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Comportamento de fadiga e perfis de tensões residuais de cerâmicas odontológicas; Fatigue behavior and residual stress profiles of dental ceramics

Fukushima, Karen Akemi
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.14%
Capítulo 1. Objetivos: Medir e comparar o perfil de tensão residual da cerâmica de recobrimento aplicada sobre infraestruturas em zircônia tetragonal policristalina estabilizada por ítria (Y-TZP), em um compósito de alumina/zircônia (ZTA) e em uma alumina policristalina (AL). Material e Métodos: Os perfis de tensão residual de cada um dos materiais foi medido por meio do método "hole-drilling" em discos de 19 mm de diâmetro e 2,2 mm de espessura (0,7 mm de infraestrutura + 1,5 mm de porcelana de cobertura) .Resultados: Os espécimes de AL exibiram tensões de compressão que aumentaram numericamente com a profundidade, enquanto que as tensões compressivas mudaram para tensões de tração no interior das amostras de Y-TZP. As amostras de ZTA exibiram tensões de compressão na superfície, decrescendo com a profundidade até 0,6 mm, tornando-se compressivas novamente próximo à infraestrutura. Conclusão: O ZTA não apresentou tensões de tração em nenhum ponto ao longo da espessura da cerâmica de recobrimento. A AL apresentou um perfil de tensão residual mais favorável, gerado pelas tensões compressivas. A Y-TZP apresentou o perfil mais desfavorável, por apresentar tensões de tração próximo à infraestrutura. Capítulo 2. Objetivos: 1) Comparar os coeficientes de susceptibilidade ao crescimento subcrítico (n)...

Magnetic field profile of a mesoscopic SQUID-shaped superconducting film

Rogeri, F.; Zadorosny, R.; Lisboa Filho, Paulo Noronha; Sardella, E.; Ortiz, W. A.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.88%
Using a genuinely tridimensional approach to the time-dependent Ginzburg-Landau theory, we have studied the local magnetic field profile of a mesoscopic superconductor in the so-called SQUID geometry, i.e., a square with a hole at the center connected to the outside vacuum through a very thin slit. Our investigation was carried out in both the Meissner and the mixed state. We have also studied the influence of the temperature on the space distribution of the local magnetic field. © 2013 IOP Publishing Ltd.

Geoacoustic inversion in laterally varying shallow-water experiments using high-resolution wavenumber estimation

Becker, Kyle M
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 170 leaves; 11937415 bytes; 11937169 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.91%
Sound propagation in shallow water is highly dependent on the interaction of the sound field with the bottom. In order to fully understand this problem, it is necessary to obtain reliable estimates of bottom geoacoustic properties that can be used in acoustic propagation codes. In this thesis, perturbative inversion methods and exact inverse methods are discussed as a means for inferring geoacoustic properties of the bottom. For each of these methods, the input data to the inversion is the horizontal wavenumber spectrum of a point-source acoustic field. The main thrust of the thesis work concerns extracting horizontal wavenumber content for fully three-dimensionally varying waveguide environments. In this context, a high-resolution autoregressive (AR) spectral estimator was applied to determine wavenumber content for short aperture data. As part of this work, the AR estimator was examined for its ability to detect discrete wavenumbers in the presence of noise and also to resolve closely spaced wavenumbers for short aperture data. As part of a geoacoustic inversion workshop, the estimator was applied to extract horizontal wavenumber content for synthetic pressure field data with range-varying geoacoustic properties in the sediment. The resulting wavenumber content was used as input data to a perturbative inverse algorithm to determine the sound speed profile in the sediment. It was shown using the high-resolution wavenumber estimator that both the shape and location of the range-variability in the sediment could be determined.; (cont.) The estimator was also applied to determine wavenumbers for synthetic data where the water column sound speed contained temporal variations due to the presence of internal waves. It was shown that reliable estimates of horizontal wavenumbers could be obtained that are consistent with the boundary conditions of the waveguide. The Modal Mapping Experiment (MOMAX)...

