Esta tese avalia o ordenamento territorial urbano no planejamento da metrópole do Rio de Janeiro e de sua região de influência. O ordenamento territorial implica estabelecer conexões complexas e por vezes inusitadas. Envolto em numerosos conflitos políticos, o ordenamento territorial urbano carioca conjuga o impasse entre as expectativas da sociedade quanto ao acesso aos bens e serviços urbanos e o anacronismo dos instrumentos jurídicos, administrativos e normativos. A cidade do Rio de Janeiro, outrora capital federal (1834 a 1960), Estado da Guanabara (1960 a 1975) e, atualmente, capital do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (a partir de 1975), adquiriu numerosas peculiaridades no ordenamento de seu território. As dificuldades em estabelecer uma estrutura de planejamento urbano e regional, assim como as intervenções localizadas de elevado custo resultaram num espaço bastante segmentado e suscetível aos conflitos sociais e territoriais impeditivos para políticas públicas integradas em toda região metropolitana. A estruturação do espaço urbano carioca caracterizou-se por intensos conflitos oriundos da complexa estrutura interna de poderes sobrepostos; um conjunto de legislações urbanísticas excludentes, ineficazes no que se refere à justiça social; a intensa presença do governo federal em políticas locais; ineficiente estrutura organizativa e administrativa dos órgãos de planejamento do governo; distanciamento dos planos e programas da realidade dinâmica das relações sociais estabelecidas e principalmente pela descontinuidade das ações e políticas urbanas. Há que se considerar que hoje o ordenamento territorial deixou de ser apenas uma incumbência de um único representante político o intervir sobre o território. De modo conflituoso a proposta do ordenamento territorial vem se tornando um tema político importante ao se confrontar com o quadro de crise que se estabeleceu entre as formas e sistemas de governos centralizadores...
The Cities for Climate ProtectionTM (CCP) campaign is a voluntary environmental program for municipalities, which is increasingly being applied around the world by local governments taking action on climate change. This thesis investigates the reasons for adoption, barriers and drivers of implementation, and potential outcomes of municipal CCP implementation, through case studies of six communities in New England and Eastern Canada, at different implementation levels of the CCP program. Three actors from each case were interviewed and their responses analyzed to identify patterns, common themes and any differences based on implementation level. Major findings include the importance of an internal champion for adoption and implementation, and the significance of education and issue framing for increased implementation. Interviewees mainly observed social outcomes, including increased awareness and climate change institutionalization within municipal government operations. Based on the study, recommendations for policy and program development are provided to more effectively engage municipalities in local climate action within the New England and Eastern Canadian region. Keywords: climate change, municipalities, local government, cities for climate protection...
This thesis examines the planning process for a major expansion project in the Port of Rotterdam, the Netherlands (Maasvlakte 2), as a case study of mutual gains-oriented consensus building and interactive problem solving. After years of formal negotiations between a broad range of local, regional, and national stakeholders, the project planning came to an impasse when environmental organizations and port expansion proponents could not reconcile their positions on if and under what conditions the port should be extended. I posit that at this critical juncture certain environmental organizations took an uncharacteristically proactive role in altering the relationships between stakeholders in a way that was crucial to the ultimate achievement of a consensus among them. The case demonstrates how actors other than those who are formally responsible for structuring negotiations can profoundly influence them so as to promote a sense of interdependence and shared vision among even the seemingly most oppositional factions. This conclusion supports the assertion by network theorists that in the modern era effective planning and policy formulation cannot be achieved solely through government decision-making.; (cont.) Instead, they must rely upon more deliberative processes that incorporate a wider range of actors. Based upon this analysis...
(cont.) In addition, this paper will propose new technology policies for Korea in order to secure its position as a leader in the information technology (IT) industry, particularly in the context of its relationships with Japan and China. Lastly, this study recommends that the Korean government foster entrepreneurs to create novel global IT businesses and keep pace with the United States regarding technology development and learn from Japan regarding globalization experiences. This study also suggests that the Korean government focus its research and development (R&D) funds on making electronic materials to enhance competitiveness of domestic IT companies.; In Korea, as in many developing countries, government has played a major role in leading technological development. The technology policies of this government have been aiming to increase the competitiveness of local companies. However, as the new trade system represented by the World Trade Organization (WTO) emerged and Korean companies quickly grew, the Korean government had difficulties in keeping pace. Furthermore, the government began to feel a mismatch between its technology policies and the demands of private companies. For example, in the past, Korean companies had asked the government to make a new exclusive market for their initial products through governmental procurement. However...
