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Diversidade genética, estrutura genética espacial e fluxo gênico da erva-mate (Ilex paraguariensis A. St. Hil.) em dois fragmentos florestais na área de entorno do Parque Nacional do Iguaçu; Genetic diversity, spatial genetic structure and gene flow of yerba mate (Ilex paraguariensis A. St. Hil.) in two forest fragments on at area around of the Iguassu National Park

Diaz, Vinicius Sandri
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 13/11/2012 PT
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A erva-mate, Ilex paraguariensis, é uma espécie dioica, clímax com ampla área de distribuição natural. A despeito de sua importância econômica e ecológica são escassos os estudos de conservação e genética da espécie. O objetivo geral do trabalho foi estudar a diversidade genética, a estrutura genética espacial e o fluxo gênico por dispersão de sementes em duas populações naturais de I. paraguariensis na área do entorno do Parque Nacional do Iguaçu, com uso de marcadores moleculares microssatélites. Foram encontrados baixos níveis de diversidade genética em oito loci analisados, com divergência genética maior entre do que dentro das populações. A I. paraguariensis apresentou baixa densidade populacional, com 0,27 a 0,29 árvores por ha-1 e distribuição espacial agregada, entretanto não foi observado evidência de estrutura genética espacial. A média da distância da dispersão de pólen foi de 393 m e a dispersão de sementes atingiu distância próximas a 2.000 m. Os resultados obtidos, sugerem que a base genética da espécie não é ampla, o que pode dispor a I. paraguariensis a um estado crítico de conservação, devido a de erosão genética provocada pela destruição de seus ambientes naturais.; The yerba mate...

Contemporary gene flow and weak genetic structuring in Rococo toad (Rhinella schneideri) populations in habitats fragmented by agricultural activities

Arruda, Maurcio P.; Morielle-Versute, Eliana; Silva, Artur; Schneider, Maria Paula C.; Goncalves, Evonnildo C.
Fonte: Brill Academic Publishers Publicador: Brill Academic Publishers
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 399-411
ENG
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Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (FAPESP); Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq); The reduced vagility and philopatric behaviour of most amphibians make them especially vulnerable to the effects of habitat fragmentation, in particular the loss of genetic variation. However, almost no data are available on the effects of agricultural practices on populations of Neotropical amphibians. Here, the genetic diversity of Rococo toad (Rhinella schneideri) populations in the highly disturbed landscape of the north-western region of the Brazilian state of São Paulo was analysed using microsatellite markers. Two areas were sampled - one dominated by open pastures (four populations) and the other by sugar cane plantations (two populations) - in an attempt to evaluate the possible influence of the type of anthropogenic matrix on genetic variability and gene flow (dispersion). The populations presented a relatively uniform genetic stock, with low levels of inbreeding (Fis) and high levels of admixture between localities (Fst, Rst, STRUCTURE) indicating no genetic subdivision. The results indicated relatively high levels of recent migration among sites (m) and no isolation by distance. The analyses also found that historical and contemporary rates of migration among populations were broadly similar. Overall...

Estimation of Genetic Divergence and Gene Flow between Culex pipiens and Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae) in Argentina

Humeres,Silvia G; Almirón,Walter R; Sabattini,Marta S; Gardenal,Cristina N
Fonte: Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Ministério da Saúde Publicador: Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Ministério da Saúde
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/1998 EN
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Allele frequencies at seven polymorphic loci controlling the synthesis of enzymes were analyzed in six populations of Culex pipiens L. and Cx. quinquefasciatus Say. Sampling sites were situated along a north-south line of about 2,000 km in Argentina. The predominant alleles at Mdh, Idh, Gpdh and Gpi loci presented similar frequencies in all the samples. Frequencies at the Pgm locus were similar for populations pairs sharing the same geographic area. The loci Cat and Hk-1 presented significant geographic variation. The latter showed a marked latitudinal cline, with a frequency for allele b ranging from 0.99 in the northernmost point to 0.04 in the southernmost one, a pattern that may be explained by natural selection (FST = 0.46; p < 0.0001) on heat sensitive alleles. The average value of FST (0.088) and Nm (61.12) indicated a high gene flow between adjacent populations. A high correlation was found between genetic and geographic distance (r = 0.83; p < 0.001). The highest genetic identity (IN = 0.988) corresponded to the geographically closest samples from the central area. In one of these localities Cx. quinquefasciatus was predominant and hybrid individuals were detected, while in the other, almost all the specimens were identified as Cx. pipiens. To verify the fertility between Cx. pipiens and Cx. quinquefasciatus from the northern- and southernmost populations...