Geoacoustic inversion by mode amplitude perturbation

Poole, Travis L
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 126 p.
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.91%
This thesis introduces an algorithm for inverting for the geoacoustic properties of the seafloor in shallow water. The input data required by the algorithm are estimates of the amplitudes of the normal modes excited by a low-frequency pure-tone sound source, and estimates of the water column sound speed profiles at the source and receiver positions. The algorithm makes use of perturbation results, and computes the small correction to an estimated background profile that is necessary to reproduce the measured mode amplitudes. Range-dependent waveguide properties can be inverted for so long as they vary slowly enough in range that the adiabatic approximation is valid. The thesis also presents an estimator which can be used to obtain the input data for the inversion algorithm from pressure measurements made on a vertical line array (VLA). The estimator is an Extended Kalman Filter (EKF), which treats the mode amplitudes and eigenvalues as state variables. Numerous synthetic and real-data examples of both the inversion algorithm and the EKF estimator are provided. The inversion algorithm is similar to eigenvalue perturbation methods, and the thesis also presents a combination mode amplitude/eigenvalue inversion algorithm, which combines the advantages of the two techniques.; by Travis L. Poole.; Thesis (Ph. D.)--Joint Program in Applied Ocean Physics and Engineering (Massachusetts Institute of Technology...

Inversion for subbottom sound velocity profiles in the deep and shallow ocean; Inversion for subbottom SVPs in the deep and shallow ocean

Souza, Luiz Alberto Lopes de
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 2 v. (301 leaves)
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.96%
This thesis investigates the application of acoustic measurements in the deep and shallow ocean to infer the sound velocity profile (svp) in the seabed. For the deep water ocean, an exact method based on the Gelfand-Levitan integral equation is evaluated. The input data is the complex plane-wave refection coefficient estimated from measurements of acoustic pressure in water. We apply the method to experimental data and estimate both the refection coefficient and the seabed svp. A rigorous inversion scheme is hence applied in a realistic problem. For the shallow ocean, an inverse eigenvalue technique is developed. The input data are the eigenvalues associated with propagating modes, measured as a function of source receiver range. We investigate the estimation of eigenvalues from acoustic fields measured in laterally varying environments. We also investigate the errors associated with estimating varying modal eigenvalues, analogous to the estimation of time-varying frequencies in multicomponent signals, using time-varying autoregressive (TVAR) methods. We propose and analyze two AR sequential estimators, one for model coefficients, another for the zeros of the AR characteristic polynomial.; (cont.) The decimation of the pressure field defined in a discrete range grid is analyzed as a tool to improve AR estimation. The nonlinear eigenvalue inverse problem of estimating the svp from a sequence of eigenvalues is solved by iterating linearized approximations. The solution to the inverse problem is proposed in the form of a Kalman filter. The resolution and variance of the eigenvalue inverse problem are analyzed in terms of the Cramer-Rao lower bound and the Backus{Gilbert (BG) resolution theory. BG theory is applied to the design of shallow-water experiments. A method is developed to compensate for the Doppler deviation observed in experiments with moving sources.; by Luiz Alberto Lopes de Souza.; Thesis (Ph. D.)--Joint Program in Applied Ocean Science and Engineering (Massachusetts Institute of Technology...

Laboratory evidence for stochastic plasma-wave growth

Austin, D.R; Hole, Matthew; Robinson, Peter A; Cairns, Iver Hugh; Dallaqua, R.S
Tipo: Journal article; Published Version Formato: 4 pages
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.84%
The first laboratory confirmation of stochastic growth theory is reported. Floating potential fluctuations are measured in a vacuum arc centrifuge using a Langmuir probe. Statistical analysis of the energy density reveals a lognormal distribution over roughly 2 orders of magnitude, with a high-field nonlinear cutoff whose spatial dependence is consistent with the predicted eigenmode profile. These results are consistent with stochastic growth and nonlinear saturation of a spatially extended eigenmode, the first evidence for stochastic growth of an extended structure.

The feasibility of sodar wind profile measurements from an oceanographic buoy

Berg, Allison M.
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 115 p. : ill. (some col.), maps ;
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.82%
This thesis explores the feasibility of making wind speed profile measurements from an oceanographic buoy using a Doppler sodar. In the fall of 2005, we deployed a Scintec SFAS sodar on an ASIS buoy. Roughly one week of buoy motion data and one day of sodar observations were collected. Data from both this deployment, and the Martha's Vineyard Coastal Observatory, were used in conjunction with models to predict sodar performance. Results are compared for an ASIS and a 3-meter discus buoy. We also predict the yearly average probability of sodar data availability in the presence of buoy motion. We show that buoy tilting in response to wave forcing is the main factor affecting sodar performance. Our results strongly suggest that ASIS is a suitable platform for sodar measurements at sea.; US Navy (USN) author.

