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Comparando as emissões de gases de efeito estufa nas etapas da cadeia produtiva do etanol brasileiro.; Comparing greenhouse gas emission along the steps of Brazilian ethanol supply chain.

Lopes, Celso Júnior Roseghini
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 09/12/2011 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
86.46%
Este trabalho utilizou a metodologia Renewable Transport Fuel Obligation (RTFO), desenvolvida pela Renewable Fuels Agency (RFA, 2008), para quantificar o volume de gases de efeito estufa emitido nas etapas do ciclo de vida do etanol: manejo agrícola da cana-de-açúcar, transporte da matéria-prima da lavoura até a usina, beneficiamento industrial, cogeração de energia elétrica e logística até uma base primária de armazenamento. O arcabouço metodológico foi aplicado em cinco diferentes regiões do Estado de São Paulo, o maior produtor brasileiro: Araçatuba, Assis, Ribeirão Preto, Jaú e Piracicaba. Ademais, objetivou-se examinar o impacto relativo que os seguintes tópicos têm nas emissões de gases de efeito estufa no ciclo de vida do etanol: (1) localização da produção de cana-de-açúcar; (2) utilização de diferentes combustíveis na etapa do manejo agrícola da cana-de-açúcar; (3) extinção da prática de queimar o canavial na fase da pré-colheita; e (4) utilização de uma logística intermodal para distribuir o etanol até uma base primária de armazenamento. No cenário base, considerou-se a utilização de óleo diesel no manejo agrícola da cana-de-açúcar, a prática de queimar previamente o canavial na fase da pré-colheita e a logística rodoviária para transportar o etanol das regiões produtoras até uma base primária de armazenamento localizada no porto de Santos-SP. Já para a análise de sensibilidade dos parâmetros de emissões...

Greenhouse gas emissions and soil carbon dynamics in the Brazilian oil palm production; Emissões de gases do efeito estufa e dinâmica do carbono do solo na produção de palma no Brasil

Frazão, Leidivan Almeida
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 19/01/2012 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
76.55%
Oil palm has been considered one of the most favorable oilseeds to biodiesel production in Brazil. The crop has been cultivated in the north and northeast regions under commercial plantations and agroforestry systems. As the oil palm is a perennial crop, it is important to understand how the intensive cultivation affects the dynamic of soil organic matter in the long term. The goal of this work was to determinate the greenhouse gas emissions associated to the main production steps and the changes on soil organic carbon under oil palm plantations. Soil and greenhouse gas samples were collected in traditional production areas in Brazil. Commercial plantations derived from pasture and Amazon rain forest were selected in Pará State (Agropalma farm), while areas derived from Atlantic rain forest and agroforestry system were selected in Bahia State (Opalma farm and Lamego). At first, changes on soil carbon stocks were evaluated in the commercial plantations and agroforestry systems. The variability of soil carbon dynamics in the production areas can be explained by several aspects such as temporal and spatial variations, and prior land use. The soil carbon stocks, after corrections for differences in density and clay content, decreased till 46% in areas derived from pasture and increased 18% in an area derived from Amazon rain forest. The soil carbon stocks increased till 23% in areas derived from Atlantic rain forest and decreased 30% when agroforestry system was adopted. The soil nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from N fertilizer application were 10 times higher in the seedlings production than in juvenile and mature plantations...

Estimativa da redução das emissões gases de efeito estufa através da intermodalidade no setor sucroenergético: uma aplicação de programação linear; Estimating greenhouse gas emission reductions through a diversification in transportation systems in the sugarcane industry: applying a linear programming system