Estimating dispersal and gene flow in the neotropical freshwater turtle Hydromedusa maximiliani (Chelidae) by combining ecological and genetic methods

Souza,Franco L.; Cunha,Anderson F.; Oliveira,Marcos A.; Pereira,Gonçalo A.G.; Reis,Sérgio F. dos
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira de Genética Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira de Genética
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2002 EN
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Hydromedusa maximiliani is a vulnerable neotropical freshwater turtle endemic to mountainous regions of the Atlantic rainforest in southeastern Brazil. Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) was used to estimate the gene flow and dispersal for individuals inhabiting rivers and streams within a drainage. Nine primers generated 27 scoreable bands, of which 9 (33%) were polymorphic and produced 12 RAPD phenotypes. The gene flow estimates (Nm) among turtles inhabiting different rivers and streams were variable, ranging from 0.09 to 3.00 (mean: 0.60). For some loci, the rates of gene flow could offset population differentiation (Nm > 1), whereas for others random genetic drift could result in population divergence (Nm < 1). Since the genetic variation of this turtle seems to be structured according to the natural hierarchical system of rivers and streams within drainages, management programs involving translocations between different regions across the geographical range of H. maximiliani should be viewed with caution.

High Gene Flow on a Continental Scale in the Polyandrous Kentish Plover Charadrius alexandrinus

Küpper, Clemens; Edwards, Scott V.; Kosztolányi, András; Alrashidi, Monif; Burke, Terry; Herrmann, Philipp; Argüelles-Tico, Araceli; Amat, Juan A.; Amezian, Mohamed; Rocha, Afonso; Hötker, Hermann; Ivanov, Anton; Chernicko, Joseph; Székely, Tamás
Fonte: Wiley Blackwell (Blackwell Publishing) Publicador: Wiley Blackwell (Blackwell Publishing)
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US
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Gene flow promotes genetic homogeneity of species in time and space. Gene flow can be modulated by sex-biased dispersal that links population genetics to mating systems. We investigated the phylogeography of the widely distributed Kentish plover Charadrius alexandrinus. This small shorebird has a large breeding range spanning from Western Europe to Japan and exhibits an unusually flexible mating system with high female breeding dispersal. We analysed genetic structure and gene flow using a 427-bp fragment of the mitochondrial (mtDNA) control region, 21 autosomal microsatellite markers and a Z microsatellite marker in 397 unrelated individuals from 21 locations. We found no structure or isolation-by-distance over the continental range. However, island populations had low genetic diversity and were moderately differentiated from mainland locations. Genetic differentiation based on autosomal markers was positively correlated with distance between mainland and each island. Comparisons of uniparentally and biparentally inherited markers were consistent with female-biased gene flow. Maternally inherited mtDNA was less structured, whereas the Z-chromosomal marker was more structured than autosomal microsatellites. Adult males were more related than females within genetic clusters. Taken together...

