also remain robust to alternative specifications, extension to a panel setting, subsamples of the data, and fully endogenous institutions.

Quantitative analyses of long-run human capital development: age heaping as an indicator for numeracy; Quantitative Analyse langfristiger Humankapitalentwicklung: Age Heaping als Indikator für numerische Fähigkeiten

Crayen, Dorothee
Fonte: Universidade de Tubinga Publicador: Universidade de Tubinga
Tipo: Dissertação
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.12%
For researchers studying the economic development of nations, the availability of human capital data is crucial. Economists making efforts to examine the impact of human resources on economic development before the end of World War II often face massive problems. Methods of collecting data, i.e., registration systems, population censuses or surveys did neither acquire sufficiently detailed data nor was the recorded data standardized in any consistent form and little attention was paid to direct information about a population’s level of education. For early time spans, more than any other data, demographic records are available. This thesis proposes to use irregularities in the reporting of age to estimate the people’s level of education. Single year age data, which enables researchers to depict a population’s detailed age structure, almost always exhibits irregularities in the form of heaped data, i.e., the age distribution does not run smoothly but exhibits sharp jumps and clustering at certain ages. This phenomenon is attributed to age heaping, a term which describes people’s ignorance to their age or people’s tendency to round their ages off. To a varying degree, age heaping exists in nearly all historical age statistics when people were asked for their age (as opposed to age records that were calculated from birth certificates or alike). By measuring the degree of age heaping one is able to derive a simple proxy for human capital covering a greater number of countries and regions as well as earlier periods than for instance signature ability rates. Being a proxy of numerical comprehension and diligence when responding to age questions...

Essays on Human Capital Development in Latin America and Spain; Aufsätze zur Humankapitalentwicklung in Lateinamerika und Spanien

Manzel, Kerstin
Fonte: Universidade de Tubinga Publicador: Universidade de Tubinga
Tipo: Dissertação
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.11%
This dissertation scrutinizes the development of human capital in the Iberian world. Although both, Latin America and Spain, have been the focus of new recent studies, empirical evidence is still scarce, especially for the Latin American and Caribbean region. Broad trends of long-term human capital development in the New World and in Spain therefore have remained unclear until now. The thesis therefore aims at filling in the void. It presents human capital estimates in the long run for the Iberian world. Human capital development can be traced back to the 17th century for a number of Latin American countries. For this purpose it uses two indicators of human capital, education and health. To measure education, the thesis employs the age heaping technique which calculates the share of people who were able to report their exact age rather than a rounded age, in population enumerations. This is an indicator of basic numeracy, which is a precondition for developing more advanced skills. Health is approximated by adult height, which gives information on the nutritional status and the disease environment during childhood. The thesis comprises six chapters of which four manuscripts, partly co-authored, are intended for publication. To put the methodology applied in the papers in a broader context...

Essays on Human Capital Accumulation and Inequality

TRENTINI, Claudia
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.12%
Defense Date: 17/09/2009; Examining Board: Prof. Orazio Attanasio, University College London Prof. Andrea Ichino, EUI and Università di Bologna Prof. Eliana La Ferrara, Università Bocconi/IGIER Prof. Morten Ravn, EUI and University College London, Supervisor; This thesis is composed by four independent chapters. Their common denominator is the process of human capital accumulation analyzed under different perspectives and using different techniques. In the following I will shortly describe each chapter in more detail. Chapter 1 addresses an important aspect of the effects of trade liberalization that has gained much attention in recent years: raising skill premia. It is motivated by recent evidence showing that trade liberalization in developing countries is often associated with a large increase in wage inequality. I investigate the mechanism through which a trade related increase in the demand for skilled labor affects human capital investment and the wealth distribution of a developing country economy. In particular I focus on a scenario where the liberalizing economy is in a poverty trap. This is because developing economies are often plagued by credit market imperfections. Imperfect financial markets raise the probability that individuals are constrained in their human capital investment decisions and that the economy is a poverty trap. I use a standard overlapping generation model to show how a trade related increase in the demand for skilled labor can release a developing country from a poverty trap...

