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From Growth to Green Growth : A Framework

Hallegatte, Stephane; Heal, Geoffrey; Fay, Marianne; Treguer, David
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.17%
Green growth is about making growth processes resource-efficient, cleaner and more resilient without necessarily slowing them. This paper aims at clarifying these concepts in an analytical framework and at proposing foundations for green growth. The green growth approach proposed here is based on (1) focusing on what needs to happen over the next 5-10 years before the world gets locked into patterns that would be prohibitively expensive and complex to modify and (2) reconciling the short and the long term, by offsetting short-term costs and maximizing synergies and economic co-benefits. This, in turn, increases the social and political acceptability of environmental policies. This framework identifies channels through which green policies can potentially contribute to economic growth. However, only detailed country- and context-specific analyses for each of these channels could reach firm conclusion regarding their actual impact on growth. Finally, the paper discusses the policies that can be implemented to capture these co-benefits and environmental benefits. Since green growth policies pursue a variety of goals...

"Green Growth" : An Exploratory Review

Toman, Michael
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.12%
The concept of "Green Growth" is a focus of much interest and considerable debate among decision makers concerned with enhancing both nearer-term economic progress and longer-term environmental sustainability. Proponents of Green Growth emphasize not only the need to protect various forms of natural capital to sustain improvements in material living standards and poverty reduction, but also the potential for strategically crafted environmental policies to achieve sustainability at low cost, perhaps even to help stimulate growth. However, there has been so far relatively little exploration of the analytical underpinnings of Green Growth, or its ambiguities. An exploratory investigation of the goals and underlying assumptions embedded in various conceptions of Green Growth facilitates consideration of how they might be interpreted vis-à-vis standard principles of intertemporal economic efficiency, including the value of the environment. Several plausible potential channels are identified for how synergy between economic growth and environmental sustainability might be more extensive than implied by standard economic theory. However, it is not possible to address their practical significance without more empirical research than is currently available. Consequently...

Is Green Growth Good for the Poor?

Dercon, Stefan
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.17%
The developing world is experiencing substantial environmental change, and climate change is likely to accelerate these processes in the coming decades. Due to their initial poverty, and their relatively high dependence on environmental capital for their livelihoods, the poor are likely to suffer most due to their low resources for mitigation and investment in adaptation. Economic growth is essential for any large-scale poverty reduction. Green growth, a growth process that is sensitive to environmental and climate change concerns, is often seen to be particularly helpful in this respect, leading to a win-win in growth and poverty reduction terms, with additional gains for the cause of greening the planet and avoiding further disastrous environmental change. This paper argues that such a view ignores important trade-offs in the nature of "green growth" strategies, stemming from a poor understanding of the sector and spatial processes behind effective poverty reduction. High labor intensity, declining shares of agriculture in gross domestic product and employment...

Green Growth : Lessons from Growth Theory

Withagen, Cees; Smulders, Sjak
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.09%
This paper reviews dynamic general equilibrium models in order to collect insights on the interaction between economic growth and environmental issues. The authors discuss the Ramsey model and extend it for natural resource inputs and pollution, as well as for endogenous technical change. Green growth becomes within reach if there is good substitution, a clean backstop technology, a small share of natural resources in gross domestic product, and/or green directed technical change.

International Trade and Green Growth

Copeland, Brian R.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.94%
This paper reviews the challenges and opportunities raised by international trade for developing countries considering a green growth strategy. A key concern is the effect of environmental policies on international competitiveness. For production-generated pollution, there is evidence that stringent environmental policy reduces some indicators of competitiveness, but the effect is small in most sectors. However, tightening up environmental standards is unlikely to reduce international competitiveness when pollution is generated by consumption. And where depletion of natural capital is a threat, effective environmental policy is an important component of a policy aimed at developing long-run international competitiveness. The effects of trade on environmental policy, the interaction between trade and technology transfer, and the interaction between trade and transboundary environmental problems are also reviewed. An emerging issue is the potential use of border taxes to curtail carbon leakage. The paper discusses some of the possible responses by developing countries. Some work has indicated that export taxes or voluntary export restraints applied to carbon-intensive production in non-coalition countries may be preferable to a carbon tariff regime. The paper concludes by suggesting some topics for further research.

The Role of Technological Change in Green Growth

Popp, David
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.94%
By reducing the costs of environmental protection, technological change is important for promoting green growth. This entails both the creation of new technologies and more widespread deployment of existing green technologies. This paper reviews the literature on environmentally friendly technological change, with a focus on lessons relevant to developing countries. It begins with a discussion of the data available for measuring the various steps of technological change. It continues with a discussion of sources of environmental innovation. Given that most innovation is concentrated in a few rich countries, this leads to a discussion of the remaining role for lower-income countries, followed by a discussion of technology transfer. Because of the importance of market failures, the paper discusses the role of both technology policy and environmental policy for promoting environmentally friendly technological change. The review concludes with a discussion of what environmental economists can learn from other fields.