(Bibliography) Includes bibliographical references.; (Statement of Responsibility) Subcommittee on Domestic and International Scientific Planning and Analysis of the Committee on Science and Technology, U.S. House of Representatives, Ninety-fourth Congress, secondsession.
The South Australian system is currently undergoing a major review. Officially this is prompted by the need to adapt the system to allow implementation of the 30-Year Plan issued in 2010. In fact the system has been subject to repeated revisions since 2005 with changes to both the organisation of state government planning responsibilities via departmental restructuring, policy shifts, which have emphasised metropolitan-wide strategic planning at the expense of local concerns and attempts to streamline the system and reduce delays. A further focus for the current review is a refreshed approach to public consultation and involvement. The paper begins by documenting the reforms which have taken place over the period 2005–2013 set in the context of the major review which took place in 1991, and provided the framework of both policy and regulation for the next two decades. It then examines the drivers of the current review and speculates on the likely outcomes in the light of international and Australian trends in spatial and land-use planning reform.; Jon Kellett
This public expenditure review (PER)
provides an assessment of the extent to which expenditure
addresses national priorities in an effort to strengthen the
link between government policies, planning, and budgeting.
This report is prepared to provide a critical assessment of
public spending, challenges, weaknesses, and successes in
the past three years (2009 to 2012). The report subsequently
informs current and future expenditure through policies that
influence budget decisions. It links public expenditure to
performance of key sectors in the economy for the three year
period; while giving policy and performance outlook focusing
on the implementation of the constitution of Kenya 2010 in
general and devolution in particular. This report gives an
outline on sector performance of programs and reviews
expenditures for the period. It provides recommendations to
improve implementation of the budget in terms of efficiency,
effectiveness, timeliness, and target for better service
delivery. This report accentuates the institutional reforms
underpinned in the constitution of Kenya 2010 and explores
the opportunities to catalyze Kenya's growth as
envisaged in the economic blue print...
National development planning is seen as
an important tool of economic development, and in Brazil,
the 1988 Constitution, includes the "Plano Plurianual
de Acao - PPA" (i.e., multi-year development planning),
together with the Law of Budget Directives, and the annual
budget laws, as part of a set of legal instruments for
fiscal, and public expenditure management. Its main role is
to provide the government with strategic guidelines for the
allocation of public resources, to improve efficiency, and
ultimately achieve a higher level of development. To
summarize, Brazil's PPA is a unique attempt to use
techniques of planning, transform the Brazilian Federal
bureaucracy into a modern, results-oriented entity, and
effectively provide public goods and services as demanded by
its citizens. Its goals of revamping the state's
capacity to instill a culture of entrepreneurial management
in the public sector, are ambitious; yet, its approach to
implementation is advisedly cautious. Its conceptual design
is built explicitly on experiences form the previous PPA...
This Country Financial Accountability
Assessment (CFAA) is also a "fiduciary"
assessment, given it examines Brazil's Public Financial
Management system, to form a judgment on the risk to Bank,
and country funds within the Brazilian budget, and the level
of accountability and transparency concerning such spending.
Moreover, this CFAA will feed into the Bank's lending
program, in particular a second Fiscal Reform and Structural
Adjustment Loans in FY03. Partly reflecting the lack of a
Public Expenditure Review, this CFAA also focuses on
upstream budget development issues, including linkages with
the government planning systems, as well as downstream
budget execution issues. The Brazilian Government appears
strongly committed to improving its public financial
management, in particular, two major initiatives have been
recently undertaken, which significantly impacts on public
financial management: a) the Multi-Annual Plan for 2000-2003
adopted a new approach, aimed at improving resource
allocation through a program-based approach covering all
This report reviews two facets of
decentralization currently engaging policy-makers: 1) the
sources of financing under decentralization, and, 2)
cross-cutting processes to strengthen the accountability of
resource use. It does not assess whether decentralization is
justified in the Philippines - it approaches the
arrangements as they exist, and explicitly focuses on
actions that could be feasibly completed within six to nine
months. Administrative actions in two key areas could
improve local government performance in the short term: a)
enhancing LGU - Local Government Unit - ability and capacity
to access resources, and, (b) strengthening key resource
management processes in the first instance, those relating
to planning, budgeting, procurement and financial
management. The report's recommendations stem from five
main issues: raising LGU access to credit by private
financial institutions (PFIs) requires removing bottlenecks
to PFI participation in LGU lending, and rationalizing LGU
grant policies; local government own-source revenues could
be significantly increased through LGU measures to increase
collection of real property tax and business tax...