Gene flow between nascent species: geographic, genotypic and phenotypic differentiation within and between Aquilegia formosa and A. pubescens

Noutsos, C.; Borevitz, J. O.; Hodges, S. A.
Fonte: Wiley Publicador: Wiley
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Speciation can be described as a reduction, and the eventual cessation, in the ability to interbreed. Thus, determining how gene flow differs within and between nascent species can illuminate the relative stage the taxa have attained in the speciation process. Aquilegia formosa and A. pubescens are fully intercompatible, yet occur in different habitats and have flowers specialized for pollination by hummingbirds and hawkmoths, respectively. Using 79 SNP loci, we genotyped nearly 1000 individuals from populations of both species in close proximity to each other and from putative hybrid zones. The species shared all but one SNP polymorphism, and on average, allele frequencies differed by only 0.14. However, the species were clearly differentiated using Structure, and admixed individuals were primarily identified at putative hybrid zones. PopGraph identified a highly integrated network among all populations, but populations of each species and hybrid zones occupied distinct regions in the network. Using either conditional graph distance (cGD) or Fst/(1-Fst), we found significant isolation by distance (IBD) among populations. Within species, IBD was strong, indicating high historic gene flow. IBD extended approximately 100 km in A. pubescens and 30 km in A. formosa. However...

Pollen-mediated gene flow between paraquat-resistant and susceptible hare barley (Hordeum leporinum)

Hidayat, I.; Baker, J.; Preston, C.
Fonte: Weed Sci Soc Amer Publicador: Weed Sci Soc Amer
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2006 EN
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Pollen movement between individuals can increase the rate of herbicide resistance evolution by spreading resistance alleles within or between populations and by facilitating the rapid accumulation of resistance alleles within individuals. This study investigated the level of pollen-mediated gene flow between paraquat-resistant and paraquat-susceptible populations of the self-pollinated weed species hare barley. The experiment was conducted in both directions, from resistant to susceptible and susceptible to resistant, across 2 yr. To maximize the potential for pollen flow, individual plants were grown in a single pot. The level of gene flow was similar across years and between genotypes. The level of pollen-mediated gene flow ranged from 0.06 to 0.15%. Gene flow from resistant to susceptible plants was confirmed by demonstrating segregation for resistance in the progeny of suspected crosses. This study suggests that pollen-mediated gene flow will occur in this species at frequencies less than 0.16% and could assist the accumulation of resistance alleles within a population. These low levels of gene flow through pollen movement suggest that cross-pollination over larger distances would be unlikely and pollen movement probably does not contribute to gene flow between populations.; Imam Hidayat...

Gene flow from transgenic wheat and barley under field conditions

Gatford, K.; Basri, Z.; Eddington, J.; Lloyd, J.; Qureshi, J.; Brettell, R.; Fincher, G.
Fonte: Kluwer Academic Publ Publicador: Kluwer Academic Publ
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2006 EN
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In this study the frequency and distance of gene flow from transgenic wheat (Triticum aestivum) and barley (Hordeum vulgare) to non-transgenic wheat and barley crops was investigated under local field conditions. Trials were conducted in the Australian Capital Territory (ACT) and in South Australia (SA). Gene flow from transgenic wheat was confirmed at frequencies of 0.012% and 0.0037% in the ACT and SA, respectively. In both trials gene flow occurred over distances of less than 12 m. Gene flow was also detected from transgenic barley at a frequency of 0.005%, over a distance of less than 12 m. The results show that under Australian field conditions, gene flow occurs at extremely low frequencies and over very short distances. Physical separation of transgenic and non-transgenic cereal crops by greater than 12 m should ensure that contamination of adjacent non-transgenic cereal crops remains less than 0.02%, well below the level permitted under Australian regulations.; Keith T. Gatford, Zainuddin Basri, Jane Edlington, Julia Lloyd, Javed A. Qureshi, Richard Brettell and Geoffrey B. Fincher; The original publication can be found at www.springerlink.com

Gene-flow between populations of cotton bollworm Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) is highly variable between years

