Página 1 dos resultados de 2179 itens digitais encontrados em 0.008 segundos

Microbiota benefits after inulin and partially hydrolized guar gum supplementation - a randomized clinical trial in constipated women; BENEFICIOS EN LA MICROBIOTA INTESTINAL DESPUÉS DE LA SUPLEMENTACIÓN CON INULINA Y LA GOMA GUAR PARCIALMENTE HIDROLIZADA – UN ENSAYO CLÍNICO ALEATORIZADO EN MUJERES CON ESTREÑIMIENTO

Linetzky Waitzberg, D.; Alves Pereira, C. C.; Logullo, L.; Manzoni Jacintho, T.; Almeida, D.; Teixeira da Silva, Ma. de L.; de Miranda Torrinhas, R. S. Matos
Fonte: AULA MEDICA EDICIONES; MADRID Publicador: AULA MEDICA EDICIONES; MADRID
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.72%
Introduction: Prebiotics positively affect gut microbiota composition, thus improving gut function. These properties may be useful for the treatment of constipation. Objectives: This study assessed the tolerance and effectiveness of a prebiotic inulin/partially hydrolyzed guar gum mixture (I-PHGG) for the treatment of constipation in females, as well as its influence on the composition of intestinal microbiota and production of short chain fatty acids. Methods: Our study enrolled 60 constipated female health worker volunteers. Participants reported less than 3 bowel movements per week. Volunteers were randomized to treatment with prebiotic or placebo. Treatment consisted of 3 weeks supplementation with 15 g/d I-PHGG (fiber group) or maltodextrin (placebo group). Abdominal discomfort, flatulence, stool consistency, and bowel movements were evaluated by a recorded daily questionnaire and a weekly interview. Changes in fecal bacterial population and short chain fatty acids were assessed by real-time PCR and gas chromatography, respectively. Results: There was an increased frequency of weekly bowel movements and patient satisfaction in both the fiber and placebo groups with no significant differences. Total Clostridium sp significantly decreased in the fiber group (p = 0.046) and increased in the placebo group (p = 0.047). There were no changes in fecal short chain fatty acid profile. Conclusions: Consumption of I-PHGG produced clinical results comparable to placebo in constipated females...

Regulação da microbiota intestinal de hospedeiros permissivo e não- permissivo por Cotesia flavipes (Cameron) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae); Regulation of the gut microbiota of permissive and non-permissive hosts parasitized by Cotesia flavipes (Cameron) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae)

Oliveira, Nathalia Cavichiolli de
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 15/07/2015 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.97%
Parasitoides interferem no sistema imunológico de seus hospedeiros, influenciando a expressão de genes relacionados à resposta celular e humoral, podendo interferir na relação hospedeiro - microbiota intestinal. Além disso, parasitoides induzem alterações fisiológicas no hospedeiro que alteram o consumo e a utilização de alimento, e que podem influenciar a microbiata intestinal do mesmo. Alterações nessa microbiota poderiam afetar as relações e contribuições ao hospedeiro e, consequentemente, influenciar o desenvolvimento do próprio parasitoide. O objetivo deste trabalho foi o de verificar o efeito do parasitismo por Cotesia flavipes (Cameron) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) na estrutura e no potencial funcional de contribuição da microbiota intestinal de Diatraea saccharalis (F.) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), hospedeiro permissivo, e de Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), hospedeiro não-permissivo. Além disso, buscou-se verificar se as secreções utilizadas pelo parasitoide (veneno, fluidos do cálice e virus simbionte) na regulação hospedeira estariam associadas à manipulação da microbiota intestinal do hospedeiro. O efeito do parasitismo na microbiota intestinal associada às porções antero-mediana e posterior do intestino dos hospedeiros estudados foi avaliado na fase inicial (1 DAP - dia após o parasitismo)...