Research on two innovative developments in the Mountain West region of the United States validates an argument by Donald Schon that effective "coordination of conflicting frames" represents a "more promising line of attack" on the numerous issues that challenge land planners and developers. This process, which Lester and Piore call "interpretation," moves beyond mere "problem setting and solving" to make space for the occurrence of novelty, or innovation. These innovative responses to problems may not guarantee ideal solutions, but stand the chance of allowing for important improvements. Specifically, the case histories suggest that the interpretive process arises because the developments' proponents, either out of necessity or by design, embraced a more open-ended planning process and commitment to broader collaboration than typically seen in land planning and development. Not surprisingly, these points confirm that novel ideas in land planning and development come about for largely the same reasons that they do in any endeavor.; (cont.) However, because of significant constraints on alternative land use patterns from both the supply and demand sides of the market, as well as from the government, the implementation of innovation in land planning and development depends upon the advocacy of a community devoted to it. Such communities are born from Lester and Piore's process of interpretation...
Today, many communities located on the periphery of central cities confront traditionally "urban" problems. Detroit's inner suburbs struggle with aging infrastructure, limited governmental capacity, commercial disinvestment, population decline, poverty, failing schools, and racial and ethnic tensions. These challenges are compounded by growing fiscal difficulties fueled by shrinking revenues and increasing costs. This thesis asks what strategies an inner suburban government facing population decline, economic disinvestment, and fiscal constraints can use to retain local vibrancy. Focusing on three inner suburban communities, I describe how metro Detroit local governments are attempting to: redefine their community's identity; provide "good government" for residents; facilitate redevelopment; wage promotional campaigns; engage in inter-jurisdictional collaboration; and attempt annexation. I conclude that local government intervention can be a powerful catalyst for positive change in inner suburbs but that structural constraints limit success.; by Amy J. Kohn.; Thesis (M.C.P.)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Dept. of Urban Studies and Planning, 2005.; Includes bibliographical references (p. 131-138).
The loss of forests in Vietnam encouraged central government policy makers to consider new ways to manage forest resources. A major forest policy shift -- moving away from state-led management -- began in earnest in pilot provinces in 1998, with the handing over of forest land and management responsibility to communities. The initial outcomes of this switch and the policy learning that took place as a result of experimentation with community forestry are examined. I show that learning from and sharing these experiences contributed to policy-oriented learning and influenced the formulation of new policy. I review how lessons learned from the field (e.g. local experimentation, project learning and bottom-up planning) can redefine national forest policy priorities. I present preliminary lessons from adaptation of methods of forest land allocation, forest protection regulations and community forest management planning. I share experiences from pilot provinces where, with the involvement of policy innovators (local and external), the results led to the development of an enabling legal framework for community forestry, in the new Land Law and Forest Law. This dissertation suggests how learning from experiments can lead to better policy options in developing countries.; (cont.) I explore the critical roles that development of methodologies (combined with networking and training) play in advancing the lessons learned from the district and province levels in two directions - first...
Government decision-makers and especially urban planners increasingly face difficulties engaging citizens given trends of public apathy, cynicism towards government, language and cultural barriers, and the growing complexity of government bureaucracy. As municipal governments increasingly focus on the long-term engagement of citizens, particularly special interest, advocacy, and community organizations, a key dilemma is how to create an on-going process for training stakeholders to participate in consultation and conflict resolution efforts. Many individuals and interest groups are ill prepared for participation in public planning processes and do not understand how municipal government functions, the key dilemmas it faces, or the urban planning concepts and procedures that shape economic, social and physical life. Likewise, many planners are not trained to understand and integrate "local knowledge" --the specific expertise and on-the-ground information brought by local citizens--with technical information and bureaucratic processes. As a result, communication with the public is often constrained as citizens perceive government as a "black box" that is unapproachable.; (cont.) To address these challenges there is a growing trend among municipal governments to conduct citizen academies. These efforts to educate the public on the basic functions of municipal government...
