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Methodological framework for detection of harmonisation breaking in service environments

Raposo, Carlos Pedro Carvalho
Fonte: Universidade Nova de Lisboa Publicador: Universidade Nova de Lisboa
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado
Publicado em /02/2015 ENG
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As the complexity of markets and the dynamicity of systems evolve, the need for interoperable systems capable of strengthening enterprise communication effectiveness increases. This is particularly significant when it comes to collaborative enterprise networks, like manufacturing supply chains, where several companies work, communicate, and depend on each other, in order to achieve a specific goal. Once interoperability is achieved, that is once all network parties are able to communicate with and understand each other, organisations are able to exchange information along a stable environment that follows agreed laws. However, as markets adapt to new requirements and demands, an evolutionary behaviour is triggered giving space to interoperability problems, thus disrupting the sustainability of interoperability and raising the need to develop monitoring activities capable of detecting and preventing unexpected behaviour. This work seeks to contribute to the development of monitoring techniques for interoperable SOA-based enterprise networks. It focuses on the automatic detection of harmonisation breaking events during real-time communications, and strives to develop and propose a methodological approach to handle these disruptions with minimal or no human intervention...

Age and Gender Differences in Physical Capability Levels from Mid-Life Onwards: The Harmonisation and Meta-Analysis of Data from Eight UK Cohort Studies

Cooper, Rachel; Hardy, Rebecca; Aihie Sayer, Avan; Ben-Shlomo, Yoav; Birnie, Kate; Cooper, Cyrus; Craig, Leone; Deary, Ian J.; Demakakos, Panayotes; Gallacher, John; McNeill, Geraldine; Martin, Richard M.; Starr, John M.; Steptoe, Andrew; Kuh, Diana;
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 16/11/2011 EN
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Using data from eight UK cohorts participating in the Healthy Ageing across the Life Course (HALCyon) research programme, with ages at physical capability assessment ranging from 50 to 90+ years, we harmonised data on objective measures of physical capability (i.e. grip strength, chair rising ability, walking speed, timed get up and go, and standing balance performance) and investigated the cross-sectional age and gender differences in these measures. Levels of physical capability were generally lower in study participants of older ages, and men performed better than women (for example, results from meta-analyses (N = 14,213 (5 studies)), found that men had 12.62 kg (11.34, 13.90) higher grip strength than women after adjustment for age and body size), although for walking speed, this gender difference was attenuated after adjustment for body size. There was also evidence that the gender difference in grip strength diminished with increasing age,whereas the gender difference in walking speed widened (p<0.01 for interactions between age and gender in both cases). This study highlights not only the presence of age and gender differences in objective measures of physical capability but provides a demonstration that harmonisation of data from several large cohort studies is possible. These harmonised data are now being used within HALCyon to understand the lifetime social and biological determinants of physical capability and its changes with age.

Harmonisation of Measurement Procedures: how do we get it done?

Gantzer, Mary Lou; Miller, W Greg
Fonte: The Australian Association of Clinical Biochemists Publicador: The Australian Association of Clinical Biochemists
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /08/2012 EN
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Clinical laboratory measurement results must be comparable among different measurement procedures, different locations and different times in order to be used appropriately for identifying and managing disease conditions. Harmonisation in the broad sense is the overall process of achieving comparability of results among clinical laboratory measurement procedures that measure the same measurand. The term standardisation is used when comparable results among measurement procedures are based on calibration traceability to SI using a reference measurement procedure of the highest available order. When there is no higher order reference measurement procedure available, and it is unlikely that one can be developed, the term harmonisation refers to any process for achieving comparable results among measurement procedures for an individual measurand.

A Guide to Harmonisation and Standardisation of Measurands Determined by Liquid Chromatography – Tandem Mass Spectrometry in Routine Clinical Biochemistry

Greaves, Ronda F
Fonte: The Australian Association of Clinical Biochemists Publicador: The Australian Association of Clinical Biochemists
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /11/2012 EN
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Globally, harmonisation in laboratory medicine is a significant project. The relatively new implementation of liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MSMS) techniques as routine assays in diagnostic laboratories provides the unique opportunity to harmonise, and in many cases standardise, methods from an early stage. This guide aims to provide a practical overview of the steps required to achieve agreement between LC-MSMS analytical procedures for routine clinical biochemistry diagnostic assays, with particular focus on the harmonisation and standardisation of methods currently implemented.

