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Uma avaliação do ordenamento territorial no processo de planejamento governamental: estudo do Rio de Janeiro; An assessment of the government territorial in the planning process: study of Rio de Janeiro

Amendola, Mônica
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 07/03/2012 PT
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Esta tese avalia o ordenamento territorial urbano no planejamento da metrópole do Rio de Janeiro e de sua região de influência. O ordenamento territorial implica estabelecer conexões complexas e por vezes inusitadas. Envolto em numerosos conflitos políticos, o ordenamento territorial urbano carioca conjuga o impasse entre as expectativas da sociedade quanto ao acesso aos bens e serviços urbanos e o anacronismo dos instrumentos jurídicos, administrativos e normativos. A cidade do Rio de Janeiro, outrora capital federal (1834 a 1960), Estado da Guanabara (1960 a 1975) e, atualmente, capital do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (a partir de 1975), adquiriu numerosas peculiaridades no ordenamento de seu território. As dificuldades em estabelecer uma estrutura de planejamento urbano e regional, assim como as intervenções localizadas de elevado custo resultaram num espaço bastante segmentado e suscetível aos conflitos sociais e territoriais impeditivos para políticas públicas integradas em toda região metropolitana. A estruturação do espaço urbano carioca caracterizou-se por intensos conflitos oriundos da complexa estrutura interna de poderes sobrepostos; um conjunto de legislações urbanísticas excludentes, ineficazes no que se refere à justiça social; a intensa presença do governo federal em políticas locais; ineficiente estrutura organizativa e administrativa dos órgãos de planejamento do governo; distanciamento dos planos e programas da realidade dinâmica das relações sociais estabelecidas e principalmente pela descontinuidade das ações e políticas urbanas. Há que se considerar que hoje o ordenamento territorial deixou de ser apenas uma incumbência de um único representante político o intervir sobre o território. De modo conflituoso a proposta do ordenamento territorial vem se tornando um tema político importante ao se confrontar com o quadro de crise que se estabeleceu entre as formas e sistemas de governos centralizadores...

Local action for the global environment : municipal government participation in a voluntary climate protection program

Ravin, Amelia L., 1977-
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 83 p.; 3648428 bytes; 3758433 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
ENG
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The Cities for Climate ProtectionTM (CCP) campaign is a voluntary environmental program for municipalities, which is increasingly being applied around the world by local governments taking action on climate change. This thesis investigates the reasons for adoption, barriers and drivers of implementation, and potential outcomes of municipal CCP implementation, through case studies of six communities in New England and Eastern Canada, at different implementation levels of the CCP program. Three actors from each case were interviewed and their responses analyzed to identify patterns, common themes and any differences based on implementation level. Major findings include the importance of an internal champion for adoption and implementation, and the significance of education and issue framing for increased implementation. Interviewees mainly observed social outcomes, including increased awareness and climate change institutionalization within municipal government operations. Based on the study, recommendations for policy and program development are provided to more effectively engage municipalities in local climate action within the New England and Eastern Canadian region. Keywords: climate change, municipalities, local government, cities for climate protection...

Toward a more deliberative port planning : the "vision and daring" of environmental NGOs in negotiations on the Second Maasvlakte, Port of Rotterdam, the Netherlands

Kelly, Sarah D. (Sarah Driscoll)
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 92 p.; 5090378 bytes; 5094172 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
ENG
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This thesis examines the planning process for a major expansion project in the Port of Rotterdam, the Netherlands (Maasvlakte 2), as a case study of mutual gains-oriented consensus building and interactive problem solving. After years of formal negotiations between a broad range of local, regional, and national stakeholders, the project planning came to an impasse when environmental organizations and port expansion proponents could not reconcile their positions on if and under what conditions the port should be extended. I posit that at this critical juncture certain environmental organizations took an uncharacteristically proactive role in altering the relationships between stakeholders in a way that was crucial to the ultimate achievement of a consensus among them. The case demonstrates how actors other than those who are formally responsible for structuring negotiations can profoundly influence them so as to promote a sense of interdependence and shared vision among even the seemingly most oppositional factions. This conclusion supports the assertion by network theorists that in the modern era effective planning and policy formulation cannot be achieved solely through government decision-making.; (cont.) Instead, they must rely upon more deliberative processes that incorporate a wider range of actors. Based upon this analysis...

