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Research on aging in Portugal

Oliveira, Catarina Resende
Fonte: Universidade de Coimbra Publicador: Universidade de Coimbra
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: aplication/PDF
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
25.94%
This review presents an analysis of the current state of gerontological and geriatric research in Portugal, and highlights the need for a national consensus and funding for age-related research projects. Such efforts must be multidisciplinary, since the process of aging encompasses biological, psychological, social, economic and cultural aspects.; http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/B6T6J-4471GVK-2/1/2d14e2763e786e0cf89b37ee8fb91cb8

Atividade, desengajamento, modernização : teorias sociológicas clássicas sobre o envelhecimento; Activity, disengagement, modernization: classic sociological theories about aging

Doll, Johannes; Gomes, Ângela; Hollerweger, Leonéia; Pecoits, Rodrigo Monteiro; Almeida, Sionara Tamanini de
Fonte: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul Publicador: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
25.91%
A Gerontologia é um campo abrangente que integra várias disciplinas. Além de teorias psicológicas, foram principalmente as grandes teorias sociológicas dos anos 1940 a 1980 que impulsionaram a pesquisa gerontológica internacional. Apesar de históricas, estas teorias infl uenciam até hoje a pesquisa e, principalmente, o trabalho prático com pessoas idosas. O artigo apresenta e discute o desenvolvimento de três teorias sociológicas do envelhecimento: a teoria da atividade, a teoria do desengajamento e a teoria da modernização.; Gerontology is a wide, interdisciplinary fi eld. Besides the psychological theories, it was mainly the big sociological theories of the 1940s to 1980s that inspired the international gerontological research. Those theories are historical, but they continue to infl uence research and practical work with elderly until now. This article presents and discusses the development of three sociological theories of aging: the activity theory, the disengagement theory and the modernization theory.

Roy Walford and the immunologic theory of aging

Effros, Rita B
Fonte: BioMed Central Publicador: BioMed Central
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 25/04/2005 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.37%
Roy Walford died on April 27, 2004, at the age of 79. His contributions to gerontological research in such diverse areas as caloric restriction, genetics of lifespan, immunosenescence, DNA repair and replicative senescence were truly remarkable in their depth and innovation. Significantly, most of the areas that he pioneered during his illustrious research career remain the "hot" areas of current gerontological research. In this sense, he has achieved the most important type of immortality. His death was a major personal and professional loss to numerous scientists within the gerontological community. In launching this new journal on Immunity and Ageing, it is highly fitting, therefore, to remember him on the anniversary of his death by briefly reviewing the contributions of Roy Walford to this important facet of gerontology. Indeed, it was Roy who actually first coined the commonly used term "immunosenescence".

Awareness of Age-Related Change: Examination of a (Mostly) Unexplored Concept

Diehl, Manfred K.; Wahl, Hans-Werner
Fonte: Oxford University Press Publicador: Oxford University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
25.94%
This theoretical article discusses the emerging concept of awareness of age-related change (AARC). We propose that a focus on AARC extends the research traditions on subjective age experiences and age identity and that examination of this concept can serve a stimulating role in social gerontology. After defining and contrasting AARC against similar concepts, several reasons for the relevance of this mostly unexplored construct are provided. The sample domains of health and physical functioning, cognitive functioning, and interpersonal relations are used to illustrate the relevance of AARC. Based on this review, we then provide a heuristic framework that describes antecedents, processes, and outcomes related to AARC. Overall, we argue that research on AARC should become an integral part of social gerontological research.

Images of Sexuality and Aging in Gerontological Literature

Scherrer, Kristin S.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /12/2009 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.16%
Discursive portrayals of aging and sexuality have important implications for the creation and reproduction of inequalities. This article delineates some of the images of older adults’ sexualities using an interpretive content analysis of gerontology articles dealing with issues of sexuality in 21 gerontological journals over a 20-year span (1988–2007). The 3 main findings of this analysis were (a) that aging sexualities are asserted, (b) that the sexual identities of older adults vary, and (c) that older adults’ sexualities are regulated through a variety of mechanisms. Furthermore, these representations inform research and policy at the intersections of sexuality and aging.

Mixed methods in gerontological research: Do the qualitative and quantitative data “touch”?