O papel modulador do receptor símile a TOLL 2 (TLR2) e da microbiota intestinal na sensibilidade e sinalização da insulina em camundongos; The modulatory role of the Toll-like receptor (TLR)2 and of the gut microbiota in the modulation of the insulin sensitivity and signaling

Andrea Moro Caricilli
Fonte: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp Publicador: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 15/02/2012 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.87%
Fatores ambientais e genéticos do hospedeiro interagem para controlar a microbiota intestinal, que pode ter um papel no desenvolvimento da obesidade e da resistência à insulina. Camundongos deficientes em TLR2, sob condições livres de microorganismos, estão protegidos da resistência à insulina induzida por dieta. Inibição aguda do TLR2 (4 dias de tratamento) com oligonucleotídeo antisense em camundongos alimentados com dieta hiperlipídica leva a um aumento da sensibilidade e da sinalização da insulina em tecido adiposo e muscular. É possível que a presença da microbiota intestinal possa reverter o fenótipo de um animal, induzindo resistência à insulina em um animal geneticamente determinado a ter aumento da sensibilidade à insulina, tal como o camundongo deficiente para TLR2. No presente estudo, nós investigamos a influência da microbiota intestinal nos parâmetros metabólicos, tolerância à glicose, sensibilidade e sinalização da insulina em camundongos deficientes para TLR2. A microbiota intestinal foi investigada (por metagenômica), as características metabólicas e a sinalização da insulina em camundongos deficientes para TLR2 em um biotério convencional. Os resultados mostraram que a perda do TLR2 em camundongos de biotério convencional resulta em fenótipo semelhante ao da síndrome metabólica...

A suplementação via oral com L-glutamina altera a composição da microbiota intestinal de indivíduos sobrepesos e obesos; Impact of oral supplementation with l-glutamine on gut microbiota of obese and overweight human adults

Alessandra Zanin Zambom de Souza
Fonte: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp Publicador: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 15/08/2014 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.79%
Introdução: Inúmeros fatores contribuem para o aumento da obesidade em todo o mundo. Recentemente, a microbiota intestinal ganhou destaque devido ao seu poder de predispor ou inibir o ganho de peso. Alguns nutrientes são capazes de alterar a composição da microbiota intestinal, o que pode trazer efeitos benéficos ou maléficos, como a obesidade. O aminoácido L-glutamina, além de suas inúmeras funções orgânicas e imunológicas, é conhecido por desempenhar importante papel no trofismo intestinal. O objetivo do presente estudo foi investigar alterações na composição da microbiota intestinal de indivíduos com sobrepeso ou obesidade após suplementação oral com L-glutamina. Métodos: Voluntários com sobrepeso ou obesidade foram selecionados para ingerir 30g de L-glutamina (GLN) por via oral ao dia, por um período de quatorze dias. O grupo controle recebeu L-alanina (ALA) no mesmo tempo e proporção. Amostras de sangue e fezes foram coletadas para análises. Para classificação taxonômica das bactérias intestinais, foi realizado sequenciamento do gene 16S RNA ribossomal. Análises de bioinformática foram conduzidas com base no banco de dados RDP (Ribosomal Database Project). Para análise dos dados, estratégias estatísticas variadas foram utilizadas. Resultados: Após quatorze dias de suplementação...

Efeito das proteínas do soro do leite bovino sobre alterações metabólicas causadas por uma dieta hiperlipídica no camundongo C57BL/6 : disbiose intestinal, resposta inflamatória e parâmetros associados; intestinal dysbiosis, inflammatory response and associated parameters : Obesidade; Proteínas do soro do leite; Inflamação; Microbiota intestinal; Dieta hiperlipídica