Pinheiro, Maria Andrade
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 19/04/2012 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
86.5%
A questão em torno do aquecimento global vem preocupando a sociedade mundial,sendo que os governantes e ambientalistas têm intensificado estudos e aplicações de medidas para tentar minimizar os efeitos das emissões de gases de efeito estufa na atmosfera. O setor de transporte é o segundo maior consumidor de energia, pois é muito dependente de combustíveis fósseis, que emitem quantidade elevada de CO2. O setor sucroenergético é um importante gerador de divisas para o país, sendo que a receita em 2010 foi de R$ 50 bilhões e as exportações alcançaram US$ 13,8 bilhões. O açúcar é um importante produto da pauta agrícola, o país exporta aproximadamente 70% da sua produção. O etanol é um importante gerador de energia, e consegue minimizar as suas emissões durante seu ciclo produtivo em até 90%, quando comparado a gasolina, seu principal concorrente. Dada a importância do transporte nas emissões de gases de efeito estufa e a possibilidade da mudança de modalidade reduzir essas emissões, o objetivo desta tese é estimar os benefícios da redução das emissões de CO2, a partir da mudança da matriz de transporte,para o setor sucroenergético. Para tanto foi utilizada a metodologia de programação linear, utilizando a otimização para a minimização das emissões e do custo de transporte. O softwar eutilizado foi o GAMS e quatro diferentes cenários para ambos os produtos foi traçado. O primeiro e o segundo foi modelado para a safra 2010/2011 e foi considerada a atual malha de transporte...

Análise das emissões de gases de efeito estufa e consumo energético setorial do Estado de São Paulo por meio da matriz insumo-produto; Assessing sector greenhouse gas emissions and energetic consumption of Sao Paulo State by means of input-output matrix.

França, Camila Isaac
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 23/04/2013 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
96.54%
A Política Estadual de São Paulo de Mudanças Climática (PEMC) foi lançada em 2009. Esta política voluntária, independente de qualquer acordo nacional ou internacional, foi estabelecida para reduzir a emissão dos gases de efeito estufa em 2020 em 20%, de acordo com os níveis de 2005. Uma vez que a melhoria da eficiência energética está entre as ações de mitigação de emissões de carbono especificadas pela PEMC, este trabalho visa avaliar as emissões diretas e indiretas e o consumo energético das cadeias produtivas na economia do Estado de São Paulo. Conseqüentemente, este estudo combina dados da Matriz Insumo Produto com o Primeiro Inventário de Gases de Efeito Estufa do Estado de São Paulo (2011) e o Balanço Energético (2010). Todos os dados estão baseados nos valores do ano de 2004. O trabalho avalia três simulações. A primeira simulação compara as emissões totais e energia por unidade de demanda final, já a segunda simulação aplica o mesmo método, porém apenas contabiliza as emissões de energia. A terceira simulação é baseada na massa total de emissões diretas e indiretas e foi determinada por meio dos multiplicadores. Além disso, o efeito total de cada setor está relacionado às emissões diretas e indiretas geradas por uma unidade de demanda final. Baseado nos resultados das três simulações foi possível observar que as emissões indiretas representam quase 30% sobre as emissões totais...

Reallocating Agricultural Greenhouse Gas Emission in EU15 Countries

Serrão, Amilcar J
Fonte: AgEcon Search - University of Minnesota - Agricultural Applied Economics Association Publicador: AgEcon Search - University of Minnesota - Agricultural Applied Economics Association
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
86.5%
This research work uses an alternative approach for modeling agricultural greenhouse gas emissions as an undesirable output, based on the zero sum gains DEA model (ZSG-DEA BCC model). This approach reallocates agricultural greenhouse gas emissions among EU15 countries. The reallocation analysis of greenhouse gas emissions permits countries that increase their emissions negotiate the emissions reduction with the others. This negotiation process might create a quota trade system for agricultural activity.

Controlling Greenhouse Gas Emissions Generated by the Transport Sector in ECA : Policy Options

Monsalve, Carolina
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
96.56%
Greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) generated from transport are among the fastest growing in Europe and in the Europe and Central Asia (ECA) region, posing a challenge in creating a low-carbon future, as economic development has been paralleled with a modal share increasingly dominated by roads.1 This modal shift, as in the European Union (EU), has been driven by a number of factors, including growing affluence, suburbanization, and falling land use densities in urban areas, which have translated into more widespread vehicle ownership, increasing trip numbers and lengths, while reducing the financial viability of public transport and non-motorized transport. This paper begins by reviewing recent trends in transport and GHG emission trends in the ECA region, using trends in the EU-15 and EU-27 as comparators.8 Subsequently, it will provide an overview of climate friendly transport policies for the road, rail, and air transport modes, before presenting some land transport success stories and then turning to a discussion on how to use revenues generated from pricing policy instruments. The objective is to provide a menu of policy options to improve the functioning of the transport sector in ECA...