Scott, K.; Wilkinson, K.; Lawrence, N.; Lange, C.; Scott, L.; Merritt, M.; Lowe, A.; Graham, G.
Fonte: C A B I Publishing Publicador: C A B I Publishing
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2005 EN
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Both large and small scale migrations of Helicoverpa armigera Hübner in Australia were investigated using AMOVA analysis and genetic assignment tests. Five microsatellite loci were screened across 3142 individuals from 16 localities in eight major cotton and grain growing regions within Australia, over a 38-month period (November 1999 to January 2003). From November 1999 to March 2001 relatively low levels of migration were characterized between growing regions. Substantially higher than average gene-flow rates and limited differentiation between cropping regions characterized the period from April 2001 to March 2002. A reduced migration rate in the year from April 2002 to March 2003 resulted in significant genetic structuring between cropping regions. This differentiation was established within two or three generations. Genetic drift alone is unlikely to drive genetic differentiation over such a small number of generations, unless it is accompanied by extreme bottlenecks and/or selection. Helicoverpa armigera in Australia demonstrated isolation by distance, so immigration into cropping regions is more likely to come from nearby regions than from afar. This effect was most pronounced in years with limited migration. However, there is evidence of long distance dispersal events in periods of high migration (April 2001–March 2002). The implications of highly variable migration patterns for resistance management are considered.; K.D. Scott...

Stepping stone gene flow in an estuarine dwelling sparid from south-east Australia

Burridge, Christopher Paul; Hurt, A. C.; Farrington, Lachlan William; Coutin, P. C.; Austin, Christopher M.
Fonte: Blackwell Publicador: Blackwell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2004
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Allozyme and mitochondrial DNA variation was surveyed in Acanthopagrus butcheri to examine the pattern of gene flow among estuaries in south‐east Australia. Allozymes distinguished two peripheral estuaries from the remaining six, although the pattern of genetic variation could owe more to selection than reproductive isolation, and overall structure was small (θ = 0·012). In contrast, mitochondrial DNA revealed a high degree of genetic structure (θ = 0·263), and a significant relationship with geographic isolation. Consequently, contemporary gene flow mostly between adjacent estuaries, consistent with a one‐dimensional stepping stone model, is evident in south‐east Australia. The data indicate that management of A. butcheri within the study range should be conducted at the scale of individual or geographically proximate estuaries.; C. P. Burridge, A. C. Hurt, L. W. Farrington, P. C. Coutin, C. M. Austin; The definitive version is available at www.blackwell-synergy.com

Spontaneous gene flow from rapeseed (Brassica napus) to wild B. oleracea

Ford, C.; Allainguillaume, J.; Grilli-Chantler, P.; Cuccato, G.; Allender, C.; Wilkinson, M.
Fonte: Royal Soc London Publicador: Royal Soc London
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2006 EN
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Research on the environmental risks of gene flow from genetically modified (GM) crops to wild relatives has traditionally emphasized recipients yielding most hybrids. For GM rapeseed (Brassica napus), interest has centred on the ‘frequently hybridizing’ Brassica rapa over relatives such as Brassica oleracea, where spontaneous hybrids are unreported in the wild. In two sites, where rapeseed and wild B. oleracea grow together, we used flow cytometry and crop-specific microsatellite markers to identify one triploid F1 hybrid, together with nine diploid and two near triploid introgressants. Given the newly discovered capacity for spontaneous introgression into B. oleracea, we then surveyed associated flora and fauna to evaluate the capacity of both recipients to harm cohabitant species with acknowledged conservational importance. Only B. oleracea occupies rich communities containing species afforded legislative protection; these include one rare micromoth species that feeds on B. oleracea and warrants further assessment. We conclude that increased attention should now focus on B. oleracea and similar species that yield few crop-hybrids, but possess scope to affect rare or endangered associates.; Caroline S. Ford, Joël Allainguillaume...