Naice Eleidiane Santana Monteiro
Fonte: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp Publicador: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 19/03/2015 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.55%
Caracterizada como um dos mais importantes problemas que a saúde pública enfrenta atualmente no Brasil e no mundo, a obesidade está associada a um quadro de inflamação subclínica, que predispõe à resistência à insulina e ao desenvolvimento de diabetes mellitus, além de representar fator etiológico para diversas outras doenças crônicas não transmissíveis. Sabendo da importância que os alimentos com propriedades bioativas podem ter no tratamento da obesidade é que a utilização das proteínas do soro do leite na dieta vem sendo alvo de diversos estudos, devido aos benefícios que podem trazer à saúde humana. Dentre as propriedades da whey protein, citam-se a capacidade de regular a função imune, atuar como agente antimicrobiano, estimular a síntese de proteína muscular, suprimir o apetite e atuar na redução da gordura corporal, além das propriedades de aumentar a expressão gênica de proteínas anti-estresse (HSPs) e de ativar o transportador de glicose GLUT4, ambas descobertas pelo nosso grupo da FEA. O presente estudo teve como objetivo investigar o impacto que as proteínas do soro do leite, seja na sua forma íntegra ou na forma hidrolisada, possam exercer sobre a homeostase e a proteção do organismo de camundongos...

Gut Microbiota and Type 1 Diabetes

Vaarala, Outi
Fonte: SBDR - Society for Biomedical Diabetes Research Publicador: SBDR - Society for Biomedical Diabetes Research
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.91%
The gut immune system has a key role in the development of autoimmune diabetes, and factors that control the gut immune system are also regulators of beta-cell autoimmunity. Gut microbiota modulate the function of the gut immune system by their effect on the innate immune system, such as the intestinal epithelial cells and dendritic cells, and on the adaptive immune system, in particular intestinal T cells. Due to the immunological link between gut and pancreas, e.g. the shared lymphocyte homing receptors, the immunological changes in the gut are reflected in the pancreas. According to animal studies, changes in gut microbiota alter the development of autoimmune diabetes. This has been demonstrated by antibiotics that induce changes in the gut microbiota. Furthermore, gut-colonizing microbes may modify the incidence of autoimmune diabetes in animal models. Deficient toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling, mediating microbial stimulus in immune cells, prevents autoimmune diabetes, which appears to be dependent on alterations in the intestinal microbiota. Although few studies have been conducted in humans, recent studies suggest that the abundance of Bacteroides and lack of butyrate-producing bacteria in fecal microbiota are associated with beta-cell autoimmunity and type 1 diabetes. It is possible that altered gut microbiota are associated with immunological aberrancies in type 1 diabetes. The changes in gut microbiota could lead to alterations in the gut immune system...

The Potential Link between Gut Microbiota and IgE-Mediated Food Allergy in Early Life

Molloy, John; Allen, Katrina; Collier, Fiona; Tang, Mimi L. K.; Ward, Alister C.; Vuillermin, Peter
Fonte: MDPI Publicador: MDPI
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.86%
There has been a dramatic rise in the prevalence of IgE-mediated food allergy over recent decades, particularly among infants and young children. The cause of this increase is unknown but one putative factor is a change in the composition, richness and balance of the microbiota that colonize the human gut during early infancy. The coevolution of the human gastrointestinal tract and commensal microbiota has resulted in a symbiotic relationship in which gut microbiota play a vital role in early life immune development and function, as well as maintenance of gut wall epithelial integrity. Since IgE mediated food allergy is associated with immune dysregulation and impaired gut epithelial integrity there is substantial interest in the potential link between gut microbiota and food allergy. Although the exact link between gut microbiota and food allergy is yet to be established in humans, recent experimental evidence suggests that specific patterns of gut microbiota colonization may influence the risk and manifestations of food allergy. An understanding of the relationship between gut microbiota and food allergy has the potential to inform both the prevention and treatment of food allergy. In this paper we review the theory and evidence linking gut microbiota and IgE-mediated food allergy in early life. We then consider the implications and challenges for future research...