Greenhouse Gas Analysis at the World Bank

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
76.67%
This report builds on reviews of available methodologies, tools, and practices for greenhouse gas (GHG) analysis, and summarizes the outcomes of pilot studies. It discusses the issues and challenges associated with GHG analysis for energy, transport and forestry projects such as setting project boundaries and accounting for indirect emissions. To do this it draws on existing United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) methodologies, IPCC National GHG Inventories guidelines, the GEF and CDM/JI methodological frameworks, the GHG Protocol Initiative standards, World Bank Environment Department papers, and methodologies used by other international finance institutions. The outcome of fourteen pilots provides a rich and varied set of experiences in terms of approaches taken, and application of tools and methodologies. Assessing GHG emissions from investment operations is becoming common practice for mostmultilateral and bilateral institutions, and the international financial community in general. The existing methodologies and tools could be applicable to a significant majority of the investment lending portfolio in energy...

Lessons Learned from Linking Emissions Trading Systems

Partnership for Market Readiness
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
76.64%
In support of the partnership for market readiness work on helping the emergence of credible, consistent, and compatible market-based infrastructure across countries, this report reviews the lessons learned from linking greenhouse gas emissions trading systems. Two emissions trading systems (ETS) are linked if a participant in one system can use a compliance instrument (allowance or credit) issued by the administrator of either system for compliance. This report focuses on links that enable participants of both ETS to use compliance instruments from either system (bilateral links). The linked systems can adopt common compliance instruments. Or each system can retain its own compliance instruments and accept those from either ETS for compliance, possibly subject to restrictions. A bilateral link offers three potential benefits. First, it can make an ETS a viable policy option for a jurisdiction where an independent ETS will be infeasible for technical or cost reasons. Second, a bilateral link can reduce the total cost of achieving the combined emissions caps of the linked ETS. Third...

Do Improved Biomass Cookstoves Reduce Fuelwood Consumption and Carbon Emissions?

Beyene, Abebe; Bluffstone, Randy; Gebreegzhiaber, Zenebe; Martinsson, Peter; Mekonnen, Alemu; Vieider, Ferdinand
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
76.57%
This paper uses a randomized experimental design with real-time electronic stove temperature measurements and controlled cooking tests to estimate the fuelwood and carbon dioxide savings from an improved cookstove program in the process of being implemented in rural Ethiopia. Knowing more about how households interact with improved cookstoves is important, because cooking uses a majority of the fuelwood in the country and therefore is an important determinant of greenhouse gas emissions and indoor air pollution. Creating local networks among stove users generally appears to increase fuelwood savings, and among monetary treatments the most robust positive effects come from free distribution. The paper estimates that on average one improved stove saves approximately 634 kilograms of fuelwood per year or about 0.94 tons of carbon dioxide equivalent per year, which is about half of previous estimates. Using the May 2015 California auction price of $13.39/ton, the carbon sequestration from each stove deployed is worth about $12.59. Such carbon market offset revenues would be sufficient to cover the cost of the stove within one year.

Public health benefits of strategies to reduce greenhouse-gas emissions: food and agriculture

Friel, Sharon; Dangour, Alan D; Garnett, Tara; Lock, Karen; Chalabi, Zaid; Roberts, Ian; Butler, Ainslie; Butler, Colin D; Waage, Jeff; McMichael, Anthony J; Haines, Andy
Fonte: Elsevier Publicador: Elsevier
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 10 pages
Relevância na Pesquisa
96.4%
Agricultural food production and agriculturally-related change in land use substantially contribute to greenhouse-gas emissions worldwide. Four-fifths of agricultural emissions arise from the livestock sector. Although livestock products are a source of some essential nutrients, they provide large amounts of saturated fat, which is a known risk factor for cardiovascular disease. We considered potential strategies for the agricultural sector to meet the target recommended by the UK Committee on Climate Change to reduce UK emissions from the concentrations recorded in 1990 by 80% by 2050, which would require a 50% reduction by 2030. With use of the UK as a case study, we identified that a combination of agricultural technological improvements and a 30% reduction in livestock production would be needed to meet this target; in the absence of good emissions data from Brazil, we assumed for illustrative purposes that the required reductions would be the same for our second case study in São Paulo city. We then used these data to model the potential benefits of reduced consumption of livestock products on the burden of ischaemic heart disease: disease burden would decrease by about 15% in the UK (equivalent to 2850 disability-adjusted life-years [DALYs] per million population in 1 year) and 16% in São Paulo city (equivalent to 2180 DALYs per million population in 1 year). Although likely to yield benefits to health...

