Página 1 dos resultados de 618 itens digitais encontrados em 0.004 segundos

Psychological Perspectives on Gender in Negotiation

Bowles, Hannah Riley
Fonte: John F. Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University Publicador: John F. Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University
Tipo: Research Paper or Report
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.38%
A fundamental form of human interaction, negotiation is essential to the management of relationships, the coordination of paid and household labor, the distribution of resources, and the creation of economic value. Understanding the effects of gender on negotiation gives us important insights into how micro-level interactions contribute to larger social phenomena, such as gender gaps in pay and authority. Recent research on gender in negotiation has shown us how gender stereotypes constrain women from negotiating access to resources and opportunities through lowered performance expectations and gendered behavioral constraints. However, this widening research stream is also beginning to provide hints for how individuals and organizations can overcome these limitations to women’s negotiation potential. In this chapter, I provide a brief history of psychological research on gender in negotiation, starting with the study of gender-stereotypic personality attributions and transitioning to a more sophisticated analysis of the effects of gender stereotypes on negotiation behaviors and performance. I review contemporary research on gender in negotiation using two interrelated frameworks. The first outlines the ways in which gender stereotypes influence negotiation...

Gender and Finance in Sub-Saharan Africa : Are Women Disadvantaged?

Aterido, Reyes; Beck, Thorsten; Iacovone, Leonardo
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.36%
This paper assesses whether there is a gender gap in the use of financial services by businesses and individuals in Sub-Saharan Africa. The authors do not find evidence of gender discrimination or lower inherent demand for financial services by enterprises with female ownership participation or by female individuals when key characteristics of the enterprises or individuals are taken into account. In the case of enterprises, they explain this finding with selection bias -- females are less likely to run sole proprietorships than men, and firms with female ownership participation are smaller, but more likely to innovate. In the case of individuals, the lower use of formal financial services by women can be explained by gender gaps in other dimensions related to the use of financial services, such as their lower level of income and education, and by their household and employment status.

Gender in the Middle East and North Africa : Progress and Remaining Challenges

Vishwanath, Tara; Krishnan, Nandini
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.46%
The Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region has made impressive strides in reducing gender gaps in human development. The ratio of girls to boys in primary and secondary education is 0.96, women in the region are more likely than men to attend university, maternal mortality is around 200 deaths per 100,000 live births (compared to a world average of 400 deaths), and fertility rates have decreased in the past decade. Although gender gaps in school completion rates still exist in some MENA countries, most countries are well on their way to achieving gender parity in key human development indicators.

The Little Data Book on Gender 2013

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.44%
The Little Data Book on Gender 2013 is a quick reference for users interested in gender statistics. It presents gender-disaggregated data for more than 200 countries in a straightforward, country-by-country reference on demography, education, health, labor force, political participation, and the Millennium Development Goals. Summary pages that cover regional and income group aggregates are also included. This third issue of The Little Data Book on Gender reflects the structure of the World Development Report 2012 on Gender Equality and Development. The report looked at the facts and trends surrounding the various dimensions of gender equality in the context of the development process: although many women around the world continue to struggle with gender-based disadvantages, much has changed for the better and at a more rapid pace than ever before. But that progress needs to be expanded, protected, and deepened. While development has closed some gender gaps, other gaps persist, including excess deaths of girls and women, disparities in girls’ schooling, unequal access to economic opportunities, and differences in voice within the household and in society. The report argues that gender equality can enhance productivity, improve development outcomes for the next generation...

Low Schooling for Girls, Slower Growth for All? Cross-Country Evidence on the Effect of Gender Inequality in Education on Economic Development

Klasen, Stephan
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.47%
Using cross-country and panel regressions, this article investigates how gender inequality in education affects long-term economic growth. Such inequality is found to have an effect on economic growth that is robust to changes in specifications and controls for potential endogeneities. The results suggest that gender inequality in education directly affects economic growth by lowering the average level of human capital. In addition, growth is indirectly affected through the impact of gender inequality on investment and population growth. Some 0.4-0.9 percentage points of differences in annual per capita growth rates between East Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa, South Asia, and the Middle East can be accounted for by differences in gender gaps in education between these regions.