South Korean technology policies for the industrial competitiveness between Japan and China

Lee, Sanghoon, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Dept. of Urban Studies and Planning
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 56 leaves
ENG
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(cont.) In addition, this paper will propose new technology policies for Korea in order to secure its position as a leader in the information technology (IT) industry, particularly in the context of its relationships with Japan and China. Lastly, this study recommends that the Korean government foster entrepreneurs to create novel global IT businesses and keep pace with the United States regarding technology development and learn from Japan regarding globalization experiences. This study also suggests that the Korean government focus its research and development (R&D) funds on making electronic materials to enhance competitiveness of domestic IT companies.; In Korea, as in many developing countries, government has played a major role in leading technological development. The technology policies of this government have been aiming to increase the competitiveness of local companies. However, as the new trade system represented by the World Trade Organization (WTO) emerged and Korean companies quickly grew, the Korean government had difficulties in keeping pace. Furthermore, the government began to feel a mismatch between its technology policies and the demands of private companies. For example, in the past, Korean companies had asked the government to make a new exclusive market for their initial products through governmental procurement. However...

In search of the master builder : government use of design/build contracts

Baxter, Christie I
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 257 leaves
ENG
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by Christie Isabel Baxter.; Thesis (Ph. D.)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Dept. of Urban Studies and Planning, 1990.; Includes bibliographical references (leaves 244-257).

Background materials on government patent policies

United States -- Congress. -- House. -- Committee on Science and Technology. -- Subcommittee on Domestic and International Scientific Planning and Analysis
Fonte: U.S. Govt. Print. Off.; U.S. Govt. Print. Off. ( Washington ) Publicador: U.S. Govt. Print. Off.; U.S. Govt. Print. Off. ( Washington )
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 2 v. : ill. ; 24 cm.
Publicado em //1977 ENGLISH
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(Bibliography) Includes bibliographical references.; (Statement of Responsibility) Subcommittee on Domestic and International Scientific Planning and Analysis of the Committee on Science and Technology, U.S. House of Representatives, Ninety-fourth Congress, secondsession.

Planning reform in South Australia

Kellett, J.
Fonte: Taylor & Francis (Routledge) Publicador: Taylor & Francis (Routledge)
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2014 EN
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The South Australian system is currently undergoing a major review. Officially this is prompted by the need to adapt the system to allow implementation of the 30-Year Plan issued in 2010. In fact the system has been subject to repeated revisions since 2005 with changes to both the organisation of state government planning responsibilities via departmental restructuring, policy shifts, which have emphasised metropolitan-wide strategic planning at the expense of local concerns and attempts to streamline the system and reduce delays. A further focus for the current review is a refreshed approach to public consultation and involvement. The paper begins by documenting the reforms which have taken place over the period 2005–2013 set in the context of the major review which took place in 1991, and provided the framework of both policy and regulation for the next two decades. It then examines the drivers of the current review and speculates on the likely outcomes in the light of international and Australian trends in spatial and land-use planning reform.; Jon Kellett

Comprehensive Public Expenditure Review 2013 : Eye on Budget - Spending for Results; Kenya - Toleo lililorahisishwa uchunguzi wa matumizi ya pesa za umma : tathmini ya bajeti - matumizi yenye matokeo bora

Ministry of Devolution and Planning
Fonte: Government of Kenya, Nairobi Publicador: Government of Kenya, Nairobi
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Public Expenditure Review; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
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This public expenditure review (PER) provides an assessment of the extent to which expenditure addresses national priorities in an effort to strengthen the link between government policies, planning, and budgeting. This report is prepared to provide a critical assessment of public spending, challenges, weaknesses, and successes in the past three years (2009 to 2012). The report subsequently informs current and future expenditure through policies that influence budget decisions. It links public expenditure to performance of key sectors in the economy for the three year period; while giving policy and performance outlook focusing on the implementation of the constitution of Kenya 2010 in general and devolution in particular. This report gives an outline on sector performance of programs and reviews expenditures for the period. It provides recommendations to improve implementation of the budget in terms of efficiency, effectiveness, timeliness, and target for better service delivery. This report accentuates the institutional reforms underpinned in the constitution of Kenya 2010 and explores the opportunities to catalyze Kenya's growth as envisaged in the economic blue print...