A fast method for morphological analysis of laser drilling holes

SCHNEIDER, Matthieu; BERTHE, Laurent; MULLER, Maryse; FABBRO, Rémy
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.01%
Version éditeur : http://jla.aip.org/resource/1/jlapen/v22/i4/p127_s1?isAuthorized=no; This paper presents an original method for analyzing laser drilled holes. The so-called Direct Observation of Drilled hOle (DODO) method is introduced and its applications. The hole characterization that’s been made is compared with x-ray radiography and cross-section analysis. Direct Observation of Drilled hole provides instantaneously surface state, geometric shape, as well as recast layer structure, without additional operation. Since no mounting resin is used to embed the sample, the preparation for analysis is simplified and, gives access to a 3D analysis of hole morphology. The principle of this technique consists in positioning the drilling axis on the joint plane of a butt configuration. Surfaces of the two parts of the sample to be joined are polished beforehand, to increase the contact surface, and then holes are drilled in the joint plane. Once the sample is drilled, the two parts are split so that one half of the hole is in each part of the sample. The preparation time of DODO method samples is shorter than the polishing time of the classical method. Moreover the implementation of the DODO method is much easier, for quality control as well as process development in laser drilling.; This work has been supported by Commissariat à l’Energie Atomique

The feasibility of sodar wind profile measurements from an oceanographic buoy

Berg, Allison M. (Allison May)
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 115 leaves
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.08%
This thesis explores the feasibility of making wind speed profile measurements from an oceanographic buoy using a Doppler sodar. In the fall of 2005, we deployed a Scintec SFAS sodar on an ASIS buoy. Roughly one week of buoy motion data and one day of sodar observations were collected. Data from both this deployment, and the Martha's Vineyard Coastal Observatory, were used in conjunction with models to predict sodar performance. Results are compared for an ASIS and a 3-meter discus buoy. We also predict the yearly average probability of sodar data availability in the presence of buoy motion. We show that buoy tilting in response to wave forcing is the main factor affecting sodar performance. Our results strongly suggest that ASIS is a suitable platform for sodar measurements at sea.; by Allison M. Berg.; Thesis (S.M.)--Joint Program in Oceanography/Applied Ocean Science and Engineering (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; and the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution), 2006.; This electronic version was submitted by the student author. The certified thesis is available in the Institute Archives and Special Collections.; Includes bibliographical references (leaf 75).

Supermassive black hole binaries in gaseous and stellar circumnuclear discs: orbital dynamics and gas accretion

Dotti, M.; Colpi, M.; Haardt, F.; Mayer, L.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.13%
The dynamics of two massive black holes in a rotationally supported nuclear disc of 10^8 solar masses is explored using N-Body/SPH simulations. Gas and star particles are co-present in the disc. Described by a Mestel profile, the disc has a vertical support provided by turbulence of the gas, and by stellar velocity dispersion. A primary black hole of 4 million solar masses is placed at the centre of the disc, while a secondary black hole is set initially on an eccentric co-rotating orbit in the disc plane. Its mass is in a 1 to 1, 1 to 4, and 1 to 10 ratio, relative to the primary. With this choice, we mimic the dynamics of black hole pairs released in the nuclear region at the end of a gas-rich galaxy merger. It is found that, under the action of dynamical friction, the two black holes form a close binary in ~10 Myrs. The inspiral process is insensitive to the mass fraction in stars and gas present in the disc and is accompanied by the circularization of the orbit. We detail the gaseous mass profile bound to each black hole that can lead to the formation of two small Keplerian discs, weighing ~2 % of the black hole mass, and of size ~0.01 pc. The mass of the tightly (loosely) bound particles increases (decreases) with time as the black holes spiral into closer and closer orbits. Double AGN activity is expected to occur on an estimated timescale of ~10 Myrs...

The profile and equivalent width of the X-ray iron emission-line from a disk around a Kerr black hole

Dabrowski, Y.; Fabian, A. C.; Iwasawa, K.; Lasenby, A. N.; Reynolds, C. S.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.18%
Recent X-ray observations have shown broad, skewed iron line emission from Seyfert 1 galaxies which is explained by the emission being fluorescence on a disk close to a black hole. During one interval, the line in MCG--6-30-15 was so broad and redshifted that a Kerr black hole is implied. We are therefore studying the effects of the Kerr metric on the line profile, and extending the work by Laor and Kojima which dealt only with extreme values of the spin parameter. Here we report that the spin parameter of the black hole in MCG--6-30-15 is high (a/M>0.94), and invert the line profile to obtain the disk emissivity profile, which approximates a power-law. Continuum radiation returning to the disk because of the Kerr metric does not enhance the equivalent width of the line seen above 3 keV by more than about 20 per cent if the continuum source corotates with the disk.; Comment: 5 Pages including 12 figures. MNRAS-letter in press

Modelling the high mass accretion rate spectra of GX 339-4: Black hole spin from reflection?