Essays on Human Capital Formation, Living Standards and Selective Migration; Aufsätze zu Humankapitalformation, Lebensstandard und selektiver Migration

Stolz, Yvonne
Fonte: Universität Tübingen Publicador: Universität Tübingen
Tipo: Dissertation; info:eu-repo/semantics/doctoralThesis
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.18%
The first scientific paper, chapter two focuses on human capital as an important determinant of living standards. Human capital is proxied with the age-heaping technique. Additionally in this article, literacy evidence is provided to cross-check the results. As an indicator of the biological standard of living, human stature is used. The chapter provides a large data set on Portuguese living standards from the early 18th to the 20th centuries. It answers the question: When and why did the Portuguese become the shortest Europeans? In order to find the answer to this question, the trend in Portuguese living standards from the 1720s until recent times is estimated with Maximum Likelihood and OLS techniques. The data shows that during the early nineteenth century average height in Portugal did not differ significantly from average height in most other European countries. But when around 1850, their anthropometric values began to climb sharply, Portugal's, however, did not. In OLS and IV panel estimations, delays in both real-wage convergence and human capital formation in Portugal are found to be the main factors hindering any improvement there in the biological standard of living. Chapter three provides data on human capital development for seven Latin Ameri-can countries from the 17th to the 20th centuries...

Contributions to the discussion on the determinants of long-term human capital development in today's developing regions; Beiträge zur Diskussion über Einflussfaktoren auf die langfristige Humankapitalentwicklung in heutigen Entwicklungsregionen

Prayon, Valeria
Fonte: Universität Tübingen Publicador: Universität Tübingen
Tipo: Dissertation; info:eu-repo/semantics/doctoralThesis
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.15%
This thesis makes use of the phenomenon of age-heaping as a proxy for basic numerical skills and assesses the long-term human capital development in today’s developing regions, mainly for the time period from 1880 to 1960. Although the age-heaping methodology is still quite new in the field of economic history capturing only a very basic aspect of human capital, many recent studies have demonstrated its usefulness as a proxy for basic numerical skills. This thesis contributes to this strand of literature and presents new empirical evidence for as-sessing the historical roots and determinants of today’s educational situation in Africa, Asia, and the Americas. Chapter 2 presents new human capital estimates of 68 former colonies for the 19th and 20th century and reassesses the colonial legacy debate by examining the influence of institutions, human capital, and geography on long-term economic growth. Based on these new esti-mates, this study argues that the former colonies had a large variation of educational levels and that those differences in early human capital endowment have a strong impact on current income differences via the path dependency of human capital. The results indicate that the idiosyncratic educational path dependency and the ‘contact-learning effect’ were complemen-tary to the well-known colonial institutional effect and direct migration transfer effects in stimulating growth. Chapter 3 presents new estimates on basic numeracy for 34 African countries for the period spanning 1880 to 1960. As data on human capital in Africa before 1960 are scarce...

Natural Disasters, Self-Insurance and Human Capital Investment : Evidence from Bangladesh, Ethiopia and Malawi

Yamauchi, Futoshi; Yohannes, Yisehac; Quisumbing, Agnes
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.16%
This paper examines the impacts of disasters on dynamic human capital production using panel data from Bangladesh, Ethiopia, and Malawi. The empirical results show that the accumulation of biological human capital prior to disasters helps children maintain investments in the post-disaster period. Biological human capital formed in early childhood (long-term nutritional status) plays a role of insurance with resilience to disasters by protecting schooling investment and outcomes, although disasters have negative impacts on investment. In Bangladesh, children with more biological human capital are less affected by the adverse effects of floods, and the rate of investment increases with the initial human capital stock in the post-disaster recovery process. In Ethiopia and Malawi, where droughts are rather frequent, exposure to highly frequent droughts in some cases reduces schooling investment but the negative impacts are larger among children embodying less biological human capital. Asset holdings prior to the disasters...

Sources of China's Economic Growth, 1952-99 : Incorporating Human Capital Accumulation

Wang, Yan; Yao, Yudong
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.13%
China's performance in economic growth, and poverty reduction has been remarkable. There is an ongoing debate about whether this growth is mainly driven by productivity, or factor accumulation. But few past studies have incorporated information on China's human capital stock, and thus contained an omission bias. The authors construct a measure of China's human capital stock from 1952 to 1999, and, using a simple growth accounting exercise, incorporate it in their analysis of the sources of growth, during the pre-reform (1952-77), and the reform period (1978-99). They find that the accumulation of human capital in China (as measured by the average years of schooling for the population aged 15 to 64) was quite rapid, and contributed significantly to growth, and welfare. After incorporating human capital, they also find that the growth of total factor productivity, still plays a positive, and significant role during the reform period. In contrast, productivity growth was negative in the pre-reform period. The results are robust to changes in labor shares in GDP. The recent declining rate of human capital accumulation is a cause for concern...