Brazil - Planning for Performance in the Federal Government : Review of Pluriannual Planning, Volume 1. Main Report

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Public Expenditure Review; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
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National development planning is seen as an important tool of economic development, and in Brazil, the 1988 Constitution, includes the "Plano Plurianual de Acao - PPA" (i.e., multi-year development planning), together with the Law of Budget Directives, and the annual budget laws, as part of a set of legal instruments for fiscal, and public expenditure management. Its main role is to provide the government with strategic guidelines for the allocation of public resources, to improve efficiency, and ultimately achieve a higher level of development. To summarize, Brazil's PPA is a unique attempt to use techniques of planning, transform the Brazilian Federal bureaucracy into a modern, results-oriented entity, and effectively provide public goods and services as demanded by its citizens. Its goals of revamping the state's capacity to instill a culture of entrepreneurial management in the public sector, are ambitious; yet, its approach to implementation is advisedly cautious. Its conceptual design is built explicitly on experiences form the previous PPA...

Brazil : Country Financial Accountability Assessment

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Country Financial Accountability Assessment; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
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This Country Financial Accountability Assessment (CFAA) is also a "fiduciary" assessment, given it examines Brazil's Public Financial Management system, to form a judgment on the risk to Bank, and country funds within the Brazilian budget, and the level of accountability and transparency concerning such spending. Moreover, this CFAA will feed into the Bank's lending program, in particular a second Fiscal Reform and Structural Adjustment Loans in FY03. Partly reflecting the lack of a Public Expenditure Review, this CFAA also focuses on upstream budget development issues, including linkages with the government planning systems, as well as downstream budget execution issues. The Brazilian Government appears strongly committed to improving its public financial management, in particular, two major initiatives have been recently undertaken, which significantly impacts on public financial management: a) the Multi-Annual Plan for 2000-2003 adopted a new approach, aimed at improving resource allocation through a program-based approach covering all budget expenditures...

Decentralization in the Philippines : Stgrengthening Local Government Financing and Resource Management in the Short Term

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Public Sector Study; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
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This report reviews two facets of decentralization currently engaging policy-makers: 1) the sources of financing under decentralization, and, 2) cross-cutting processes to strengthen the accountability of resource use. It does not assess whether decentralization is justified in the Philippines - it approaches the arrangements as they exist, and explicitly focuses on actions that could be feasibly completed within six to nine months. Administrative actions in two key areas could improve local government performance in the short term: a) enhancing LGU - Local Government Unit - ability and capacity to access resources, and, (b) strengthening key resource management processes in the first instance, those relating to planning, budgeting, procurement and financial management. The report's recommendations stem from five main issues: raising LGU access to credit by private financial institutions (PFIs) requires removing bottlenecks to PFI participation in LGU lending, and rationalizing LGU grant policies; local government own-source revenues could be significantly increased through LGU measures to increase collection of real property tax and business tax...

Between hot opposition and lukewarm support : innovation and community in land planning and development; Innovation and community in land planning and development

Mammen, Taylor G
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 128 p.
ENG
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Research on two innovative developments in the Mountain West region of the United States validates an argument by Donald Schon that effective "coordination of conflicting frames" represents a "more promising line of attack" on the numerous issues that challenge land planners and developers. This process, which Lester and Piore call "interpretation," moves beyond mere "problem setting and solving" to make space for the occurrence of novelty, or innovation. These innovative responses to problems may not guarantee ideal solutions, but stand the chance of allowing for important improvements. Specifically, the case histories suggest that the interpretive process arises because the developments' proponents, either out of necessity or by design, embraced a more open-ended planning process and commitment to broader collaboration than typically seen in land planning and development. Not surprisingly, these points confirm that novel ideas in land planning and development come about for largely the same reasons that they do in any endeavor.; (cont.) However, because of significant constraints on alternative land use patterns from both the supply and demand sides of the market, as well as from the government, the implementation of innovation in land planning and development depends upon the advocacy of a community devoted to it. Such communities are born from Lester and Piore's process of interpretation...