Effects of Diet on Gut Microbiota Profile and the Implications for Health and Disease

LEE, Yuan-Kun
Fonte: Bioscience of Microbiota, Food and Health Publicador: Bioscience of Microbiota, Food and Health
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.66%
Gut microbes are present in large concentrations on the human intestinal mucosal surface and play important roles in health and disease of the host. Numerous groups of gut microbes are associated with immunological and metabolic diseases and in maintaining health status of the host. Among these health- and disease-associated gut microbes, Bacteroides, Clostridium and Bifidobacterium appear regularly in the list. Scientific and clinical evidence available to date indicates that diet is a major driving factor for the establishment of the gut microbiome. Slow digestible carbohydrates (human milk glycan, inulin and fructooligosaccharide), insoluble complex carbohydrates and protein diets favor the growth of Bacteroides, Clostridium and Bifidobacterium. Fat on the other hand suppresses the number of Bacteroides, Clostridium and Bifidobacterium; whereas polyphenols in general suppress Bacteroides and Clodtridium but enhance the Bifodobacterium. The implication is that dietary habits could be a major determinant of health and disease susceptibility. Dietary strategies could be an effective means of potentially inducing changes in intestinal microbiota and are certainly achievable, thus facilitating correction of intestinal microbiome aberrations or imbalances to improve our health. Most of the physiological and functional interactions between individual dietary components and the concoction of foods in a meal and gut microbiota have not yet been well studied. A concerted effort is required to acquire better understanding of their interaction in order to rationally maintain our intestinal microbiome homeostasis and general health through dietary intervention.

Gut Microbiota as Potential Orchestrators of Irritable Bowel Syndrome

Bennet, Sean M.P.; Öhman, Lena; Simrén, Magnus
Fonte: Gut and Liver Publicador: Gut and Liver
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.66%
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a multifactorial functional disorder with no clearly defined etiology or pathophysiology. Modern culture-independent techniques have improved the understanding of the gut microbiota’s composition and demonstrated that an altered gut microbiota profile might be found in at least some subgroups of IBS patients. Research on IBS from a microbial perspective is gaining momentum and advancing. This review will therefore highlight potential links between the gut microbiota and IBS by discussing the current knowledge of the gut microbiota; it will also illustrate bacterial-host interactions and how alterations to these interactions could exacerbate, induce or even help alleviate IBS.

Effect of aerobic exercise and low carbohydrate diet on pre-diabetic non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in postmenopausal women and middle aged men – the role of gut microbiota composition: study protocol for the AELC randomized controlled trial

Liu, Wu Yi; Lu, Da Jiang; Du, Xia Ming; Sun, Jian Qin; Ge, Jun; Wang, Ren Wei; Wang, Ru; Zou, Jun; Xu, Chang; Ren, Jie; Wen, Xin Fei; Liu, Yang; Cheng, Shu Mei; Tan, Xiao; Pekkala, Satu; Munukka, Eveliina; Wiklund, Petri; Chen, Yan Qiu; Gu, Qing; Xia, Zhe
Fonte: BioMed Central Publicador: BioMed Central
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.67%
Background: Pre-diabetes and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) are associated with an unhealthy lifestyle and pose extremely high costs to the healthcare system. In this study, we aim to explore whether individualized aerobic exercise (AEx) and low carbohydrate diet (LCh) intervention affect hepatic fat content (HFC) in pre-diabetes via modification of gut microbiota composition and other post-interventional effects. Methods/design A 6-month randomized intervention with 6-month follow-up is conducted from January 2013 to December 2015. The target sample size for intervention is 200 postmenopausal women and middle-aged men aged 50–65 year-old with pre-diabetes and NAFLD. The qualified subjects are randomized into 4 groups with 50 subjects in each group: 1 = AEx, 2 = LCh, 3 = AEx + LCh, and 4 = control. In addition, two age-matched reference groups (5 = pre-diabetes without NAFLD (n = 50) and 6 = Healthy without pre-diabetes or NAFLD (n = 50)) are included. The exercise program consists of progressive and variable aerobic exercise (intensity of 60 to 75% of initial fitness level, 3–5 times/week and 30–60 min/time). The diet program includes dietary consultation plus supplementation with a special lunch meal (40% of total energy intake/day) which aims to reduce the amount of carbohydrate consumption (30%). The control and reference groups are advised to maintain their habitual habits during the intervention. The primary outcome measures are HFC...