A sobrevivência de empresas nascentes no estado de São Paulo: um estudo sobre capital humano, capital social e práticas gerenciais; La supervivencia de empresas nacientes en el estado de São Paulo: un estudio sobre capital humano, capital social y prácticas gerenciales; The survival of new companies in São Paulo state: a study about human capital, social capital and management practices

Mizumoto, Fábio Matuoka; Artes, Rinaldo; Lazzarini, Sérgio Giovanetti; Hashimoto, Marcos; Bedê, Marco Aurélio
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Economia, Administração e Contabilidade Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Economia, Administração e Contabilidade
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; Artigo Avaliado pelos Pares Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 01/12/2010 POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.12%
La literatura ha encontrado que empresas menores y más jóvenes presentan, en general, mayor riesgo de cierre que empresas mayores y ya establecidas en el mismo sector. El objetivo de esta investigación fue analizar empíricamente el impacto de tres factores que pueden prolongar la supervivencia de empresas nacientes: el capital humano del emprendedor, su capital social y la adopción de prácticas gerenciales después de la apertura de la nueva empresa. Con base en la muestra de 1.961 empresas abiertas y registradas en la Junta Comercial del Estado de São Paulo (Jucesp) entre los años de 1999 y 2003, se realizó un estudio de carácter cuantitativo para verificar la probabilidad de supervivencia de esas empresas. Algunas variables se mostraron estadísticamente significativas para explicar la probabilidad de supervivencia de la empresa naciente, entre ellas, el grado de escolaridad del emprendedor y su preparo previo al iniciar el negocio (relacionados con su capital humano), la existencia de personas en la familia con negocios similares (relacionada a su capital social) y, principalmente, la adopción de prácticas gerenciales, como la búsqueda por anticipar hechos y la búsqueda por informaciones relevantes. Dichos resultados resaltaron la necesidad de tener en cuenta elementos de diferentes puntos de vista teóricos...

Association of performance measures for payment of bonuses to executives with dependence of human capital; Asociación entre medidas de desempeño para pago de bonus a los ejecutivos y la dependencia de capital humano; Associação das medidas de desempenho para pagamento de bônus aos executivos com dependência de capital humano

Beuren, Ilse Maria; Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Contábeis da Universidade Federal do Paraná; Kaveski, Itzhak David Simão; Universidade Regional de Blumenau - FURB; Rigo, Vitor Paulo; Universidade Regional de Blumenau - FURB
Fonte: UFSC Publicador: UFSC
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 08/04/2014 POR
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The goal of this study is to investigate the association of performance measures used to pay bonuses to executives with the dependence of human capital and the moderating effect of the compensation structure in companies listed on BM&FBovespa. The results indicate that reliance on human capital is negatively related to the use of human resources measures for the payment of bonuses to executives. It is concluded that the use of non-financial measures and human resources for the payment of bonuses to executives in companies dependent on human capital is greater when they adopt egalitarian compensation structures, than with hierarchical compensation structures.; El estudio pretende verificar la asociación entre las medidas de desempeño utilizadas en el pago de bonus a los ejecutivos con dependencia de capital humano y el efecto moderador de la estructura de remuneración en empresas listadas en BM&FBovespa. Los resultados indican que la dependencia de capital humano está negativamente relacionada con el uso de medidas de recursos humanos en el pago de bonus a los ejecutivos. Se concluye que el uso de medidas no financieras y de recursos humanos para el pago de bonus a los ejecutivos en las empresas dependientes de capital humano es más alto cuando se adoptan estructuras de remuneración igualitaria que cuando se adoptan estructuras de remuneración jerárquica.; http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-8069.2014v11n22p3O estudo objetiva verificar a associação das medidas de desempenho utilizadas no pagamento de bônus aos executivos com a dependência de capital humano e o efeito moderador da estrutura de remuneração em empresas listadas na BM&FBovespa. Os resultados apontam que dependência de capital humano está negativamente relacionada com uso de medidas de recursos humanos no pagamento de bônus aos executivos. Conclui-se que o uso de medidas não financeiras e de recursos humanos para pagamento de bônus aos executivos nas empresas dependentes de capital humano é maior quando adotam estruturas de remuneração igualitária...