Psychology and Behavioral Economics Lessons for the Design of a Green Growth Strategy

Weber, Elke U.; Johnson, Eric J.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.03%
A green growth agenda requires policy makers, from local to supranational levels, to examine and influence behavior that impacts economic, social, and environmental outcomes on multiple scales. Behavioral and social change, in addition or conjunction with technological change, is thus a crucial component of any green growth strategy. A better understanding of how and why people consume, preserve, or exploit resources or otherwise make choices that collectively impact the environment has important and far-reaching consequences for the predictive accuracy of more sophisticated models, both of future states of the world and of the likely impact of different growth strategies and potential risk management strategies. The prevailing characterization of human decision making in policy circles is a rational economic one. Reliance on the assumptions of rational choice excludes from consideration a wide range of factors that affect how people make decisions and therefore need to be considered in predictions of human reactions to environmental conditions or proposed policy initiatives. In addition...

Tools for Assessing the Costs and Benefits of Green Growth : The U.S. and Mexico

Harrington, Winston; Morgenstern, Richard; Velez-Lopez, Daniel
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.87%
This paper examines the processes used in the United States and Mexico to assess the economic costs and benefits of environmental improvement, the kinds of information obtained from these procedures, and the additional knowledge that is needed about both elements to improve understanding of the problems and prospects of advancing a green growth agenda. Because environmental and other development needs are large and resources are limited, it is important to choose the best projects, those with the highest returns on both public investments and private resources harnessed by regulation. The United States is well-established as a world leader in the use of quantitative methods to evaluate options for environmental regulation and policy. Mexico represents a case where a developing country has made clear advances in reforming its economy and in introducing transparency in its regulatory processes for environmental and other policy areas.

The Cost of Adjustment to Green Growth Policies : Lessons from Trade Adjustment Costs

Porto, Guido
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.13%
Green growth policies confront firms and workers with adjustments that may create welfare costs for different segments of the population and cause reductions in near-term actual versus potential gross domestic product. There is little evidence on the cost of adjustment to climate change measures, and only limited evidence for more general environmental policies, especially in developing countries. Therefore, this paper canvasses the research on adjustment costs to trade policies to draw analogies and highlight differences compared with the potential impacts of green growth policies. Trade policies affect prices and work directly on technology choice. In the presence of adjustment costs, firms may experience impacts on wages, employment, and incentives to adopt alternative technologies. Both types of trade policy impacts may be amplified by technology availability and credit constraints. Many green growth policies are likely to work via the same mechanisms, that is, taxes on emissions or changes in technology requirements. However...

Is Green Growth Good for the Poor?

Dercon Stefan
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.14%
The developing world is experiencing substantial environmental change, and climate change is likely to accelerate these processes in the coming decades. Due to their initial poverty and their relatively high dependence on environmental capital for their livelihoods, the poor are likely to suffer most due to their low resources for mitigation and investment in adaptation. Economic growth is essential for any large-scale poverty reduction. Green growth, a growth process that is sensitive to environmental and climate change concerns, can be particularly helpful in this respect. We focus on the possible trade-offs between the greening of growth and poverty reduction, and we highlight the sectoral and spatial processes behind effective poverty reduction. High labor intensity, declining shares of agriculture in GDP and employment, migration, and urbanization are essential features of poverty-reducing growth. We contrast some common and stylized green-sensitive growth ideas related to agriculture, trade, technology...

Romania Climate Change and Low Carbon Green Growth Program

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Relatório
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.05%
This report has been prepared by the World Bank for the Government of Romania as an output of the World Bank advisory services program on climate change and low-carbon green growth in Romania. In response to the request, the World Bank quickly mobilized a team of sectoral and climate change (CC) specialists and conducted rapid assessments in six sectors - energy, transport, urban, water, agriculture, and forestry, which were pre-identified by both the Government of Romania and the World Bank as areas significant to emission mitigation and or adaptation to CC. The objective of rapid assessments was to quickly evaluate climate risks and identify CC-related investment priorities and necessary implementation support for the 2014-2020 operational programs. This document is the stocktaking report of component A1. It provides an introductory cover to the literature on CC, baseline for Romania, institutional review of Romania and key European Union (EU) requirements, as well as available data sets that were identified in the given short-time span. Its purpose is to support the government as a first stock of key climate and green growth issues for Romania and summarize the current situation. The report is structured as follows: section one gives introduction...