The relationship between human beta-defensins and anaerobic commensal gut microbiota; Die Beziehung zwischen humanen Beta-Defensinen und anaeroben kommensalen Darmbakterien

Schröder, Björn Ole
Fonte: Universidade de Tubinga Publicador: Universidade de Tubinga
Tipo: Dissertação
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.52%
Humans are permanently confronted with microorganisms, including bacteria, fungi and viruses. They do not only colonize outer surfaces but also grow in large numbers in the human intestine. In the gut, the majority of microbes are commensal bacteria, which have beneficial effects on the host. They assist in degrading complex carbohydrates, provide vitamins and modulate the intestinal immune system. As important components of the innate immune system, endogenous antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) defend against bacteria, fungi and some viruses. They are small, cationic peptides produced by multicellular organisms, including vertebrates, invertebrates and plants. One of the major classes of AMPs are the defensins, which are characterized by a conserved array of disulphide bridges. Depending on their disulphide-connectivity, they are sub-grouped into alpha- and beta-defensins. Probiotics, which are live nonpathogenic microorganisms that confer health benefits on the host when administered in adequate amounts, have been found to stimulate beta-defensin production in different cell culture experiments. They exhibit a beneficial effect after application in different diseases, but the molecular basis of their in vivo effect was unclear. In this work it is described that the probiotic E. coli Nissle stimulates the secretion of human beta-defensin 2 (hBD-2) into the feces of healthy volunteers. The probiotics used are effectively killed by hBD-2 and other antimicrobial peptides...

Manipulation of the Quorum Sensing Signal AI-2 Affects the Antibiotic-Treated Gut Microbiota

Thompson, Jessica Ann; Oliveira, Rita Almeida; Djukovic, Ana; Ubeda, Carles; Xavier, Karina Bivar
Fonte: Cell Press Publicador: Cell Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 24/03/2015 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.7%
The mammalian gut microbiota harbors a diverse ecosystem where hundreds of bacterial species interact with each other and their host. Given that bacteria use signals to communicate and regulate group behaviors (quorum sensing), we asked whether such communication between different commensal species can influence the interactions occurring in this environment. We engineered the enteric bacterium, Escherichia coli, to manipulate the levels of the interspecies quorum sensing signal, autoinducer-2 (AI-2), in the mouse intestine and investigated the effect upon antibiotic-induced gut microbiota dysbiosis. E. coli that increased intestinal AI-2 levels altered the composition of the antibiotic-treated gut microbiota, favoring the expansion of the Firmicutes phylum. This significantly increased the Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio, to oppose the strong effect of the antibiotic, which had almost cleared the Firmicutes. This demonstrates that AI-2 levels influence the abundance of the major phyla of the gut microbiota, the balance of which is known to influence human health.; Howard Hughes Medical Institute grants: (International Early Career Scientist, HHMI 55007436), Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovacion grants: (MICINN; SAF2011-29458), Marie-Curie Career Integration grant: (PCIG09-GA-2011-293894).

Exposição alimentar à própolis : resposta de biomarcadores inflamatórios e da microbiota intestinal em camundongos C57BL/6 tratados com dieta obesogênica; Dietary exposure to propolis : response of inflammatory biomakers and intestinal microbiota in C57BL/6 mice fed a high-fat diet