An improved framework for the modelling and optimisation of greenhouse gas emissions associated with water distribution systems

Stokes, C.; Simpson, A.; Maier, H.
Fonte: International Environmental Modelling & Software Society; online Publicador: International Environmental Modelling & Software Society; online
Tipo: Conference paper
Publicado em //2012 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
86.38%
Human-induced climate change and its associated effects have become one of the most significant problems faced by human-kind. The importance of climate change mitigation has been widely recognised by the scientific, commercial and political sectors. Greenhouse gas (GHG) releases have been identified as a major cause of human-induced climate change. Water distribution systems (WDSs), whilst providing an essential service to modern cities, significantly contribute to the release of GHG emissions. While recent literature has considered the reduction of GHG emissions associated with WDSs, there has been limited consideration of the impact of operational strategies, the interaction between water supply infrastructure and energy generating infrastructure and the effect of policy drivers on the optimal trade-offs between cost and GHG. In order to maximise GHG emission reductions from the design and operation of a WDS, an integrated framework is required. Such a framework is presented in this paper. In order to identify best design options, the framework can be used in conjunction with optimisation approaches. By considering the interconnections between the various components in the framework, the effect of each component on the whole system can be investigated. This enables the most effective strategies for the reduction of GHG emissions associated with WDSs to be developed.; http://www.iemss.org/sites/iemss2012/proceedings.html; Christopher S. Stokes...

Systematic review of reducing population meat consumption to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and obtain health benefits: effectiveness and models assessments

Yip, S.; Crane, G.; Karnon, J.
Fonte: Birkhauser Verlag Ag Publicador: Birkhauser Verlag Ag
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2013 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
86.26%
OBJECTIVES: This review evaluates existing co-benefit models for emission and health outcomes of counterfactual scenarios of reduced meat consumption at a population level. METHODS: A novel assessment process was developed, combining selected measures from the Cochrane Review quality assessment tools, from the PRISMA checklist, and model quality measures identified by the authors during the preliminary phases of the review process. RESULTS: Four emission models and three health outcome models have been identified which show great variation in model characteristics and qualities. The estimated counterfactual scenario emission effects presented in the included studies ranged from a reduction of <3-30 % and reduction in the burden of disease ranged from 1 to 16 %. Meta-analysis could not be conducted due to high heterogeneity of model characteristics. CONCLUSIONS: All co-benefit studies estimated that reducing population meat consumption could reduce greenhouse gas emissions and the burden of disease. However, important attention must be paid to nutrition balance and a systematic approach in input and output attribute parameters is recommended for better model quality.; Cynthia Sau Chun Yip, Glenis Crane, Jonathan Karnon

Greenhouse gas emissions and the Australian diet-comparing dietary recommendations with average intakes

Hendrie, G.; Ridoutt, B.; Wiedmann, T.; Noakes, M.
Fonte: MDPI Publicador: MDPI
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2014 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
96.35%
Nutrition guidelines now consider the environmental impact of food choices as well as maintaining health. In Australia there is insufficient data quantifying the environmental impact of diets, limiting our ability to make evidence-based recommendations. This paper used an environmentally extended input-output model of the economy to estimate greenhouse gas emissions (GHGe) for different food sectors. These data were augmented with food intake estimates from the 1995 Australian National Nutrition Survey. The GHGe of the average Australian diet was 14.5 kg carbon dioxide equivalents (CO2e) per person per day. The recommended dietary patterns in the Australian Dietary Guidelines are nutrient rich and have the lowest GHGe (~25% lower than the average diet). Food groups that made the greatest contribution to diet-related GHGe were red meat (8.0 kg CO2e per person per day) and energy-dense, nutrient poor “non-core” foods (3.9 kg CO2e). Non-core foods accounted for 27% of the diet-related emissions. A reduction in non-core foods and consuming the recommended serves of core foods are strategies which may achieve benefits for population health and the environment. These data will enable comparisons between changes in dietary intake and GHGe over time...