Harmonisation of short-term in vitro culture for the expansion of antigen-specific CD8+ T cells with detection by ELISPOT and HLA-multimer staining

Chudley, Lindsey; McCann, Katy J.; Coleman, Adam; Cazaly, Angelica M.; Bidmon, Nicole; Britten, Cedrik M.; van der Burg, Sjoerd H.; Gouttefangeas, Cecile; Jandus, Camilla; Laske, Karoline; Maurer, Dominik; Romero, Pedro; Schröder, Helene; Stynenbosch, Li
Fonte: Springer Berlin Heidelberg Publicador: Springer Berlin Heidelberg
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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Ex vivo ELISPOT and multimer staining are well-established tests for the assessment of antigen-specific T cells. Many laboratories are now using a period of in vitro stimulation (IVS) to enhance detection. Here, we report the findings of a multi-centre panel organised by the Association for Cancer Immunotherapy Immunoguiding Program to investigate the impact of IVS protocols on the detection of antigen-specific T cells of varying ex vivo frequency. Five centres performed ELISPOT and multimer staining on centrally prepared PBMCs from 3 donors, both ex vivo and following IVS. A harmonised IVS protocol was designed based on the best-performing protocol(s), which was then evaluated in a second phase on 2 donors by 6 centres. All centres were able to reliably detect antigen-specific T cells of high/intermediate frequency both ex vivo (Phase I) and post-IVS (Phase I and II). The highest frequencies of antigen-specific T cells ex vivo were mirrored in the frequencies following IVS and in the detection rates. However, antigen-specific T cells of a low/undetectable frequency ex vivo were not reproducibly detected post-IVS. Harmonisation of the IVS protocol reduced the inter-laboratory variation observed for ELISPOT and multimer analyses by approximately 20 %. We further demonstrate that results from ELISPOT and multimer staining correlated after (P < 0.0001 and R2 = 0.5113)...

Considérer l’expérience du visiteur, une clé pour la gestion intégrée des forêts

Robert, Cécile
Fonte: Université de Montréal Publicador: Université de Montréal
Tipo: Thèse ou Mémoire numérique / Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
FR
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Les forêts occidentales sont aujourd’hui de plus en plus prisées pour la pratique d’activités récréatives en milieu naturel. Dès lors, la mise en place d’une gestion intégrée des forêts est plus que jamais indispensable au maintien des conditions nécessaires à la pratique de l’ensemble des activités sur le territoire. Le Québec s’est doté d’une nouvelle législation pour répondre aux nombreux enjeux qui touchent le milieu forestier, notamment en ce qui a trait à l’harmonisation entre les activités récréatives et la production ligneuse. Dans le cadre de cette recherche, nous nous sommes intéressés au concept d’expérience du visiteur comme moyen de faciliter cette harmonisation. Il s’agissait à la fois de caractériser l’expérience de visite des utilisateurs d’un parc régional et de se questionner sur son opérationnalisation dans l’aménagement forestier. Deux méthodes qualitatives complémentaires ont été utilisées : d’une part, l’analyse de récits inscrits dans des livres d’or placés dans différents hébergements et d’autre part, des entrevues ont été conduites auprès de visiteurs rencontrés sur le site. Les résultats révèlent la pertinence de considérer l’expérience du visiteur pour favoriser une utilisation plurielle et harmonieuse du territoire forestier. Son étude permet une compréhension fine des composantes communes et spécifiques des expériences...

The Basel Process and regional harmonisation in Asia

Yoshikuni, Shinichi
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Working/Technical Paper Formato: 88407 bytes; 352 bytes; application/pdf; application/octet-stream
EN_AU
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This paper examines the move toward greater harmonisation in banking supervision in Asia. Central banks in the Asia Pacific region have strengthened their cooperation through various channels. Equally important, international institutions including the Bank for International Settlements have responded to such trends by becoming more involved in regional forums and better accommodating the needs of regional economies. It discusses globalisation and regionalisation and concludes that they are not mutually exclusive concepts; instead they are complementary, as society can exploit the opportunities brought by the free economy while at the same time instilling prudence in the economy and the financial system. The so-called Basel Process is a key element of the global financial system. The influence of market participants has rendered the Basel Process more transparent and market oriented. On the other hand, rapid financial innovation has necessitated the cooperation of various Basel-based committees under the umbrella of the Financial Stability Forum. The paper points out that regional harmonisation can be achieved through the Basel Process and concludes that cooperation should be pursued in both crisis management and crisis prevention...