The struggle for vibrancy : a study of local government intervention in Detroit's inner suburbs

Kohn, Amy J. (Amy Jennifer)
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 138 p.; 11970117 bytes; 11975945 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
ENG
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Today, many communities located on the periphery of central cities confront traditionally "urban" problems. Detroit's inner suburbs struggle with aging infrastructure, limited governmental capacity, commercial disinvestment, population decline, poverty, failing schools, and racial and ethnic tensions. These challenges are compounded by growing fiscal difficulties fueled by shrinking revenues and increasing costs. This thesis asks what strategies an inner suburban government facing population decline, economic disinvestment, and fiscal constraints can use to retain local vibrancy. Focusing on three inner suburban communities, I describe how metro Detroit local governments are attempting to: redefine their community's identity; provide "good government" for residents; facilitate redevelopment; wage promotional campaigns; engage in inter-jurisdictional collaboration; and attempt annexation. I conclude that local government intervention can be a powerful catalyst for positive change in inner suburbs but that structural constraints limit success.; by Amy J. Kohn.; Thesis (M.C.P.)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Dept. of Urban Studies and Planning, 2005.; Includes bibliographical references (p. 131-138).

The potential for trickle up : how local actors' experiments influence national forest policy planning

Blockhus, Jill M
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 162 p.
ENG
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The loss of forests in Vietnam encouraged central government policy makers to consider new ways to manage forest resources. A major forest policy shift -- moving away from state-led management -- began in earnest in pilot provinces in 1998, with the handing over of forest land and management responsibility to communities. The initial outcomes of this switch and the policy learning that took place as a result of experimentation with community forestry are examined. I show that learning from and sharing these experiences contributed to policy-oriented learning and influenced the formulation of new policy. I review how lessons learned from the field (e.g. local experimentation, project learning and bottom-up planning) can redefine national forest policy priorities. I present preliminary lessons from adaptation of methods of forest land allocation, forest protection regulations and community forest management planning. I share experiences from pilot provinces where, with the involvement of policy innovators (local and external), the results led to the development of an enabling legal framework for community forestry, in the new Land Law and Forest Law. This dissertation suggests how learning from experiments can lead to better policy options in developing countries.; (cont.) I explore the critical roles that development of methodologies (combined with networking and training) play in advancing the lessons learned from the district and province levels in two directions - first...

Local government citizen academies : is knowledge power?

Marcus, Adam Scott
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 157 p.
ENG
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Government decision-makers and especially urban planners increasingly face difficulties engaging citizens given trends of public apathy, cynicism towards government, language and cultural barriers, and the growing complexity of government bureaucracy. As municipal governments increasingly focus on the long-term engagement of citizens, particularly special interest, advocacy, and community organizations, a key dilemma is how to create an on-going process for training stakeholders to participate in consultation and conflict resolution efforts. Many individuals and interest groups are ill prepared for participation in public planning processes and do not understand how municipal government functions, the key dilemmas it faces, or the urban planning concepts and procedures that shape economic, social and physical life. Likewise, many planners are not trained to understand and integrate "local knowledge" --the specific expertise and on-the-ground information brought by local citizens--with technical information and bureaucratic processes. As a result, communication with the public is often constrained as citizens perceive government as a "black box" that is unapproachable.; (cont.) To address these challenges there is a growing trend among municipal governments to conduct citizen academies. These efforts to educate the public on the basic functions of municipal government...

An analysis of the role of government in the locational decisions of Cambridge biotechnology firms : dissertation submitted

Sable, Michael Sankofa
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 230 leaves
ENG
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This dissertation examines the validity of what Prof. Noam Chomsky has referred to as the central role of the dynamic, entrepreneurial state sector in economic development. Through an examination of the role that government at three levels-local, state, and federal-has played in the locational decisions of firms in Cambridge's biotechnology industry, the impact of the state sector in the evolution of a critically important knowledge-intensive industry is explored. Interviews, surveys, and geographical analysis were conducted to evaluate the author's hypothesis. The answer demonstrated by the evidence presented herein is that the success of the Cambridge biotechnology cluster is indeed the outcome of a distinct set of local, state and federal government policy choices.; by Michael Sankofa Sable ...; Thesis (Ph. D.)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Dept. of Urban Studies and Planning, 2007.; "September 2007."; Includes bibliographical references (leaves 224-229).