This dissertation examines the validity of what Prof. Noam Chomsky has referred to as the central role of the dynamic, entrepreneurial state sector in economic development. Through an examination of the role that government at three levels-local, state, and federal-has played in the locational decisions of firms in Cambridge's biotechnology industry, the impact of the state sector in the evolution of a critically important knowledge-intensive industry is explored. Interviews, surveys, and geographical analysis were conducted to evaluate the author's hypothesis. The answer demonstrated by the evidence presented herein is that the success of the Cambridge biotechnology cluster is indeed the outcome of a distinct set of local, state and federal government policy choices.; by Michael Sankofa Sable ...; Thesis (Ph. D.)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Dept. of Urban Studies and Planning, 2007.; "September 2007."; Includes bibliographical references (leaves 224-229).
The author will use Gaoming District in the western part of China's Pearl River Delta (PRD) as an opportunity to examine the impact a range of residential densities along planned public transportation corridors can have on the rate and degree of agricultural land conversion in urbanizing areas. The author will use collected field data on the existing densities of old and new residential building construction in Gaoming, Gaoming District's 2004 Master Plan, projected population and economic growth figures from the Gaoming planning Department, and the parameters of land leasing and revenue generation in China as inputs in her analysis. The author will then present scenarios where a range of residential densities is created from variations in the degree of government planning, public transportation investment and land leasing methods. Moreover, the author will present instructions to build an economic model for planners to understand the land valuation process by which private developers bid for land. Lastly, the author will make recommendations to the planners and officials for how they can generate more revenue from land and work towards the sustainable build-out of Gaoming.; by Karen Jia Ying Hu.; Thesis (S.M. and M.C.P.)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology...
Throughout the United States, significant taxpayer capital is unnecessarily tied up in the ownership of state and municipal government buildings. Today, multiple state and municipal governments face record budget deficits, and are struggling to find ways to raise revenues and decrease annual operating costs in order to close these budget gaps. At the same time, substantial amounts of investor capital from both public and institutional funds, as well as private investors, sits idle, as there is a lack of opportunity for safe, moderate-return long-term investments in today's markets. This thesis investigates the benefits and drawbacks to an investment structure, similar to the commonly used corporate sale-leaseback, that can be used to free capital that is tied up in existing government-owned real estate, while allowing governments to retain long-term ownership of these assets. It also presents the methodology for syndicating these investments into rate-able fixed income products, similar to municipal bonds or CMBS. These investments and the associated participation instruments create arbitrage opportunities for underwriters and syndicators of Government Lease Backed investments, and generate capital flows in the tens of billions of dollars. The models presented may be applied to federal...
How and why have ordinary citizens claimed their stake in the process of rebuilding public education in post-Katrina New Orleans, and what are the lessons for planning in post-disaster contexts? This paper investigates civic engagement that emerged "from below" in post-Katrina New Orleans through a case study of the Downtown Neighborhoods Improvement Association (DNIA) Education Committee. Civic engagement from below promotes the powerful idea that citizens can and should be agents of change within public decision-making, and not merely recipients of public services or providers of input in top-down approaches to reform. The case of the DNIA Education Committee reveals three key lessons relevant to civic engagement after a disaster. First, opportunities for collaboration between government and community groups can be easily missed, especially when dynamics of mistrust and unequal power are unaddressed, unless each party believes it is possible and knows how to invent options for collaboration that address their different needs while meeting their shared goals. Second, after a disaster residents may find their very survival intrinsically connected to, and indeed dependent on, how public institutions and infrastructure are rebuilt.; (cont.) With a heightened sense of interconnectedness to their environment and awareness of government's role to protect the common good...
The key premise of the Russian revolutionary movement was the overthrow of the old government and establishment of the new political order under the one party leadership of the Bolsheviks. The political platform of the new government extended well beyond the promise of simple reforms. Its foundation was a vision of an entirely new society governed by a set of new economic mechanisms and social relations. The foundation of the new system rested on the complete socialization of all economic resources and means of production and the creation of the centralized planning system independent of the volatile dynamics of the free market. In this thesis I argue that in their role as the new government of Russia, Bolsheviks simultaneously acted as town planners and as social planners, envisioning the new society and its institutions in every detail and creating a new urban form-the socialist city, and the new citizen-the socialist man. To create this city the Bolsheviks designed a unique tool-they merged their legal right to make policy with their ability to use rhetoric in the form of widespread persuasion, propaganda, indoctrination and force. I define the socialist city as an urban settlement in which the primary from of human existence is the collective life.; (cont.) This city is designed in such a way as to make every space accessible to government control...