Corporate income taxation in the European Union: current state perspectives

Genser, Bernd
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Working/Technical Paper Formato: 113463 bytes; application/pdf
EN_AU
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The paper reviews the state and recent changes in corporate income taxation in the European Union (EU) and major Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) countries. It also reviews coordination measures proposed and adopted in the EU so far. This empirical evidence is related to theoretical results on international tax competition. On this basis I conclude that tax competition has contributed to move the system of international capital taxation in an economically desirable direction. Although EU and OECD efforts to promote non-discrimination (‘Code of Conduct’) and curb international tax engineering strategies in multinational enterprises are desirable, a further harmonisation of corporate tax systems does not seem to be warranted.; no

The Pan-European Licensing of Digital Music: The effect of the harmonisation of copyright and the role of collecting societies

FARRAND, Benjamin
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
EN
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The pan-European licensing of digital music for the non-commercial consumer is a highly topical issue in copyright law at the present time. Whereas the EU continues to strive for the further harmonisation of the internal market, markets for digital services remain an exception, where barriers are artificially raised, rather than brought down. Yet why is harmonisation in this area so difficult to achieve? This thesis seeks to explain the reasons why creating a harmonised market for digital services is difficult to achieve by approaching the question in a multi-disciplinary way. It focuses not only on how the harmonisation of other aspects of copyright law have led to the development of laws which actually hinder the development of online services, but also on why copyright law has developed in such a restrictive manner, by focusing on the role of industry lobbyists and policy makers in the development of contemporary ‘digital’ copyright law. These findings are considered in light of economic analysis of the copyright system, in order to demonstrate why the continued increases in levels of protection and terms of duration of copyright are not only unsupported by economic evidence, but actually appear to hinder the development of new technologies and systems of distribution...

Judge-made EU Copyright Harmonisation: The case of originality

ROSATI, Eleonora
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
EN
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Over the last few years, political and academic attention has focused on the future of copyright at the EU level. Following two decades of piecemeal legislative interventions, which have resulted in a limited harmonisation of the copyright laws of EU Member States, a debate has ensued as to the feasibility and desirability of achieving full copyright harmonisation at the EU level. This might be obtained either through a EU copyright code, encompassing a codification of the present body of EU copyright directives, or by way of a regulation (to be enacted pursuant to new Article 118(1) TFEU), aimed at creating an optional unitary copyright title. Thus far, however, no such legislative initiatives have been undertaken. Despite this impasse, the CJEU has notably been acting in a proactive way, inching towards full harmonisation. With its 2009 decision in Case C-5/08 Infopaq, the Court provided a EU-wide understanding of an important principle of copyright: the originality requirement. The CJEU further elaborated upon this in subsequent case law (notably, Case C-393/09 Bezpečnostní Softwarová Asociace, Joined Cases C-403/08 and C-429/08 Murphy, Case C-145/10 Painer, Case C-604/10 Football Dataco and Case C-406/10 SAS). The meaning of originality adopted by the CJEU as a EU-wide standard is akin to that envisaged in continental Member States’ copyright laws...

Theory and Practice of Harmonisation

Fonte: Edward Elgar Publishing Publicador: Edward Elgar Publishing
Tipo: Livro
EN
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Harmonised and uniform international laws are now being spread across different jurisdictions and fields of law, bringing with them an increasing body of scholarship on practical problems and theoretical dimensions. This comprehensive and insightful book focuses on the contributions to the development and understanding of the critical theory of harmonisation. The contributing authors address a variety of different subjects concerned with harmonisation and the application of legal rules resulting from harmonisation efforts. This study is written by leading scholars engaged in different aspects of harmonisation, and covers both regional harmonisation within the EU and regional human rights treaties, as well as harmonisation with international treaty obligations. With comparative analysis that contributes to the development of a more general theory on the harmonisation process, this timely book will appeal to EU and international law scholars and practitioners, as well as those looking to future legal harmonisation in other regions in Asia, Latin America and Africa.; Preface 1. Harmonising and Regulating Financial Markets Mads Andenas 2. Applied Uniformity of a Uniform Commercial Law: Ensuring Functional Harmonisation of Uniform Texts through a Global Jurisconsultorium of the CISG Camilla Baasch Andersen 3. Regulatory Competition or Harmonisation: The Dilemma...