Inclusive Green Growth in Latin America and the Caribbean; Crecimiento verde inclusivo en America Latina y el Caribe Crescimento inclusivo verde na America Latina e no Caribe

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.93%
Argentina has expanded the use of its portion of the Parana-Paraguay waterways system for the transportation of soy and other bulk commodities through an innovative tolling system that self-finances the dredging and maintenance of the rivers. Brazil, in turn, is pursuing a 'green trucking' strategy to improve efficiency of its cargo haulage industry, reduce petroleum usage, and curb pollution from trucking. For the entire hemisphere, the expansion of the Panama Canal will bring post-Panama vessels and introduce greater scale economies in shipping. The following sections of this paper provide a more detailed review of the sectoral objectives, challenges, and way forward in making Latin America and Caribbean (LAC) growth greener and more inclusive. It looks back over the achievements of the demand sectors of urban development and infrastructure services, energy, urban transport, and water and sanitation, as well as natural resources and rural development since Rio 1992. It highlights the achievements in those areas...

FYR Macedonia Green Growth Country Assessment

World Bank Group
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Environmental Study; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.21%
This green growth country assessment for Former Yugoslav Republic (FYR) Macedonia aims to define the outlines of a green growth path and the initial steps along that path. According to the World Bank's recent flagship report, green growth is 'growth that is efficient in its use of natural resources, clean in that it minimizes pollution and environmental impacts, and resilient in that it accounts for natural hazards and the role of environmental management and natural capital in preventing physical disasters.' While most countries might agree that such growth is a worthy goal, determining what a green growth path might mean for a particular country is a significant challenge. Green growth can be defined more precisely, as economic growth with more sustainable use of natural resources (minerals, water and clean air, and biodiversity), with proper consideration of mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions; with attention to adaptation to a changing climate; and with more focus on innovation and green jobs to enhance benefits flowing from the technological innovation and new industries spurred by a shift to green growth. This report takes a practical approach to identifying specific challenges and opportunities FYR Macedonia faces in building its green growth future and to present them in a form useful for decision makers. The report will address mitigation...

Inclusive Green Growth : The Pathway to Sustainable Development

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.07%
As the global population heads toward 9 billion by 2050, decisions made today will lock countries into growth patterns that may or may not be sustainable in the future. Care must be taken to ensure that cities and roads, factories and farms are designed, managed, and regulated as efficiently as possible to wisely use natural resources while supporting the robust growth developing countries still need. Economic development during the next two decades cannot mirror the previous two: poverty reduction remains urgent but growth and equity can be pursued without relying on policies and practices that foul the air, water, and land. Inclusive Green Growth: The Pathway to Sustainable Development makes the case that greening growth is necessary, efficient, and affordable. Yet spurring growth without ensuring equity will thwart efforts to reduce poverty and improve access to health, education, and infrastructure services. Countries must make strategic investments and farsighted policy changes that acknowledge natural resource constraints and enable the world's poorest and most vulnerable to benefit from efficient, clean, and resilient growth. Like other forms of capital, natural assets are limited and require accounting, investment, and maintenance in order to be properly harnessed and deployed. By maximizing co-benefits and avoiding lock-in...

Turkey Green Growth Policy Paper : Towards a Greener Economy

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Policy Note; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.02%
The report is organized in seven chapters. Following the introductory chapter, chapter two sets the stage by reviewing the structure of Turkey's economy and its performance, as well as the challenges and opportunities provided by Turkey's current growth path from implementing a 'green agenda' linked to achieving standards set by European Union (EU) Directives and Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) principles; this is followed by a review of where Turkey stands compared to developed and emerging economies, in terms of what is broadly understood as a comprehensive approach to green growth. Chapter three uses a narrower, more operational, definition of green growth for the purposes of the analysis undertaken in the policy note. Chapter four presents an assessment of the seven strategic sectors selected for a more focused analysis. It also highlights the greening potential within these sectors. Chapter five reviews the range of policy instruments available in the European Union (EU) and other emerging international experiences...