Kolehmainen, Mari; Done, Chris; Trigo, Maria Diaz
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.13%
We extract all the XMM-Newton EPIC pn burst mode spectra of GX 339-4, together with simultaneous/contemporaneous RXTE data. These include three disc dominated and two soft intermediate spectra, and the combination of broad bandpass/moderate spectral resolution gives some of the best data on these bright soft states in black hole binaries. The disc dominated spectra span a factor three in luminosity, and all show that the disc emission is broader than the simplest multicolour disc model. This is consistent with the expected relativistic smearing and changing colour temperature correction produced by atomic features in the newest disc models. However, these models do not match the data at the 5 per cent level as the predicted atomic features are not present in the data, perhaps indicating that irradiation is important even when the high energy tail is weak. Whatever the reason, this means that the data have smaller errors than the best physical disc models, forcing use of more phenomenological models for the disc emission. We use these for the soft intermediate state data, where previous analysis using a simple disc continuum found an extremely broad residual, identified as the red wing of the iron line from reflection around a highly spinning black hole. However...

Line Emission from an Accretion Disk around a Rotating Black Hole: Toward a Measurement of Frame Dragging

Bromley, Benjamin C.; Chen, Kaiyou; Miller, Warner A.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.17%

The profile of an emission line from relativistic outflows around a black hole

Wang, Jian-Min; Zhou, You-Yuan; Yuan, Ye-Fei; Cao, Xin-Wu; Wu, Mei
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.31%
Recent observations show strong evidence for the presence of Doppler-shifted emission lines in the spectrum of both black hole candidates and active galactic nuclei. These lines are likely to originate from relativistic outflows (or jets) in the vicinity of the central black hole. Consequently, the profile of such a line should be distorted by strong gravitational effects near the black hole, as well as special relativistic effects. In this paper, we present results from a detailed study on how each process affects the observed line profile. We found that the profile is sensitive to the intrinsic properties of the jets (Lorentz factor, velocity profile, and emissivity law), as well as to the spin of the black hole and the viewing angle (with respect to the axis of the jets). More specifically, in the case of approaching jets, an intrisically narrow line (blue-shifted) is seen as simply broadened at small viewing angles, but it shows a doubly peaked profile at large viewing angles for extreme Kerr black holes (due to the combination of gravitational focusing and Doppler effects); the profile is always singly peaked for Schwarzschild black holes. For receding jets, however, the line profile becomes quite complicated owing to complicated photon trajectories. To facilitate comparison with observations...

An intermediate black hole spin in the NLS1 galaxy SWIFT J2127.4+5654: chaotic accretion or spin energy extraction?

Miniutti, G.; Panessa, F.; De Rosa, A.; Fabian, A. C.; Malizia, A.; Molina, M.; Miller, J. M.; Vaughan, S.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.24%
We have observed the hard X-ray selected Narrow-Line Seyfert 1 galaxy SWIFT J2127.4+5654 with Suzaku. We report the detection of a broad relativistic iron emission line from the inner accretion disc. By assuming that the inner edge of the accretion disc corresponds to the innermost stable circular orbit of the black hole spacetime, the line profile enables us to measure a black hole spin a= 0.6\pm0.2. However, a non-rotating Schwarzschild spacetime is excluded at just above the 3 sigma level, while a maximally spinning Kerr black hole is excluded at the ~5 sigma level. The intermediate spin we measure may indicate that accretion-driven black hole growth in this source proceeds through short-lived episodes with chaotic angular momentum alignment between the disc and the hole rather than via prolonged accretion. The measured steep emissivity index (q~5) constrains the irradiating X-ray source to be very centrally concentrated. Light bending may help focus the primary emission towards the innermost accretion disc, thus steepening the irradiation profile. On the other hand, steep profiles can also be reached if magnetic extraction of the hole rotational energy is at work. If this is the case, the interplay between accretion (spinning up the black hole) and rotational energy extraction (spinning it down) forces the hole to reach an equilibrium spin value which...

Predictions for reverberating spectral line from a newly formed black hole accretion disk: case of tidal disruption flares

Zhang, Wenda; Yu, Wenfei; Karas, Vladimir; Dovciak, Michal
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.17%
Tidal Disruption Events (TDEs) can be perfect probes of dormant SMBHs in normal galaxies. During the rising phase, the accretion luminosity can increase by orders of magnitude in several weeks and the emergent ionizing radiation illuminates the fresh accretion flow. In this paper, we simulated the evolution of the expected spectral line profile of iron due to such a flare by using a ray-tracing code with effects of general relativity (GR) taken into account. We found that the time-dependent profile changes significantly with black hole spin, inclination angle with respect to the black-hole equatorial plane, and the expansion velocity of the ionization front. At low values of spin, a "loop" feature appears in the line profile vs. time plot when the inclination is no less than $30^\circ$ and the expansion velocity $v_{\rm exp}$ is no less than half speed of light, due to a shadow in the emission of the truncated disk. In the light curve two peaks occur depending on the inclination angle. At large $v_{\rm exp}$, a shallow "nose" feature may develop ahead of the loop, its duration depends on the expansion velocity and the inclination angle. We explore the entire interval of black hole spin parameter ranging from extreme prograde to extreme retrograde rotation...