Tajikistan Country Gender Assessment

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Relatório
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.39%
The aim of this report is to provide a broad overview of the current state of gender equality in Tajikistan. While the Europe and Central Asia (ECA) region traditionally surpassed many other regions in terms of gender equality, this advantage has been eroding in recent decades. Particularly in Tajikistan, concerns have been raised that men and women have unequally born the consequences of economic, political, and social transitions after independence in 1991. The report examines several dimensions of gender equality both quantitatively and qualitatively. Tajikistan has set up a legal framework that enshrines principles of equality and non-discrimination, but better implementation results require continued efforts. Prevailing social norms and patriarchal systems of decision-making limit women s ability to make effective choices be it at home or at work. The paper is structured along the following lines. The first section introduces the idea of agency that will remain an important issue throughout the report. This is followed by an analysis of disparities in human capital endowment...

Montenegro Gender Diagnostic

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Relatório
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.53%
In 2011, women and girls represented 50.6 percent of the total Montenegrin population (620,029 persons). Different aspects of gender inequality vary by region and ethnicity. The present World Bank country partnership strategy in Montenegro is based on two pillars that include supporting Montenegro s accession to the European Union (EU) through boosting institutions and competitiveness. The purpose of this report is to provide an overview of gender inequality in Montenegro. Using a number of data sources, gender differences in various outcomes are analyzed with the intention of highlighting gender inequalities in human wellbeing. Results are used to prioritize possible avenues for future research to better understand such inequalities and or suggest areas that require more focus from policymakers. This report operates under the premise that gender equality is both an issue of human rights and of critical economic consequence. In line with the world development report (WDR) 2012, the nomenclature of gender gaps in endowments...

How Costly are Labor Gender Gaps?

Cuberes, David; Teignier, Marc
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.61%
In this paper, survey data are used to document the presence of gender gaps in self-employment, employership, and labor force participation in seven Balkan countries and Turkey. The paper examines the quantitative effects of the gender gaps on aggregate productivity and income per capita in these countries. In the model used to carry out this calculation, agents choose between being workers, self-employed, or employers, and women face several restrictions in the labor market. The data display very large gaps in labor force participation and in the percentage of employers and self-employed in the labor force. In almost all cases, these gaps reveal a clear underrepresentation of women. The calculations show that, on average, the loss associated with these gaps is about 17 percent of income per capita. One-third of this loss is due to distortions in the choice of occupations between men and women. The remaining two-thirds corresponds to the costs associated with gaps in labor force participation. The dimensions of these gender gaps and their associated costs vary considerably across age groups...

Can Minimum Wages Close the Gender Wage Gap?

Hallward-Driemeier, Mary; Rijkers, Bob; Waxman, Andrew
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.53%
Using manufacturing plant-level census data, this paper demonstrates that minimum wage increases in Indonesia reduced gender wage gaps among production workers, with heterogeneous impacts by level of education and position of the firm in the wage distribution. Paradoxically, educated women appear to have benefitted the most, particularly in the lower half of the firm average earnings distribution. By contrast, women who did not complete primary education did not benefit on average, and even lost ground in the upper end of the earnings distribution. Minimum wage increases were thus associated with exacerbated gender pay gaps among the least educated, and reduced gender gaps among the best educated production workers. Unconditional quantile regression analysis attests to wage compression and lighthouse effects. Changes in relative employment prospects were limited.

On gender gaps and self-fulfilling expectations: Theory, policies and some empirical evidence

Dolado, Juan José; Rica, Sara de la; García-Peñalosa, Cecilia
Fonte: FEDEA Publicador: FEDEA
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: text/html; text/plain; application/pdf
Publicado em /06/2008 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.41%
This paper considers a simple model of self-fulfilling expectations that leads to a multiple equilibrium of gender gaps in wages and participation rates. Rather than resorting to moral hazard problems related to unobservable effort, like in most of the related literature, our model fully relies on statistical discrimination. If firms believe that women will quit their jobs more often than equally productive men when shocks affecting household chores take place, our model predicts that this belief will increase the wage gap in favour of men which, in turn, will increase the female share of housework and exacerbate lower female participation in the labour market. Hence, both effects lead to a gendered equilibrium with large gaps, even though an ungendered equilibrium with no gaps is feasible. We examine the effects of gender-based and gender-neutral subsidies and find that the latter are more effective in removing the gendered equilibrium. Empirical analysis based on a time use survey for Spain is provided to test most of the implications of the model.; Banco de Santander