The cost–greenhouse gas emission nexus for water distribution systems including the consideration of energy generating infrastructure: an integrated conceptual optimization framework and review of literature

Stokes, C.S.; Simpson, A.R.; Maier, H.R.
Fonte: Springer Publicador: Springer
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2014 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
76.49%
The increased release of greenhouse-gas (GHG) emissions associated with human activities causing climate change is one of the most significant problems faced by human-kind. Water distribution systems (WDS), whilst providing an essential service to society, are responsible for the generation of significant amounts of GHGs. In response, the minimization of GHG emissions associated with WDSs has become a research focus. In this paper, a critical review of previous research is provided, summarizing research progress and highlighting research needs in this emergent and important area. This is done within the context of the water distribution system cost-emissions nexus (WCEN) conceptual framework, which is a novel conceptual framework that considers the interaction between all components required to accurately evaluate the costs and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with water distribution systems (WDSs) in an integrated fashion. Key findings from this review indicate that future research should (1) include the use of time-dependent emissions factors (EFs), which would allow the scheduling of pumps at times of lower emissions intense energy to be considered; (2) include the modeling of seasonally variable water demands; (3) include greater consideration of the hydraulic simulation process...

Greenhouse gas emission trading: Australia's response to global climate change

Berta, Cristina
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Relatório
Relevância na Pesquisa
86.46%
Australia recognizes the need to alleviate greenhouse gas emissions to lessen and reverse the effects of global climate change. Australia has already seen and felt the effect of global climate change from the hole in the ozone layer that reaches the eastern coasts. By signing the Kyoto Protocol in April 1998, Australia indicated an intention to ratify and become legally committed to reducing greenhouse gases (GHG) to 108°/o of emission levels in 1990 . The Protocol gives many suggestions for reducing emissions and promoting sustainable development. It identifies emission trading schemes (ETS) as an economically efficient market tool to reduce emissions. Although Australia signed the Protocol, it has not yet been ratified due to concerns within government, industry and society about the impacts that would result from ratification. Emission trading can be an efficient solution to restricting emissions and halting the effects of climate change. However, government, industry and society require exposure to the costs and benefits of implementing and administering a domestic ETS, and also a sufficient adjustment period, should any scheme become functional. The background of emissions trading includes identifying the six main GHG noted in the Kyoto Protocol. Numerous scientists have studied the effects of surplus amounts of these gases in the atmosphere...

Existing and Potential Technologies for Carbon Emissions Reductions in the Indian Cement Industry : A Set of Technical Papers Produced for the Project 'Low Carbon Technology Road Map for the Indian Cement Industry'

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Commodities Study; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
76.61%
This set of technical papers was commissioned by the Cement Sustainability Initiative (CSI) members in India. CSI is a member-led program of the World Business Council for Sustainable Development (WBCSD). The report represents the independent work of the CII - Godrej Green Business Centre (CII, Godrej GBC), a center of excellence of Confederation of Indian Industry (CII) and the National Council for Cement and Building Materials (NCB). The author of each paper is shown after its title. It aims to identify, describe and evaluate technologies, which may contribute to increased energy efficiencies and reduced greenhouse gas emissions from cement production in India today and in the longer-term. The results have been reviewed by CII, NCB, CSI member companies and stakeholders like the International Energy Agency (IEA). All papers follow the same format, outlining the current status of the technology, the impact on energy consumption, anticipated benefits from implementation, the CO? reduction potential, main parameters influencing implementation...

Carbon brainprint ? An estimate of the intellectual contribution of research institutions to reducing greenhouse gas emissions

Chatterton, Julia; Parsons, David; Nicholls, John; Longhurst, Phil; Bernon, Mike; Palmer, Andrew; Brennan, Feargal; Kolios, Athanasios; Wilson, Ian; Ishiyama, Edward; Clements-Croome, Derek; Elmualim, Abbas; Darby, Howard; Yearley, Thomas; Davies, Gareth
Fonte: Elsevier Publicador: Elsevier
Tipo: Article; accepted version
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
86.42%
This is the accepted manuscript of a paper published in Process Safety and Environmental Protection (Chatterton J, et al., Process Safety and Environmental Protection, 2015, 96, 74-81, doi:10.1016/j.psep.2015.04.008). The final version is available at http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.psep.2015.04.008; Research and innovation have considerable, currently unquantified potential to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by, for example, increasing energy efficiency. Furthermore, the process of knowledge transfer in itself can have a significant impact on reducing emissions, by promoting awareness and behavioural change. The concept of the ?carbon brainprint? was proposed to convey the intellectual contribution of higher education institutions to the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions by other parties through research and teaching/training activities. This paper describes an investigation of the feasibility of quantifying the carbon brainprint, through six case studies. The potential brainprint of higher education institutes is shown to be significant: up to 500 kt CO2e/year for one project. The most difficult aspect is attributing the brainprint among multiple participants in joint projects.; The Carbon Brainprint project was supported by the Higher Education Funding Council for England (HEFCE) under its Leading Sustainable Development in Higher Education programme...