Happ, Mary Beth
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 02/04/2009 EN
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46.49%
This paper distinguishes between parallel and integrated mixed methods research approaches. Barriers to integrated mixed methods approaches in gerontological research are discussed and critiqued. The author presents examples of mixed methods gerontological research to illustrate approaches to data integration at the levels of data analysis, interpretation, and research reporting. As a summary of the methodological literature, four basic levels of mixed methods data combination are proposed. Opportunities for mixing qualitative and quantitative data are explored using contemporary examples from published studies. Data transformation and visual display, judiciously applied, are proposed as pathways to fuller mixed methods data integration and analysis. Finally, practical strategies for mixing qualitative and quantitative data types are explicated as gerontological research moves beyond parallel mixed methods approaches to achieve data integration.

Theory and Practice in Participatory Research: Lessons from the Native Elder Care Study

Goins, R. Turner; Garroutte, Eva Marie; Fox, Susan Leading; Dee Geiger, Sarah; Manson, Spero M.
Fonte: Oxford University Press Publicador: Oxford University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.97%
Models for community-based participatory research (CBPR) urge academic investigators to collaborate with communities to identify and pursue research questions, processes, and outcomes valuable to both partners. The tribal participatory research (TPR) conceptual model suggests modifications to CBPR to fit the special needs of American Indian communities. This paper draws upon authors’ collaboration with one American Indian tribe to recommend theoretical revision and practical strategies for conducting gerontological research in tribal communities. We rated the TPR model as a strong, specialized adaptation of participatory research principles. Although the need for some TPR mechanisms may vary, our experience recommends incorporating dissemination as a central TPR mechanism. Researchers and communities can expect well-crafted collaborative projects to generate particular types of positive project outcomes for both partners, but should prepare for both predictable and unique challenges.

Aging in Place: Evolution of a Research Topic Whose Time Has Come

Vasunilashorn, Sarinnapha; Steinman, Bernard A.; Liebig, Phoebe S.; Pynoos, Jon
Fonte: Hindawi Publishing Corporation Publicador: Hindawi Publishing Corporation
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.95%
Over the past 30 years, policy makers and professionals who provide services to older adults with chronic conditions and impairments have placed greater emphasis on conceptualizing aging in place as an attainable and worthwhile goal. Little is known, however, of the changes in how this concept has evolved in aging research. To track trends in aging in place, we examined scholarly articles published from 1980 to 2010 that included the concept in eleven academic gerontology journals. We report an increase in the absolute number and proportion of aging-in-place manuscripts published during this period, with marked growth in the 2000s. Topics related to the environment and services were the most commonly examined during 2000–2010 (35% and 31%, resp.), with a substantial increase in manuscripts pertaining to technology and health/functioning. This underscores the increase in diversity of topics that surround the concept of aging-in-place literature in gerontological research.

Measuring Gerontological Research Intensity in Schools of Nursing

Maas, Meridean L.; Buckwalter, Kathleen C.; Conn, Vicki S.; Tripp-Reimer, Toni
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.62%
Because of the urgent need for more gerontological nursing research, it is critical for more schools of nursing to develop research-intensive environments within which faculty can develop programs of gerontological nursing research. Unfortunately, many schools have limited resources for developing the needed infrastructures and for acquiring the required expertise in gerontology and research. Many also lack the expertise and methods for assessing their current status so they may increase their gerontological nursing research intensity. To help schools assess their status and gaps in the essentials required for a research-intensive environment and gerontological nursing research, an instrument was developed to measure benchmarks of research intensity; it is described in this article. Initial results of pilot testing of the instrument, the revised instrument, and plans for future research are presented. Uses of the instrument for assessing and strengthening a school’s research infrastructure and culture and for assisting with the development of faculty programs of gerontological nursing research are also discussed.