Bhutan Gender Policy Note

World Bank Group
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Policy Note; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.54%
Bhutan has undergone a major socio-economic transformation over the past few decades. Today, as a middle-income country guided by the unique development philosophy of Gross National Happiness, it continues to develop rapidly and become more integrated into the global economy. Coinciding with its development, Bhutan has also made considerable strides in closing gaps in gender equality. The analysis of the Gender Policy Note (GPN) focuses on specific issues related to economic empowerment. It analyzes patterns related to specific aspects of the economic empowerment of both men and women by applying the analytical framework of the 2012 World Development Report on Gender and Development to the Bhutan context. For the areas of focus, the report examines overall indicators on gender and identifies areas where gender gaps persist: agricultural land holding and inheritance practices, and gender gaps in labor markets and job quality. In Bhutan, most women acquire land ownership through inheritance, particularly in matrilineal communities. Unlike in other countries...

Afghanistan : Country Gender Assessment, National Reconstruction and Poverty Reduction, the Role of Women in Afghanistan's Future

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Country Gender Assessment (CGA); Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.48%
Throughout the 20th century, the debate on women's rights and their role in Afghan society has been closely interlinked with the national destiny. Women not only carry the burden of symbolizing the honor of the family, but often are seen as embodying the national honor as well. Gender has thus been one of the most politicized issues in Afghanistan over the past 100 years, and attempts at reform have been denounced by opponents as un-Islamic and a challenge to the sanctity of the faith and family. During the years of turmoil, concerns about women's security led to the imposition of ever-stricter interpretations of socially acceptable female behavior, supported by the most conservative reading of the holy scriptures. Despite the rhetoric, women suffered from very serious human rights violations throughout the conflict. With the overthrow of the Taliban regime in 2001, Afghanistan embarked upon a new beginning, recognizing anew the contribution of the female half of its society. This Country Gender Assessment report identifies critical areas in which gender-responsive actions are likely to enhance growth, poverty reduction and human well-being. The extent of gender discrimination in Afghanistan is pervasive, and the present report focuses on a few key sectors deemed particularly important for both short- and long-term interventions. Gender gaps are widespread in health...

Ten Years After Morocco's Family Code Reforms : Are Gender Gaps Closing?

Prettitore, Paul
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Brief; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.41%
In 2004, the Government of Morocco (GoM) made major amendments to its family code, known as the Moudawana, which covers personal status issues such as marriage, divorce, alimony, child support, child custody, and inheritance. These reforms increased the rights of women within the family, and should boost women s agency beyond family matters, for example increasing control of economic assets. The revisions followed a process of relatively open public debate with much of the discussion driven by women s civil society organizations (CSOs). It does suggest that women have made gains in determining who to marry, and are more able to access to divorce without renouncing their financial assets. On many other key issues, such as the use of stipulations in marriage contracts to increase women's decision-making within marriage and control of economic assets, as well as the extent to which community property regimes have been adopted by married couples, the lack of data prevents effective measurement of progress. Plans of the Ministry of Justice and Liberty to measure implementation of the Moudawana linked with the charter for the reform of the judicial system will hopefully provide the GoM a useful tool in ensuring further narrowing of gender equality gaps.

The Little Data Book on Gender 2011

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: World Development Indicators; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.44%
The little data book on gender 2011 is a quick reference for users interested in gender statistics. It presents gender-disaggregated data for more than 200 countries in a straightforward, country-by-country reference on demography, education, health, labor force, political participation, and the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). Summary pages that cover regional and income group aggregates are also included. This second issue of book on gender coincides with the launch of the World Development Report 2012, the Bank's annual flagship publication. This year's report looks at the facts and trends surrounding the various dimensions of gender equality in the context of the development process: although many women around the world continue to struggle with gender-based disadvantages, much has changed for the better and at a more rapid pace than ever before. But that progress needs to be expanded, protected, and deepened. While development has closed some gender gaps, other gaps persist, including excess deaths of girls and women...