Spread of a New Parasitic B Chromosome Variant Is Facilitated by High Gene Flow

Manrique-Poyato, Mar??a Inmaculada; L??pez-Le??n, Mar??a Dolores; Cabrero, Josefa; Perfectti ??lvarez, Francisco; Mart??nez Camacho, Juan Pedro
Fonte: Public Library of Science (PLOS) Publicador: Public Library of Science (PLOS)
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
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The B24 chromosome variant emerged several decades ago in a Spanish population of the grasshopper Eyprepocnemis plorans and is currently reaching adjacent populations. Here we report, for the first time, how a parasitic B chromosome (a strictly vertically transmitted parasite) expands its geographical range aided by high gene flow in the host species. For six years we analyzed B frequency in several populations to the east and west of the original population and found extensive spatial variation, but only a slight temporal trend. The highest B24 frequency was found in its original population (Torrox) and it decreased closer to both the eastern and the western populations. The analysis of Inter Simple Sequence Repeat (ISSR) markers showed the existence of a low but significant degree of population subdivision, as well as significant isolation by distance (IBD). Pairwise Nem estimates suggested the existence of high gene flow between the four populations located in the Torrox area, with higher values towards the east. No significant barriers to gene flow were found among these four populations, and we conclude that high gene flow is facilitating B24 diffusion both eastward and westward, with minor role for B24 drive due to the arrival of drive suppressor genes which are also frequent in the donor population.

Experimental evidence of genome-wide impact of ecological selection during early stages of speciation-with-gene-flow

Egan, Scott P.; Ragland, Gregory J.; Assour, Lauren; Powell, Thomas H.Q.; Hood, Glen R.; Emrich, Scott; Nosil, Patrik; Feder, Jeffrey L.
Fonte: Universidade Rice Publicador: Universidade Rice
Tipo: Journal article; Text; publisher version
ENG
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Theory predicts that speciation-with-gene-flow is more likely when the consequences of selection for population divergence transitions from mainly direct effects of selection acting on individual genes to a collective property of all selected genes in the genome. Thus, understanding the direct impacts of ecologically based selection, as well as the indirect effects due to correlations among loci, is critical to understanding speciation. Here, we measure the genome-wide impacts of host-associated selection between hawthorn and apple host races of Rhagoletis pomonella (Diptera: Tephritidae), a model for contemporary speciation-with-gene-flow. Allele frequency shifts of 32ᅠ455 SNPs induced in a selection experiment based on host phenology were genome wide and highly concordant with genetic divergence between co-occurring apple and hawthorn flies in nature. This striking genome-wide similarity between experimental and natural populations of R. pomonella underscores the importance of ecological selection at early stages of divergence and calls for further integration of studies of eco-evolutionary dynamics and genome divergence.

Panmixia supports divergence with gene flow in Darwin's small ground finch, Geospiza fuliginosa, on Santa Cruz, Galápagos Islands; Panmixia supports divergence with gene flow in Darwin's small ground finch, Geospiza fuliginosa, on Santa Cruz, Galapagos Islands

Galligan, T.H.; Donnellan, S.C.; Sulloway, F.J.; Fitch, A.J.; Bertozzi, T.; Kleindorfer, S.
Fonte: Wiley Publicador: Wiley
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2012 EN
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The divergence-with-gene-flow model of speciation has a strong theoretical basis with a growing number of plausible examples in nature, but remains hotly debated. Darwin's finches of the Galápagos Archipelago have played an important role in our understanding of speciation processes. Recent studies suggest that this group may also provide insights into speciation via divergence with gene flow. On the island of Santa Cruz, recent studies found evidence for adaptive divergence in Darwin's small ground finch, Geospiza fuliginosa, between ecologically contrasting arid and humid zones. Despite the short geographical distance between these zones, strong disruptive selection during low rainfall periods is expected to generate and maintain adaptive divergence. Conversely, during high rainfall periods, when disruptive selection is predicted to be weakened, population divergence in adaptive traits is expected to break down. Because periods of low and high rainfall irregularly alternate, the geographical pattern of adaptive divergence can be assumed to break down and, importantly, regenerate in situ. Here, we use microsatellite allele frequency data to assess the genetic population structure of G. fuliginosa on Santa Cruz. We sample 21 sites and four ecological zones across the island. We reject hypotheses of population substructure linked to ecological and geographical differences among sites in favour of a single panmictic population. Panmixia implies high levels of gene flow within Santa Cruz...