Spinal Deformity in Aged Zebrafish Is Accompanied by Degenerative Changes to Their Vertebrae that Resemble Osteoarthritis

Hayes, Anthony J.; Reynolds, Scott; Nowell, Mari A.; Meakin, Lee B.; Habicher, Judith; Ledin, Johan; Bashford, Andrew; Caterson, Bruce; Hammond, Chrissy L.
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 24/09/2013 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.91%
Age-related degenerative changes within the vertebral column are a significant cause of morbidity with considerable socio-economic impact worldwide. An improved understanding of these changes through the development of experimental models may lead to improvements in existing clinical treatment options. The zebrafish is a well-established model for the study of skeletogenesis with significant potential in gerontological research. With advancing age, zebrafish frequently develop gross deformities of their vertebral column, previously ascribed to reduced trunk muscle tone. In this study, we assess degenerative changes specifically within the bone and cartilage of the vertebral column of zebrafish at 1, 2 and 3-years of age. We show increased frequency and severity of spinal deformities/curvatures with age. Underlying the most severe phenotypes are partial or complete vertebral dislocations and focal thickening of the vertebral bone at the joint margins. MicroCT examination demonstrates small defects, fractures and morphological evidence suggestive of bone erosion and remodeling (i.e. osteophytes) within the vertebrae during aging, but no significant change in bone density. Light and electron microscopic examination reveal striking age-related changes in cell morphology...

Just Say Know: An Examination of Substance Use Disorders among Older Adults in Gerontological and Substance Abuse Journals

Rosen, Daniel; Engel, Rafael J.; Hunsaker, Amanda E.; Engel, Yael; Detlefsen, Ellen Gay; Reynolds, Charles F.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2013 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.4%
This article examines the extent to which studies of alcohol abuse, illicit drug use, and prescription drug abuse among older adults appear in the leading gerontological and substance abuse journals. The authors reviewed articles published in the 10 social science gerontological journals and the 10 social science substance abuse journals with the highest 5-year impact factors in PubMed from 2000 to 2010. Articles were selected that presented original research on alcohol, substance, or prescription abuse with older adults aged 50 and older; and were identified through aging and substance abuse-related Medical Subject Headings and word searches of titles and abstracts (N = 634). Full text of each article was reviewed by the authors, and consensus determined inclusion in the final sample. Of the 19,953 articles published respectively in the top 10 gerontological and substance abuse journals, 181 articles met the inclusion criteria of reporting findings related to substance use disorders among older adults. Specifically, 0.9% (102 of 11,700) of articles from the top 10 gerontology journals and 1.0% (79 of 8,253) of articles from the top 10 substance abuse journals met the criteria. Most published articles addressed alcohol misuse/abuse or polysubstance abuse with few articles addressing illicit drug use or the misuse of prescription medications. Less than 1% of articles published in the 10 gerontology journals and the 10 substance abuse journals with the highest 5-year impact scores addressed substance abuse in older adults. Practitioners treating health and/or mental health problems are at a disadvantage in accurately identifying and treating these conditions in older adult populations without a proper understanding of the role of comorbid substance use disorders.

Factors Associated with Falls in Community-Dwelling Older People with Focus on Participation in Sport Organizations: The Japan Gerontological Evaluation Study Project

Hayashi, Takahiro; Kondo, Katsunori; Suzuki, Kayo; Yamada, Minoru; Matsumoto, Daisuke
Fonte: Hindawi Publishing Corporation Publicador: Hindawi Publishing Corporation
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.16%
Objective. Promoting participation in sport organizations may be a population strategy for preventing falls in older people. In this study, we examined whether participation in sport organizations is associated with fewer falls in older people even after adjusting for multiple individual and environmental factors. Methods. We used the Japan Gerontological Evaluation Study data of 90,610 people (31 municipalities) who were not eligible for public long-term care. Logistic regression analysis was performed, with multiple falls over the past year as the dependent variable and participation in a sport organization as the independent variable, controlling for 13 factors. These included individual factors related to falls, such as age and sex, and environmental factors such as population density of the habitable area. Results. A total of 6,391 subjects (7.1%) had a history of multiple falls. Despite controlling for 13 variables, those who participated in a sport organization at least once a week were approximately ≥20% less likely to fall than those who did not participate at all (once a week; odds ratio = 0.82 and 95% confidence interval = 0.72–0.95). Conclusion. Participation in a sport organization at least once per week might help prevent falls in the community-dwelling older people.