Aline Rissetti Roquetto
Fonte: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp Publicador: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 20/03/2015 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.58%
A obesidade é um dos maiores problemas de saúde pública no mundo, sendo associada a diversas doenças metabólicas como inflamação, resistência insulínica, dislipidemia, esteatose hepática, entre outras. Recentemente, tem sido demonstrado que alterações nas proporções dos filos que compõem a microbiota intestinal repercutem negativamente sobre o metabolismo e processos fisiológicos do hospedeiro. A dieta moderna é apontada como um dos fatores capazes de modular as bactérias intestinais e desencadear respostas inflamatórias. Diante deste cenário e tendo conhecimento de que a própolis, resina produzida por abelhas que possui ação anti-inflamatória e antimicrobiana, a presente pesquisa teve como objetivo avaliar o efeito da suplementação da própolis em camundongos tratados com dieta hiperlipídica sobre a microbiota intestinal e biomarcadores inflamatórios. Quarenta camundongos da linhagem C57BL/6 foram divididos em 4 grupos (n=10) aleatoriamente: grupo controle - dieta baseada na AIN-93G; grupo hiperlipídico (HF) - dieta com 37% de gordura; e grupos HFP2 e HFP5 tratados com dieta hiperlipídica, seguida de suplementação com própolis 0,2% nas duas e cinco semanas que antecederam ao sacrifício respectivamente. Foram coletadas amostras de sangue e músculo para determinações bioquímicas e indicadores de inflamação...

A influência da flora intestinal e da esplenectomia na resistência à insulina induzida por obesidade; Influence of gut microbiota and splenectomy over the obesity-induced insulin resistance

Bruno de Melo Carvalho
Fonte: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp Publicador: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 15/03/2012 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.67%
A ingestão de alimentos ricos em gordura leva à obesidade e inflamação crônica sub-clínica, a qual desenvolve papel importante na resistência à insulina. Aumentados níveis circulantes de citocinas pró-inflamatórias, ácidos graxos livres e lipopolissacarídeos ativam o sistema imune inato, que desencadeia inflamação e aumento na expressão de citocinas, levando à resistência à insulina. Dessa forma, nós investigamos o efeito da modulação da flora intestinal, na resistência à insulina e avaliamos o baço como uma nova fonte de inflamação e células do sistema imune, responsáveis pela resistência à insulina induzida por obesidade, cujas funções ainda não estão completamente determinadas. Para investigar os efeitos da modulação da flora intestinal, nós submetemos camundongos a dieta hiperlipídica com antibióticos ou em regime de pair-feeding por oito semanas e realizamos análises metagenômicas de amostras de DNA provenientes das fezes dos camundongos. A fim de avaliar a influência do baço no metabolismo, nós realizamos esplenectomia em camundongos e induzimos obesidade com a utilização de dieta rica em gordura, além de fazer abordagens proteômicas para determinar novas moléculas que poderiam estar envolvidas na inflamação e migração de células. Em ambos os experimentos...

Gut microbiota and host metabolism in liver cirrhosis

Usami, Makoto; Miyoshi, Makoto; Yamashita, Hayato
Fonte: Baishideng Publishing Group Inc Publicador: Baishideng Publishing Group Inc
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.86%
The gut microbiota has the capacity to produce a diverse range of compounds that play a major role in regulating the activity of distal organs and the liver is strategically positioned downstream of the gut. Gut microbiota linked compounds such as short chain fatty acids, bile acids, choline metabolites, indole derivatives, vitamins, polyamines, lipids, neurotransmitters and neuroactive compounds, and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis hormones have many biological functions. This review focuses on the gut microbiota and host metabolism in liver cirrhosis. Dysbiosis in liver cirrhosis causes serious complications, such as bacteremia and hepatic encephalopathy, accompanied by small intestinal bacterial overgrowth and increased intestinal permeability. Gut dysbiosis in cirrhosis and intervention with probiotics and synbiotics in a clinical setting is reviewed and evaluated. Recent studies have revealed the relationship between gut microbiota and host metabolism in chronic metabolic liver disease, especially, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, alcoholic liver disease, and with the gut microbiota metabolic interactions in dysbiosis related metabolic diseases such as diabetes and obesity. Recently, our understanding of the relationship between the gut and liver and how this regulates systemic metabolic changes in liver cirrhosis has increased. The serum lipid levels of phospholipids...