Effect of host plant chemistry on genetic differentiation and reduction of gene flow among Anastrepha fraterculus (Diptera:Tephritidae) populations exploiting sympatric, synchronic hosts

Oroño, Luis Eduardo; Paulin, Laura Elisa; Alberti, Andrea Claudia; Hilal, Mirna Beatriz; Ovruski Alderete, Sergio Marcelo; Vilardi, Juan Cesar; Rull, Juan; Aluja, Martin
Fonte: Entomological Soc Amer Publicador: Entomological Soc Amer
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:ar-repo/semantics/artículo; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion Formato: application/pdf
ENG
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Herbivore host specialization includes changes in behaviour, driven by locally-induced adaptations to specific plants. These adaptations often result in sexual isolation that can be gauged through detection of reduced gene flow between host associated populations. Hypothetically, reduced gene flow can be mediated both by differential response to specific plant kairomones and by the influence of larval diet on some adult traits such as pheromone composition. These hypotheses could serve as a model to explain rapid radiation of phytophagous tephritid fruit flies, a group that includes several complexes of cryptic species. The South American Fruit Fly Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann) is a complex of at least seven cryptic species among which pheromone mediated sexual isolation resulted in rapid differentiation. Cryptic species also exhibit differences in host affiliation. In search of a model explaining rapid radiation in this group, we studied host plant chemical composition and genetic structure of three host associated sympatric populations of A. fraterculus. Chemical composition among host plant fruit varied widely both for nutrient and potentially toxic secondary metabolite content. Adaptation to plant chemistry appears to have produced population differentiation. We found host mediated differentiation to be stronger between populations exploiting sympatric synchronic hosts differing in chemical composition...

Pollen-mediated gene flow from a commercial potato cultivar to the wild relative S. chacoense Bitter under experimental field conditions in Argentina.

Capurro, Mauricio Antonio; Masuelli, Ricardo Williams; Camadro, Elsa Lucila
Fonte: WILEY-BLACKWELL PUBLISHING, INC Publicador: WILEY-BLACKWELL PUBLISHING, INC
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:ar-repo/semantics/artículo; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion Formato: application/pdf
ENG
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The common potato, Solanum tuberosum ssp. tuberosum (tbr, 2n4x48; 4EBN), has many closely related wild tuber-bearing species. Around 28 to 35 of them spontaneously grow in Argentina overlapping, in some areas, with the crop and/or experimental transgenic potatoes. Although it is well proven that hybridization barriers in potatoes can be incomplete, information on gene flow between cultivated and wild germplasm is scarce. Thus, a gene flow field experiment with a circular array was set up in Balcarce, Argentina, in 2009, and evaluated over two seasons. The tetraploid tbr cultivar Huinkul MAG and one compatible cloned genotype of the related wild potato S. chacoense Bitter (chc, 2n2x24; 2EBN), which produced 2n eggs, were used, respectively, as pollen donor and receptor. Berries with hybrid seeds – as revealed by ploidy and RAPD profiles – were obtained in one season, at 30 m from the pollen donor. These results reinforce others previously obtained with the same pollen donor and a male sterile tbr cultivar in a similar array, pointing out to the need of increasing isolation distances in areas of overlap between cultivated and wild potato germplasm to prevent or minimize undesirable pollen-mediated gene flow.

Seed Dispersal, Gene Flow, and Hybridization in Red Oak

Moran, Emily Victoria
Fonte: Universidade Duke Publicador: Universidade Duke
Tipo: Dissertação Formato: 5528284 bytes; application/pdf
Publicado em //2010 EN_US
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Understanding the ecological and evolutionary responses of plant species to shifts in climate (and other rapid environmental perturbations) will require an improved knowledge of interactions between ecological and evolutionary processes as mediated by reproduction and gene flow. This dissertation research examines the processes of seed dispersal, intra- and inter-specific gene flow, and reproductive success in two red oak populations in North Carolina; the variation in these processes from site to site; and their influence on genetic structure, population dynamics, and migration potential.

Using genetic and ecological data collected from two large long-term study sites, I develop a hierarchical Bayesian model to identify the parents of sampled seedlings and characterize the scale of effective seed and pollen dispersal. I examine differences in scale of dispersal between the Appalachian and Piedmont sites in light of the spatial genetic structure and ecological differences of the two sites. I then use the pedigree and dispersal estimates derived from these analyses to examine variation in reproductive success and to test hypotheses about the causes and consequences of such variation. Using parentage estimates and measures of genetic differentiation between species...