Social Participation and the Prevention of Functional Disability in Older Japanese: The JAGES Cohort Study

Kanamori, Satoru; Kai, Yuko; Aida, Jun; Kondo, Katsunori; Kawachi, Ichiro; Hirai, Hiroshi; Shirai, Kokoro; Ishikawa, Yoshiki; Suzuki, Kayo
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
25.94%
Background: We examined the relationship between incident functional disability and social participation from the perspective of number of types of organizations participated in and type of social participation in a prospective cohort study. Method The study was based on the Aichi Gerontological Evaluation Study (AGES) Cohort Study data. We followed 13,310 individuals aged 65 years or older for 4 years. Analysis was carried out on 12,951 subjects, excluding 359 people whose information on age or sex was missing. Social participation was categorized into 8 types. Results: Compared to those that did not participate in any organizations, the hazard ratio (HR) was 0.83 (95% CI: 0.73–0.95) for participation in one, 0.72 (0.61–0.85) for participation in two, and 0.57 (0.46–0.70) for participation in three or more different types of organizations. In multivariable adjusted models, participation in the following types of organization was protective for incident disability: local community organizations (HR = 0.85, 95% CI: 0.76–0.96), hobby organizations (HR = 0.75, 95% CI: 0.64–0.87), and sports organizations (HR = 0.64, 95% CI: 0.54–0.81). Conclusion: Social participation may decrease the risk of incident functional disability in older people in Japan. This effect may be strengthened by participation in a variety of different types of organizations. Participating in a local community...

O ensino de enfermagem gerontológica na formação do enfermeiro; The Teaching of Gerontological Nursing in nursing education

Lima, Heloisa Cristina Ferreira de
Fonte: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte; BR; UFRN; Programa de Pós-Graduação em Enfermagem; Assistência à Saúde Publicador: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte; BR; UFRN; Programa de Pós-Graduação em Enfermagem; Assistência à Saúde
Tipo: Dissertação Formato: application/pdf
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.54%
At the current time of demographic changes in the world , it is observed that the health sector requires restructuring of its practices in caring for the elderly , in order to enable a comprehensive and humane care . In this sense, we identify the need for qualified professionals to assist the elderly and, therefore , it is important that training curricula are adequate to this reality . The study aims to analyze how it develops teaching gerontological nursing component in undergraduate nursing . This is a descriptive , exploratory study with a qualitative approach, in two higher education institutions in the city of Natal / RN . The population involved corresponded to the coordinators of graduate courses in nursing and teachers who teach content of health care for the elderly, a total of seven participants . The data collection instruments were used: a questionnaire containing questions related to the characterization of the participants and the teaching of gerontological nursing in undergraduate courses in nursing and a form with items of analysis for pedagogical projects . The results were presented descriptively in tables and analyzed from coming themes of the main themes of the instruments defined in: knowledge about the research participants ...

Statement by the Growth Hormone Research Society on the GH/IGF-I Axis in extending health span

Thorner, M.; Chapman, I.
Fonte: Gerontological Society of America Publicador: Gerontological Society of America
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2009 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.95%
Despite the fact that growth hormone (GH) has not been approved for antiaging purposes, its use for this indication is widespread and increasing. The Growth Hormone Research Society (GRS) convened an international workshop to critically review and debate the available evidence related to the use of GH in the older adults and the relationship between the GH/insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) axis and the aging process. This statement presents the conclusions reached and gives recommendations for future studies in this research field regarding the use of GH and growth hormone secretagogues (GHS) for promoting health span. The participants concluded that, until future clinical research in this area is conducted, in particular carefully designed, long-term studies, using validated outcome parameters, the clinical use of GH or GHS in older adults, alone or in combination with testosterone, cannot be recommended. In addition, future basic studies in model systems, to continue to unravel GH/IGF-I effects related to human life span and health span, were advocated.; Michael O. Thorner ... Ian Chapman ... [et al.]