Effects of a gluten-free diet on gut microbiota and immune function in healthy adult human subjects

Palma, Giada de; Nadal, Inmaculada; Collado, María del Carmen; Sanz, Yolanda
Fonte: Cambridge University Press Publicador: Cambridge University Press
Tipo: Artículo Formato: 193239 bytes; application/pdf
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.67%
7 pages, 1 figure, 3 tables.; Diet influences the composition of the gut microbiota and host's health, particularly in patients suffering from food-related diseases. Coeliac disease (CD) is a permanent intolerance to cereal gluten proteins and the only therapy for the patients is to adhere to a life-long gluten-free diet (GFD). In the present preliminary study, the effects of a GFD on the composition and immune function of the gut microbiota were analysed in ten healthy subjects (mean age 30·3 years) over 1 month. Faecal microbiota was analysed by fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) and quantitative PCR (qPCR). The ability of faecal bacteria to stimulate cytokine production by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) was determined by ELISA. No significant differences in dietary intake were found before and after the GFD except for reductions (P = 0·001) in polysaccharides. Bifidobacterium, Clostridium lituseburense and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii proportions decreased (P = 0·007, P = 0·031 and P = 0·009, respectively) as a result of the GFD analysed by FISH. Bifidobacterium, Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium longum counts decreased (P = 0·020, P = 0·001 and P = 0·017, respectively), while Enterobacteriaceae and Escherichia coli counts increased (P = 0·005 and P = 0·003) after the GFD assessed by qPCR. TNF-α...

Suppression of inflammation by helminths - a role for the gut microbiota?

Giacomin, Paul; Croese, John; Krause, Lutz; Loukas, Alex; Cantacessi, Cinzia
Fonte: Royal Society Publishing Publicador: Royal Society Publishing
Tipo: Article; published version
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.59%
This is the final version of the article. It first appeared from Royal Society Publishing via http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2014.0296; Multiple recent investigations have highlighted the promise of helminth-based therapies for the treatment of inflammatory disorders of the intestinal tract of humans, including inflammatory bowel disease and coeliac disease. However, the mechanisms by which helminths regulate immune responses, leading to the amelioration of symptoms of chronic inflammation are unknown. Given the pivotal roles of the intestinal microbiota in the pathogenesis of these disorders, it has been hypothesized that helminth-induced modifications of the gut commensal flora may be responsible for the therapeutic properties of gastrointestinal parasites. In this article, we review recent progress in the elucidation of the host-parasite-microbiota interactions in both animal models of chronic inflammation and humans, and provide a working hypothesis on the role of the gut microbiota in helminth-induced suppression of inflammation.; Funding from the Isaac Newton Trust / Wellcome Trust ISSF / University of Cambridge Joint Research Grants Scheme (C.C.) and the Australian National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC) grants 1037304...

Gut microbiota and the development of obesity

Boroni Moreira,A. P.; Fiche Salles Teixeira,T.; Gouveia Peluzio,M.ª do C.; Cássia Gonçalves Alfenas,R. de
Fonte: Nutrición Hospitalaria Publicador: Nutrición Hospitalaria
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; journal article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion Formato: text/html; application/pdf
Publicado em 01/10/2012 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.86%
Introduction: Advances in tools for molecular investigations have allowed deeper understanding of how microbes can influence host physiology. A very interesting field of research that has gained attention recently is the possible role of gut microbiota in the development of obesity and metabolic disorders. Objective: The aim of this review is to discuss mechanisms that explain the influence of gut microbiota on host metabolism. Results and discussion: The gut microbiota is important for normal physiology of the host. However, differences in their composition may have different impacts on host metabolism. It has been shown that obese and lean subjects present different microbiota composition profile. These differences in microbiota composition may contribute to weight imbalance and impaired metabolism. The evidences from animal models suggest that it is possible that the microbiota of obese subjects has higher capacity to harvest energy from the diet providing substrates that can activate lipogenic pathways. In addition, microorganisms can also influence the activity of lipoprotein lipase interfering in the accumulation of triglycerides in the adipose tissue. The interaction of gut microbiota with the endocannabinoid system provides a route through which intestinal permeability can be altered. Increased intestinal permeability allows the entrance of endotoxins to the circulation...