Biobanks in Europe: Prospects for Harmonisation and Networking

ZIKA Eleni; PACI Daniele; SCHULTE IN DEN BÄUMEN Tobias; BRAUN Anette; RIJKERS-DEFRASNE Sylvie; DESCHÊNES Mylène; FORTIER Isabel; LAAGE-HELLMAN Jens; A. SCERRI Christian; IBARRETA RUIZ Dolores
Fonte: Publications Office of the European Union Publicador: Publications Office of the European Union
Tipo: EUR - Scientific and Technical Research Reports Formato: Online
ENG
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Biobanks (i.e. the organised collections consisting of biological samples and associated data, have gained great significance for research and personalised medicine) are increasingly recognised as a crucial infrastructure for research. However, at the same time the widely varied practices in biobanking regarding for example collection, storage and consent procedures may also pose a barrier to cross-border research and collaboration by limiting access to samples and data. In this context, a recent study indicates that the limited sharing and linkage of samples is a key barrier for research, such as pharmacogenetics. Wide variation is observed in the implementation of relevant existing regulation, which may add further burden to harnessing the public health benefit of these collections. Therefore, it has been suggested that there is a strong need for a harmonised approach on biobanking practices and improved networking of existing and new collections. This Report shows information on the extent of biobanking in Europe, collected through a survey of existing European biobanks regarding both technical aspects (e.g. storage conditions) and aspects of governance and ethics (e.g. sample and data sharing, consent procedures, collaborations etc.). In total...

ECA report no. 27 on “Harmonisation framework for indoor products labelling schemes in the EU”

KEPHALOPOULOS Stylianos; CRUMP Derrick; DÄUMLING Christine; FUNCH Lis Winther; HORN Wolfgang; KEIRSBULCK Marion; MAUPETIT François; SATERI Jorma; SAARELA Kristina; SCUTARU Ana Maria; TIRKKONEN Tiina; WITTERSEH Thomas; SPERK Carolin
Fonte: Publications Office of the European Union Publicador: Publications Office of the European Union
Tipo: EUR - Scientific and Technical Research Reports Formato: Online
ENG
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Harmonisation of indoor products labelling schemes in the EU is an important aspect of the European Commission’s policy making process in the field of indoor air quality and associated health effects. This report describes the outcome of recent activities and a roadmap setting out the steps being taken by a preparatory working group led by the European Commission for establishing an EU wide harmonisation framework for labelling schemes which consists of core and transitional criteria. The harmonization framework proposed in ECA report no. 27 will help the convergence of existing mandatory and voluntary labelling schemes in EU. This report is the final product of an initiative, coordinated by the JRC-IHCP at Ispra and integrated into the EU strategy on indoor air quality led by the EC Directorate General for Health and Consumer Affairs. This initiative started in 2010 with an international workshop “Harmonized framework on indoor material labeling schemes: challenge with a global perspective”. Member States, the industry and the consumers are concerned by it. Labeling of products will help building designers and consumers making informed choices about the products (existing or new) in the market which are used in indoor environments and also removing existing barriers in trade of consumer products used indoors.; JRC.I.1-Chemical Assessment and Testing

COSMIC (Cohort Studies of Memory in an International Consortium): An international consortium to identify risk and protective factors and biomarkers of cognitive ageing and dementia in diverse ethnic and sociocultural groups

Sachdev, Perminder S; Lionicki, Darren M; Kochan, Nicole A; Crawford, John D; Rockwood, Kenneth; Xiao, Shifu; Li, Juan; Li, Xia; Brayne, Carol; Matthews, Fiona E; Stephan, Blossom C M; Lipton, Richard B; Katz, Mindy J; Ritchie, Karen; Carrière, Isabelle;
Fonte: BioMed Central Publicador: BioMed Central
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 8 pages
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BACKGROUND: A large number of longitudinal studies of population-based ageing cohorts are in progress internationally, but the insights from these studies into the risk and protective factors for cognitive ageing and conditions like mild cognitive impairment and dementia have been inconsistent. Some of the problems confounding this research can be reduced by harmonising and pooling data across studies. COSMIC (Cohort Studies of Memory in an International Consortium) aims to harmonise data from international cohort studies of cognitive ageing, in order to better understand the determinants of cognitive ageing and neurocognitive disorders. METHODS/DESIGN: Longitudinal studies of cognitive ageing and dementia with at least 500 individuals aged 60 years or over are eligible and invited to be members of COSMIC. There are currently 17 member studies, from regions that include Asia, Australia, Europe, and North America. A Research Steering Committee has been established, two meetings of study leaders held, and a website developed. The initial attempts at harmonising key variables like neuropsychological test scores are in progress. DISCUSSION: The challenges of international consortia like COSMIC include efficient communication among members...