Perspectives on ageing, later life and ethnicity: ageing research in ethnic minority contexts

ZUBAIR, MARIA; NORRIS, MERIEL
Fonte: Cambridge University Press Publicador: Cambridge University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /05/2015 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.98%
This special issue focuses broadly upon questions and themes relating to the current conceptualisations, representations and use of ‘ethnicity’ (and ethnic minority experiences) within the field of social gerontology. An important aim of this special issue is to explore and address the issue of ‘otherness’ within the predominant existing frameworks for researching those who are ageing or considered aged, compounded by the particular constructions of their ethnicity and ethnic ‘difference’. The range of theoretical, methodological and empirical papers included in this collection provide some critical insights into particular facets of the current research agendas, cultural understandings and empirical focus of ethnic minority ageing research. The main emphasis is on highlighting the ways in which ethnic cultural homogeneity and ‘otherness’ is often assumed in research involving older people from ethnic minority backgrounds, and how wider societal inequalities are concomitantly (re)produced, within (and through) research itself – for example, based on narrowly defined research agendas and questions; the assumed age and/or ethnic differences of researchers vis-à-vis their older research participants; the workings of the formalised ethical procedures and frameworks; and the conceptual and theoretical frameworks employed in the formulation of research questions and interpretation of data. We examine and challenge here the simplistic categorisations and distinctions often made in gerontological research based around research participants' ethnicity...

A critical analysis of gerontological nursing practice guided by Leininger's theory of culture care diversity and universaity

Hammerschmidt,Karina Silveira de Almeida; Zagonel,Ivete Palmira Sanson; Lenardt,Maria Helena
Fonte: Escola Paulista de Enfermagem, Universidade Federal de São Paulo Publicador: Escola Paulista de Enfermagem, Universidade Federal de São Paulo
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/09/2007 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.3%
This article reports a critical analysis of gerontological nursing practice guided by Leininger's theory of Culture Care Diversity and Universality. A LILACS database search was performed from January 1970 to June 2006. The analysis suggests that gerontological nursing care based on Leininger's theory needs further development; there is very little published research. The pluralism point of view of the process of taking care of the elderly requires close approximation, active involvement, respect, commitment, and responsibility from health care providers. Appropriate methods of taking care of the elderly should focus on the promotion and maintenance of health, emancipated care, and independence and autonomy. The report of this critical analysis might encourage further development of nursing care to the elderly.

Volunteering and psychological Wellbeing among young-old adults: How much is too much?

Windsor, Timothy; Anstey, Kaarin; Rodgers, Bryan
Fonte: Gerontological Society of America Publicador: Gerontological Society of America
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.91%
Purpose: Research concerned with the relationship between volunteer activity and psychological well-being has typically reported higher levels of well-being among older adult volunteers relative to non-volunteers. However, few studies have examined nonlin

The interpretation of shared age-related variance among factors in cross-sectional cognitive aging studies

Anstey, Kaarin
Fonte: S Karger AG Publicador: S Karger AG
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.22%
Many cross-sectional correlational studies in cognitive aging have focused on explaining age-related variance. It has been assumed that variables sharing variance with both cognition and age may be the key explanatory variables underlying the cognitive decline in normal aging. Statistical biases intrinsic to this approach have been described by Hofer and Sliwinski and a narrow age cohort design proposed. The present paper aims at explaining how Hofer and Sliwinski's criticisms apply to a specific type of research design in cognitive aging where the goal is to identify underlying aging processes, but does not apply to more general gerontological research. Methods to estimate bias in cross-sectional studies are required as is greater awareness of this potential bias.

Contextual or General Stress Outcomes: Making Choices Through Caregiving Appraisals.

Braithwaite, Valerie
Fonte: Gerontological Society of America Publicador: Gerontological Society of America
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.91%
This study contributes to the debate on general versus contextual measures of caregiver well-being through examining the differential relationships of caregiving appraisals to outcomes. Six dimensions of caregiving appraisal were examined as predictors of minor psychiatric symptoms, affect balance, and burden. Burden was high, symptoms were high, and affect was poor when caregivers held appraisals that reflected (a) low personal resiliency and (b) a conflict-ridden and dysfunctional relationship with the care receiver. When caregivers reported expending (c) considerable energy in maintaining their social networks, burden was also high, with some risk of symptoms, but affect was positive. The fourth appraisal, (d) a close loving caregiver-care receiver relationship, was positively correlated with general well-being, but was not related to burden. The fifth appraisal, (e) dealing with a heavy workload in providing care, was linked with poor affect, but neither symptoms nor burden. Finally, (f) caring at a distance was related to burden, but not to the general outcome measures. These findings suggest that the foci of research questions might be usefully located within an appraisal framework, and that this framework might then provide guidance for the choice of appropriate outcome variables. In many cases...