Spatial autocorrelation analysis offers new insights into gene flow in the Australian bush rat, Rattus fuscipes

Peakall, Rodney; Ruibal, Monica; Lindenmayer, David
Fonte: Society for the Study of Evolution Publicador: Society for the Study of Evolution
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Dispersal is a fundamental process that influences the response of species to landscape change and habitat fragmentation. In an attempt to better understand dispersal in the Australian bush rat, Rattus fuscipes, we have combined a new multilocus autocorrelation method with hypervariable microsatellite genetic markers to investigate fine-scale (≤1 km) patterns of spatial distribution and spatial genetic structure. The study was conducted across eight trapping transects at four sites, with a total of 270 animals sampled. Spatial autocorrelation analysis of bush rat distribution revealed that, in general, animals occurred in groups or clusters of higher density (≤200 m across), with intervening gaps or lower density areas. Spatial genetic autocorrelation analysis, based on seven hypervariable microsatellite loci (He = 0.8) with a total of 80 alleles, revealed a consistent pattern of significant positive local genetic structure. This genetic pattern was consistent for all transects, and for adults and sub-adults, males and females. By testing for autocorrelation at multiple scales from 10 to 800 m we found that the extent of detectable positive spatial genetic structure exceeded 500 m. Further analyses detected significantly weaker spatial genetic structure in males compared with females...

Fine scale gene flow and individual movements among subpopulations of Centrolene prosoblepon (Anura: Centrolenidae)

Robertson,Jeanne M; Lips,Karen R; Heist,Edward J
Fonte: Revista de Biología Tropical Publicador: Revista de Biología Tropical
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/03/2008 EN
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Dispersal capabilities determine and maintain local gene flow, and this has implications for population persistence and/or recolonization following environmental perturbations (natural or anthropogenic), disease outbreaks, or other demographic collapses. To predict recolonization and understand dispersal capacity in a stream-breeding frog, we examined individual movement patterns and gene flow among four subpopulations of the Neotropical glassfrog, Centrolene prosoblepon, at a mid-elevation cloud forest site at El Copé, Panama. We measured male movement directly during a two year mark-recapture study, and indirectly with gene flow estimates from mitochondrial DNA sequences (mtDNA). Individuals of this species showed strong site fidelity: over two years, male frogs in all four headwater streams moved very little (mean = 2.33 m; mode = 0 m). Nine individuals changed streams within one or two years, moving 675-1 108 m. For those males moving more than 10 m, movement was biased upstream (p < 0.001). Using mtDNA ND1 gene sequences, we quantified gene flow within and among headwater streams at two spatial scales: among headwater streams within two adjacent watersheds (2.5 km²) and among streams within a longitudinal gradient covering 5.0 km². We found high gene flow among headwater streams (ST = 0.007...

Gene flow and geographic variation in natural populations of Alnus acuminata ssp. arguta (Fagales: Betulaceae) in Costa Rica and Panama

Murillo,Olman; Rocha,Oscar
Fonte: Revista de Biología Tropical Publicador: Revista de Biología Tropical
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/12/1999 EN
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Seventeen natural populations in Costa Rica and Panama were used to asses gene flow and geographic patterns of genetic variation in this tree species. Gene flow analysis was based on the methods of rare alleles and FST (Index of genetic similarity M), using the only four polymorphic gene loci among 22 investigated (PGI-B, PGM-A, MNR-A and IDH-A). The geographic variation analysis was based on Pearson`s correlations between four geographic and 14 genetic variables. Some evidence of isolation by distance and a weak gene flow among geographic regions was found. Patterns of clinal variation in relation to altitude (r = -0.62 for genetic diversity) and latitude (r= -0.77 for PGI-B3) were also observed, supporting the hypothesis of isolation by distance. No private alleles were found at the single population level.