Influence of early environmental factors on lymphocyte subsets and gut microbiota in infants at risk of celiac disease: the PROFICEL study

Pozo-Rubio,Tamara; Palma,Giada de; Mujico,Jorge R.; Olivares,Marta; Marcos,Ascensión; Acuña,María Dolores; Polanco,Isabel; Sanz,Yolanda; Nova,Esther
Fonte: Nutrición Hospitalaria Publicador: Nutrición Hospitalaria
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; journal article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion Formato: text/html; application/pdf
Publicado em 01/04/2013 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.67%
Introduction: It is known that the HLA genotype can explain about a 40% of the genetic risk of celiac disease (CD), thus, other genetic predisposing factors as well as factors that subtly modulate T cell activation and differentiation need to be studied. This includes environmental factors that are currently believed to impact on the immune system and gut microbiota development. Aim: To assess the associations between early environmental factors (EEF), lymphocyte subsets, and intestinal microbiota composition in infants at familial risk for CD. Study design: Prospective observational study. Subjects: Fifty-five 4 month-old infants with at least a first-degree relative suffering CD. Infants were classified according to type of delivery, mother's antibiotic intake during pregnancy and during labor, milk-feeding practices, early infections and antibiotic intake, rotavirus vaccine administration, and allergy incidence within the first 18 months of life. Methods: Lymphocyte subsets and gut microbiota composition were studied at the age of 4 months. Results: Formula feeding and infant's infections were associated with higher CD3+, CD4+, CD4+CD38+, CD4+CD28+ and CD3+CD4+CD45RO+ counts (P0.01). Infant s infections were also associated with higher CD4+CD25+...

Microbiota benefits after inulin and partially hydrolized guar gum supplementation: a randomized clinical trial in constipated women

Linetzky Waitzberg,D.; Alves Pereira,C. C.; Logullo,L.; Manzoni Jacintho,T.; Almeida,D.; Teixeira da Silva,Mª L.; Matos de Miranda Torrinhas,R. S.
Fonte: Nutrición Hospitalaria Publicador: Nutrición Hospitalaria
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; journal article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion Formato: text/html; application/pdf
Publicado em 01/02/2012 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.64%
Introduction: Prebiotics positively affect gut microbiota composition, thus improving gut function. These properties may be useful for the treatment of constipation. Objectives: This study assessed the tolerance and effectiveness of a prebiotic inulin/partially hydrolyzed guar gum mixture (I-PHGG) for the treatment of constipation in females, as well as its influence on the composition of intestinal microbiota and production of short chain fatty acids. Methods: Our study enrolled 60 constipated female health worker volunteers. Participants reported less than 3 bowel movements per week. Volunteers were randomized to treatment with prebiotic or placebo. Treatment consisted of 3 weeks supplementation with 15 g/d IPHGG (fiber group) or maltodextrin (placebo group). Abdominal discomfort, flatulence, stool consistency, and bowel movements were evaluated by a recorded daily questionnaire and a weekly interview. Changes in fecal bacterial population and short chain fatty acids were assessed by real-time PCR and gas chromatography, respectively. Results: There was an increased frequency of weekly bowel movements and patient satisfaction in both the fiber and placebo groups with no significant differences. Total Clostridium sp significantly decreased in the fiber group (p = 0.046) and increased in the placebo group (p = 0.047). There were no changes in fecal short chain fatty acid profile. Conclusions: Consumption of I-PHGG produced clinical results comparable to placebo in constipated females...