COSMIC (Cohort Studies of Memory in an International Consortium): An international consortium to identify risk and protective factors and biomarkers of cognitive ageing and dementia in diverse ethnic and sociocultural groups

Anstey, Kaarin J.; Sachdev, Perminder S.; Lipnicki, Darren M.; Kochan, Nicole A.; Crawford, John D.; Rockwood, Kenneth
Fonte: BioMed Central Publicador: BioMed Central
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 8 pages
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Background: A large number of longitudinal studies of population-based ageing cohorts are in progress internationally, but the insights from these studies into the risk and protective factors for cognitive ageing and conditions like mild cognitive impairment and dementia have been inconsistent. Some of the problems confounding this research can be reduced by harmonising and pooling data across studies. COSMIC (Cohort Studies of Memory in an International Consortium) aims to harmonise data from international cohort studies of cognitive ageing, in order to better understand the determinants of cognitive ageing and neurocognitive disorders. Methods/Design: Longitudinal studies of cognitive ageing and dementia with at least 500 individuals aged 60 years or over are eligible and invited to be members of COSMIC. There are currently 17 member studies, from regions that include Asia, Australia, Europe, and North America. A Research Steering Committee has been established, two meetings of study leaders held, and a website developed. The initial attempts at harmonising key variables like neuropsychological test scores are in progress. Discussion: The challenges of international consortia like COSMIC include efficient communication among members...

'Bridging the Tasman for trade and commerce' harmonisation of legal systems relating to trade and commerce in Australia and New Zealand - competition, copyright and consumer protection legislation

Tyagi, Mitali
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Relatório
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The 'growth and complexity of business transactions' between Australia and New Zealand (NZ) compels reduction of impediments to trans-Tasman trade. This is the impetus for harmonisation of legal systems relating to trade and commerce across the Tasman. Competition, copyright and consumer protection legal regimes play a large role in trade and commerce and thus behove attention to their harmonisation. COMPETITION LAW: In addressing trans-Tasman inconsistencies in competition law, two issues emerge: institutional coordination and discrepancies regarding exclusionary provisions. institutional coordination can be analysed through a two-stage approach, where stage one envisages bodies working towards a common set of guidelines and sharing information gathering resources and, stage two, where the two bodies have joint adjudication and enforcement procedures. Competition regulators and the governments in Australia and New Zealand have received stage one favourably. There are already programs in place for information sharing and staff exchange. Stage two, however, poses problems since it requires integration,to an extent, of he two countries' judicial and enforcement systems. This is an unlikely outcome in the near future due to the political and social importance of competition law and policy in Australia. legislation with respect to exclusionary provisions has been identified as inconsistent cross the Tasman. Exclusionary provisions...

Retos para la educación y profesión contable derivados de una armonización mundial liderada por el IASC: la nueva estrategia europea de armonización contable como modelo para otras áreas económicas

Benau, María Antonia García; Grima, Ana Zorio
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Escola de Economia, Administração e Contabilidade Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Escola de Economia, Administração e Contabilidade
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; ; ; ; ; ; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 01/12/2001 SPA
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En este trabajo presentamos un juicio crítico de las importantes decisiones que la Comisión Europea ha adoptado a lo largo del pasado año 2000, con miras a implantar definitivamente una estrategia sobre armonización contable. Consideramos que este trabajo es de especial importancia en el contexto de esta Conferencia Internacional, dado que muchos organismos mundiales a favor de la armonización contable, han puesto sus ojos en el modelo de la Unión Europea y en cierto sentido el área económica europea es un peso fundamental para contrarrestar la fuerza de los Estados Unidos, respaldados por sus mercados de capitales, de cara al debate de armonización contable internacional. Dada la actualidad y relevancia de estos cambios en el proceso regulador, creemos necesario profundizar en sus orígenes y poner de manifiesto sus importantes implicaciones, tanto para el ámbito profesional, esto es, de las propias empresas y la propia profesión de la auditoría, así como para el plano regulador y la esfera académica. Las NIC, "esas grandes desconocidas", están ya a la vuelta de la esquina. Se impone, pues, comenzar a considerar el cambio de base de presentación de la información financiera y los retos que plantea para cada uno de los ámbitos directamente afectados.; The objective of this paper is to analyse the important decisions made by the European Commission in 2000...