Expanding the Life Cycle Analysis Boundaries for Corn-based Ethanol to Include Land-Use Change: Implications for Greenhouse Gas Emissions

Bolcar, Kathleen
Fonte: Universidade Duke Publicador: Universidade Duke
Tipo: Masters' project Formato: 94700 bytes; application/pdf
Relevância na Pesquisa
86.25%
Current life cycle analyses of corn-based ethanol assume that CO2 fluxes from soils are negligible. This paper asks if it is necessary to include this flux for corn grown on lands previously enrolled in the Conservation Reserve Program. The analysis shows that CO2 fluxes from soils is indeed an important variable to consider when determining the overall impact of corn-based ethanol on greenhouse gas emissions.

Inventários corporativos de gases de efeito estufa: métodos e usos; Corporate greenhouse gas emissions inventories: methods and uses; Corporate greenhouse gas emissions inventories: methods and uses

Brasil, Gutemberg Hespanha; UFES; De Souza Junior, Paulo Antônio; INPE; De Carvalho Junior, João Andrade; UNESP
Fonte: Universidade Federal Fluminense - LATEC Publicador: Universidade Federal Fluminense - LATEC
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; ; ; ; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 29/05/2009 POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
96.62%
Inventários corporativos de emissões de gases causadores do efeito estufa, bem como deestoques de carbono em biomassa, contém informações importantes para os tomadores dedecisão de grandes empresas no apoio à formulação de políticas em relação às mudançasclimáticas. Apresenta-se aqui uma metodologia de cálculo das emissões de processos eserviços, incluindo também estimativas de incertezas associadas. Discute-se a importânciapara a empresa no conhecimento dessas incertezas.; Corporate inventories of greenhouse gas emissions, as well as the biomass stock, containrelevant information for the decision makers at the private sector to support their policiesrelated to climate change. A methodology for the calculation of emissions from processesand services is presented. This methodology includes the expressions of uncertaintiesassociated to the calculation of greenhouse gas emissions. The importance of theknowledge of these uncertainties is also discussed.; Corporate inventories of greenhouse gas emissions, as well as the biomass stock, containrelevant information for the decision makers at the private sector to support their policiesrelated to climate change. A methodology for the calculation of emissions from processesand services is presented. This methodology includes the expressions of uncertaintiesassociated to the calculation of greenhouse gas emissions. The importance of theknowledge of these uncertainties is also discussed.

Greenhouse gas emissions from shale gas and coal for electricity generation in South Africa

Cohen,Brett; Winkler,Harald
Fonte: South African Journal of Science Publicador: South African Journal of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/02/2014 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
96.6%
There is increased interest, both in South Africa and globally, in the use of shale gas for electricity and energy supply. The exploitation of shale gas is, however, not without controversy, because of the reported environmental impacts associated with its extraction. The focus of this article is on the greenhouse gas footprint of shale gas, which some literature suggests may be higher than what would have been expected as a consequence of the contribution of fugitive emissions during extraction, processing and transport. Based on some studies, it has been suggested that life-cycle emissions may be higher than those from coal-fired power. Here we review a number of studies and analyse the data to provide a view of the likely greenhouse gas emissions from producing electricity from shale gas, and compare these emissions to those of coal-fired power in South Africa. Consideration was given to critical assumptions that determine the relative performance of the two sources of feedstock for generating electricity - that is the global warming potential of methane and the extent of fugitive emissions. The present analysis suggests that a 100-year time horizon is appropriate in analysis related to climate change, over which period the relative contribution is lower than for shorter periods. The purpose is to limit temperature increase in the long term and the choice of metric should be appropriate. The analysis indicates that...