Central kinematics of the globular cluster NGC 2808: Upper limit on the mass of an intermediate-mass black hole

Lützgendorf, Nora; Kissler-Patig, Markus; Gebhardt, Karl; Baumgardt, Holger; Noyola, Eva; Jalali, Behrang; de Zeeuw, P. Tim; Neumayer, Nadine
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.24%
Globular clusters are an excellent laboratory for stellar population and dynamical research. Recent studies have shown that these stellar systems are not as simple as previously assumed. With multiple stellar populations as well as outer rotation and mass segregation they turn out to exhibit high complexity. This includes intermediate-mass black holes which are proposed to sit at the centers of some massive globular clusters. Today's high angular resolution ground based spectrographs allow velocity-dispersion measurements at a spatial resolution comparable to the radius of influence for plausible IMBH masses, and to detect changes in the inner velocity-dispersion profile. Together with high quality photometric data from HST, it is possible to constrain black-hole masses by their kinematic signatures. We determine the central velocity-dispersion profile of the globular cluster NGC 2808 using VLT/FLAMES spectroscopy. In combination with HST/ACS data our goal is to probe whether this massive cluster hosts an intermediate-mass black hole at its center and constrain the cluster mass to light ratio as well as its total mass. We derive a velocity-dispersion profile from integral field spectroscopy in the center and Fabry Perot data for larger radii. High resolution HST data are used to obtain the surface brightness profile. Together...

The velocity dispersion profile of NGC 6388 from resolved-star spectroscopy: no evidence of a central cusp and new constraints on the black hole mass

Lanzoni, B.; Mucciarelli, A.; Origlia, L.; Bellazzini, M.; Ferraro, F. R.; Valenti, E.; Miocchi, P.; Dalessandro, E.; Pallanca, C.; Massari, D.; -
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.14%
By combining high spatial resolution and wide-field spectroscopy performed, respectively, with SINFONI and FLAMES at the ESO/VLT we measured the radial velocities of more than 600 stars in the direction of NGC 6388, a Galactic globular cluster which is suspected to host an intermediate-mass black hole. Approximately 55% of the observed targets turned out to be cluster members. The cluster velocity dispersion has been derived from the radial velocity of individual stars: 52 measurements in the innermost 2", and 276 stars located between 18" and 600". The velocity dispersion profile shows a central value of ~13 km/s, a flat behavior out to ~60" and a decreasing trend outwards. The comparison with spherical and isotropic models shows that the observed density and velocity dispersion profiles are inconsistent with the presence of a central black hole more massive than ~2000 Msol. These findings are at odds with recent results obtained from integrated light spectra, showing a velocity dispersion profile with a steep central cusp of 23-25 km/s at r<2" and suggesting the presence of a black hole with a mass of 17,000 Msol (Lutzgendorf et al. 2011). We also found some evidence of systemic rotation with amplitude Arot ~8 km/s in the innermost 2" (0.13 pc)...

The Source of Mass Accreted by the Central Black Hole in Cooling Flow Clusters

Soker, Noam
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.21%
This paper reports the study of the cold-feedback heating in cooling flow clusters. In the cold-feedback model the mass accreted by the central black hole originates in non-linear over-dense blobs of gas residing in an extended region (r ~ 5-30 kpc); these blobs are originally hot, but then cool faster than their environment and sink toward the center. The intra-cluster medium (ICM) entropy profile must be shallow for the blobs to reach the center as cold blobs. I build a toy model to explore the role of the entropy profile and the population of dense blobs in the cold-feedback mechanism. The mass accretion rate by the central black hole is determined by the cooling time of the ICM, the entropy profile, and the presence of inhomogeneities. The mass accretion rate determines the energy injected by the black hole back to the ICM. These active galactic nucleus (AGN) outbursts not only heat the ICM, but also change the entropy profile in the cluster and cause inhomogeneities that are the seeds of future dense blobs. Therefore, in addition to the ICM temperature (or energy), the ICM entropy profile and ICM inhomogeneities are also ingredients in the feedback mechanism.; Comment: New Astronomy, in press