Accounting harmonisation and the case of French use of the true and fair view.

Walton, Peter James
Fonte: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis Publicador: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis
Tipo: Thesis; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //1989 EN
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The literature which identifies national differences in accounting and addresses the problems of harmonisation is reviewed and consideration given to how this interacts with theories of accounting change. It is suggested that harmonisation attempts will be modified by the interplay of competing interests in each jurisdiction. The nature of the true and fair view in its British context is also reviewed and found to be a flexible notion whose use may serve a number of interests. Its adoption process of the European Community Fourth Company Law Directive is considered. French accounting since 1945 is analysed and consideration given to the influences which were active in accounting during the period of adaptation of French accounting in compliance with the Fourth Directive. The changes brought about in French accounting are considered as well as the French understanding of the true and fair view. Two empirical studies address the evidence of change after adoption. A study of recognition of excess tax depreciation in a sample of 50 published annual reports shows that a majority of companies changed their measurement approach. A second study sets out to observe whether the true and fair view as operationalised in the preparation of accounting statements from artificial data would be similar as between France and Britain. The study suggests that there are differences but these are as great between accountants within each national group as between the groups. It is concluded that the revision to French accounting provided an opportunity for the accounting profession and large enterprises to move towards an approach which served their interests. This involved freeing accounting from the domination of tax-driven measurement...

Transboundary movements of genetically modified organisms and the Cartagena Protocol: key issues and concerns

Tung,OJ Lim
Fonte: PER: Potchefstroomse Elektroniese Regsblad Publicador: PER: Potchefstroomse Elektroniese Regsblad
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2014 EN
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Biotechnology or the engineering of the genetic material of species can give way to avenues of possibilities for the benefit of people, fauna and flora but also has the potential of posing untold and undiscovered threats to human beings and other living organisms. One of the first attempts to legislate on international rules on biotechnology can be traced back to article 19 of the Convention on Biological Diversity(CBD) in 1992. The CBD is indeed the first international legal instrument apart from the then European Community's relevant directives to suggest that biotechnology is a matter of concern for the international community while providing a basis upon which more detailed procedures would be elaborated in the field of biosafety. While the CBD includes international rules on access to genetic resources, access to and the transfer of technology, the handling of biotechnology and the distribution of its benefits, it does not include a detailed regulation on genetically modified organisms (GMOs) and their possible adverse effects on the environment, human and animal health. It was only with the coming into existence of the Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety (Cartagena Protocol) to the CBD in 2000 that the safe transfer, handling and use of living modified organisms (LMOs) such as genetically engineered plants...

Extending the HELP approach through the system harmonisation philosophy

Khan,Shahbaz
Fonte: Water SA Publicador: Water SA
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/04/2008 EN
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The sustainable management of the water resource will become more and more important as population demands and environmental custodianship awareness grows. The Hydrology for the Environment, Life and Policy (HELP) program aims to bring together scientific research in catchment management with practical application of policy and on-ground management practices. This paper builds on an existing foundation of knowledge and exposure, within the Murrumbidgee HELP catchment already recognised as a leader finding real solutions while working with multiple stakeholders. The HELP program has now moved into the implementation stage and includes 67 catchments from around the world that are looking to better utilise their water resources for sustainable communities. Of those 67 basins there are 7 demonstration basins, one of which is the Murrumbidgee. There is a need for extending HELP to non-HELP basins through lessons learnt from existing efforts. In this context System Harmonisation Framework is introduced as an integrative framework for extending HELP in irrigated catchments across the globe. The 'System Harmonisation' philosophy seeks to identify business opportunities for irrigators to become an integral part of an expanding environmental services industry and in so doing support a truly sustainable and diversified irrigation business environment. A good understanding of system wide harmonisation can be gained from how irrigation systems are linked with the catchment water cycle and how life support systems and regional economies depend on them. The system harmonisation framework involves an all encompassing approach that combines research and business principles to achieve productive and environmental improvements at the catchment level. The framework involves five feasibility steps including three research components and a business analysis component: The research components comprise analysis and characterisation of hydrologic systems...