Where and how much : density scenarios for the residential build-out of Gaoming, China

Hu, Karen Jia Ying
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 95 p.; 21682453 bytes; 21682250 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
ENG
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The author will use Gaoming District in the western part of China's Pearl River Delta (PRD) as an opportunity to examine the impact a range of residential densities along planned public transportation corridors can have on the rate and degree of agricultural land conversion in urbanizing areas. The author will use collected field data on the existing densities of old and new residential building construction in Gaoming, Gaoming District's 2004 Master Plan, projected population and economic growth figures from the Gaoming planning Department, and the parameters of land leasing and revenue generation in China as inputs in her analysis. The author will then present scenarios where a range of residential densities is created from variations in the degree of government planning, public transportation investment and land leasing methods. Moreover, the author will present instructions to build an economic model for planners to understand the land valuation process by which private developers bid for land. Lastly, the author will make recommendations to the planners and officials for how they can generate more revenue from land and work towards the sustainable build-out of Gaoming.; by Karen Jia Ying Hu.; Thesis (S.M. and M.C.P.)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology...

Master lease & leaseback of government owned real estate : a model for a fixed income investment product; Master lease and leaseback of government owned real estate

Hutchinson, Jeffrey E. (Jeffrey Ernest), 1970-
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 51 leaves; 2376161 bytes; 2375966 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
ENG
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Throughout the United States, significant taxpayer capital is unnecessarily tied up in the ownership of state and municipal government buildings. Today, multiple state and municipal governments face record budget deficits, and are struggling to find ways to raise revenues and decrease annual operating costs in order to close these budget gaps. At the same time, substantial amounts of investor capital from both public and institutional funds, as well as private investors, sits idle, as there is a lack of opportunity for safe, moderate-return long-term investments in today's markets. This thesis investigates the benefits and drawbacks to an investment structure, similar to the commonly used corporate sale-leaseback, that can be used to free capital that is tied up in existing government-owned real estate, while allowing governments to retain long-term ownership of these assets. It also presents the methodology for syndicating these investments into rate-able fixed income products, similar to municipal bonds or CMBS. These investments and the associated participation instruments create arbitrage opportunities for underwriters and syndicators of Government Lease Backed investments, and generate capital flows in the tens of billions of dollars. The models presented may be applied to federal...

Whose city? Whose schools? : a case study of civic engagement and planning "from below" to promote education equity in New Orleans public schools; Civic engagement and planning "from below" to promote education equity in New Orleans public schools

Tahbildar, Dulari
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 68 p.
ENG
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How and why have ordinary citizens claimed their stake in the process of rebuilding public education in post-Katrina New Orleans, and what are the lessons for planning in post-disaster contexts? This paper investigates civic engagement that emerged "from below" in post-Katrina New Orleans through a case study of the Downtown Neighborhoods Improvement Association (DNIA) Education Committee. Civic engagement from below promotes the powerful idea that citizens can and should be agents of change within public decision-making, and not merely recipients of public services or providers of input in top-down approaches to reform. The case of the DNIA Education Committee reveals three key lessons relevant to civic engagement after a disaster. First, opportunities for collaboration between government and community groups can be easily missed, especially when dynamics of mistrust and unequal power are unaddressed, unless each party believes it is possible and knows how to invent options for collaboration that address their different needs while meeting their shared goals. Second, after a disaster residents may find their very survival intrinsically connected to, and indeed dependent on, how public institutions and infrastructure are rebuilt.; (cont.) With a heightened sense of interconnectedness to their environment and awareness of government's role to protect the common good...

Bolshevik era, the extreme case of urban planning

Nilina, Nadya
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 102 leaves
ENG
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The key premise of the Russian revolutionary movement was the overthrow of the old government and establishment of the new political order under the one party leadership of the Bolsheviks. The political platform of the new government extended well beyond the promise of simple reforms. Its foundation was a vision of an entirely new society governed by a set of new economic mechanisms and social relations. The foundation of the new system rested on the complete socialization of all economic resources and means of production and the creation of the centralized planning system independent of the volatile dynamics of the free market. In this thesis I argue that in their role as the new government of Russia, Bolsheviks simultaneously acted as town planners and as social planners, envisioning the new society and its institutions in every detail and creating a new urban form-the socialist city, and the new citizen-the socialist man. To create this city the Bolsheviks designed a unique tool-they merged their legal right to make policy with their ability to use rhetoric in the form of widespread persuasion, propaganda, indoctrination and force. I define the socialist city as an urban settlement in which the primary from of human existence is the collective life.; (cont.) This city is designed in such a way as to make every space accessible to government control...