Impact of Behavioral Issues on Green Growth Policies and Weather-Related Disaster Reduction in Developing Countries

Kunreuther, Howard; Michel-Kerjan, Erwann
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.9%
This paper focuses on how developing countries can change the way they prepare for disasters so they are better equipped to sustain economic growth. It discusses the importance of considering the goals of key decision makers and the need to understand the perceptions, systematics biases, and heuristics used by the relevant interested parties (the affected public, private and public sector organizations, and nongovernmental organizations) in choosing between alternatives. The paper highlights the importance of undertaking benefit-cost analysis to evaluate disaster risk reduction measures, recognizing that decision makers might not make meaningful use of this policy tool given their behavioral biases and simplified heuristics. To address these issues, the authors propose green growth strategies that involve multi-year contracts coupled with short-term incentives that have a chance of being implemented. The strategies focus on the role of multi-year micro-insurance, long-term loans, and multi-year catastrophe bonds that reflect the institutional arrangements in the developing country. The paper illustrates this proposal in the case of farmers' agricultural practices and investment decisions that reduce losses to property from catastrophic disasters such as drought.

Note on Green Growth for Bhutan

Narain, Urvashi; Toman, Michael; Jiang, Zhiyun
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Policy Note
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.13%
Bhutan has recently made significant progress in sustaining economic growth and reducing poverty. Bhutan also has valuable deposits of primary materials including dolomite, lime stone, gypsum, quartzite, stone, and marble, which are useful for fabrication of other materials. Thus, a significant part of Bhutan's current and prospective economic gains come from use of natural resources called, green sectors. The basic message in this note is that Bhutan starts from a solid base in terms of green growth, with additional opportunities for meeting its development goals and overcoming the above mentioned challenges on the basis of its natural resource endowment. However, realizing those opportunities and meeting those challenges will require focusing on the economic contribution from sustainable use of those natural resources, in addition to conservation of the environment. It will also require complementary measures, using the economic surplus (or as economists refer to it, rent) from sustainable natural resource use to help diversify economic activity and address institutional and other constraints. A more comprehensive view of green growth emphasizes sustainable use of natural capital...

Harnessing the Potential for Green Growth in Kuwait

Al-Ahmad, Mohammed; Dimashki, Marwan; Al-Duaij, Samia; Roundell, Tom
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Brief; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.01%
Like many countries in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region, Kuwait faces considerable environmental challenges due to air pollution, increasingly scarce water resources and deteriorating arable land. As the problems associated with climate change intensify, governments and countries need to respond with more creative and wide ranging policy responses in order to safeguard the standards of living for future generations. While the challenges faced by countries like Kuwait are formidable, they also present an exciting opportunity for diversifying an oil based economy through green growth initiatives. Part of the motivation behind the World Bank's cost of environmental degradation report prepared in partnership between the World Bank and the Environment Public Authority (EPA) in Kuwait is to highlight the path to efficient resource allocation by properly costing the externalities that affect the economy. By using the tools of economics to analyze the impacts of environmental degradation and climate change...

The Green Growth Movement in the Republic of Korea; Option or Necessity?

Choi, Sang Dae
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Brief; Publications & Research :: Brief; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.17%
To achieve the new national development vision, Korean leadership took a strategic approach in which the government played an active role, similar to the visionary approach used to achieve rapid economic development in the 1960s and 1970s. The government established a legal framework on low carbon and green growth, set up a governance structure to implement green growth initiatives systematically, and established fiscal policies and budget resources to support the initiatives firmly. The purpose of this note is primarily to explain why Korea adopted a green growth strategy as a new national development paradigm and how it was implemented by the government. Section one gives overview; section two illustrates why green growth was a necessity in Korea; section three describes how green growth was implemented by the Korean government, particularly with respect to institutional arrangements and fiscal adjustments for green growth; section four presents the key outcomes thus far; and section five identifies lessons that can be applied in other countries.

The internationalisation of green technologies and the realisation of green growth

Carvalho, Maria
Fonte: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis Publicador: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis
Tipo: Thesis; NonPeerReviewed Formato: text
Publicado em 28/04/2015 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.18%
This thesis investigates how the ‘spatialisation’ of green technologies influences opportunities to realise green growth from different industrial activities – an aspect of green growth which is currently underrepresented in the literature. The research compiles various datasets representing world-wide indicators of innovation and manufacturing, as well as interviews with researchers and industrial actors in different economies, to investigate the spatialisation of solar photovoltaic (PV) industries. The overarching purpose is to examine whether domestic economies need both innovation and manufacturing in order to supply green technologies. The thesis comprises of four standalone chapters (Chapter 2 to 5) that explore this question by applying evolutionary economic geography (EEG) theory on the concept of green growth. The first chapter (Chapter 2) develops a conceptual framework on how the spatialisation of technologies affects the composition of industrial activities in various economies. It argues the localisation of green innovation enables economies to be resilient to the loss in manufacturing. The second chapter (Chapter 3) demonstrates that both ‘first-mover’ and ‘late-comer’ economies contribute towards solar PV innovation...