Arab Republic of Egypt : Gender assessment 2010

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Country Gender Assessment (CGA)
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.45%
The objective of this policy note is to examine the gender dimension of the Egyptian labor market, with a focus on identifying the scope for policies to improve female labor force participation. An update to the Egypt gender assessment report of 2003, it is envisioned as a contribution to programmatic work on gender and inclusion in Egypt, helping build evidence which can inform policy aimed at improving the participation and retention of women in the labor force. Analytical and investigative in nature, it is the hope that this note will motivate discussion and debate among stakeholders in the country. The questions to be addressed in the note are also relevant for policy discussions and Bank operations in other countries, especially those in the Middle East North Africa (MENA) region where females face similar challenges to labor force participation. Besides laying out the underlying correlates of gender gaps in these areas, the report recommended a comprehensive list of 'strategic interventions' by sector for the government and other development actors...

Gender and Agriculture : Inefficiencies, Segregation, and Low Productivity Traps

Croppenstedt, Andre; Goldstein, Markus; Rosas, Nina
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.45%
Women make essential contributions to agriculture in developing countries, where they constitute approximately 43 percent of the agricultural labor force. However, female farmers typically have lower output per unit of land and are much less likely to be active in commercial farming than their male counterparts. These gender differences in land productivity and participation between male and female farmers are due to gender differences in access to inputs, resources, and services. In this paper, the authors review the evidence on productivity differences and access to resources. They discuss some of the reasons for these differences, such as differences in property rights, education, control over resources (e.g., land), access to inputs and services (e.g., fertilizer, extension, and credit), and social norms. Although women are less active in commercial farming and are largely excluded from contract farming, they often provide the bulk of wage labor in the nontraditional export sector. In general, gender gaps do not appear to fall systematically with growth...

Russian Federation Gender Assessment

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Country Gender Assessment (CGA)
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.54%
An egalitarian socialist legacy and relatively high and growing levels of income, particularly over the last decade, have translated into fairly equal gender outcomes in Russia along many dimensions. There are no significant differences in education levels between men and women, and in recent years more young women have completed post-secondary education than young men. Girls outperform boys in reading in standardized exams and do as well as them in math and science. At first glance, women do not seem to have difficulties in transitioning from school to work or remaining employed over the life cycle. And female labor force participation is significantly above the levels observed in other countries in Europe and Central Asia, as well as in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, or OECD. This new assessment of gender equality issues in Russia seeks to gauge the progress in all the domains of outcomes during the last 10 years, and to further understand the main causes behind the persisting gender gaps identified in the country. This assessment builds on the analytical framework proposed by the World Development Report 2012: gender equality and development (World Bank 2012a) to provide a general overview of gender issues in Russia...

Addressing the Gender Gap in Europe and Central Asia

Sattar, Sarosh
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Brief; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.44%
The Europe and Central Asia (ECA) region's relative advantage in gender equality compared to other regions eroded in the 1999-2009 period. As a result, the region now looks more similar to the rest of the world in terms of women's education and labor force participation. Moreover, gender gaps continue to exist in some minority communities and in poor rural areas. Structural changes in the economies of the region have both opened up economic and employment opportunities for women and reduced some avenues of prosperity for men. However, women's gains from such opportunities are limited as occupational segregation and wage gaps persist, despite comparable human capital endowments. The dramatic demographic changes affecting the ECA region, such as aging, have different implications for men and women. In particular, (i) old age poverty will especially affect women, and (ii) the shrinking labor force will make it necessary to stimulate the labor participation rate of women.

Social Exclusion and the Gender Gap in Education

Lewis, Maureen; Lockheed, Marlaine
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.37%
Despite a sharp increase in the share of girls who enroll in, attend, and complete various levels of schooling, an educational gender gap remains in some countries. This paper argues that one explanation for this gender gap is the degree of social exclusion within these countries, as indicated by ethno-linguistic heterogeneity, which triggers both economic and psycho-social mechanisms to limit girls' schooling. Ethno-linguistic heterogeneity initially was applied to explaining lagging economic growth, but has emerged in the literature more recently to explain both civil conflict and public goods. This paper is a first application of the concept to explain gender gaps in education. The paper discusses the importance of female education for economic and social development, reviews the evidence regarding gender and ethnic differences in schooling, reviews the theoretical perspectives of various social science disciplines that seek to explain such differences, and tests the relevance of ethnic and linguistic heterogeneity in explaining cross-country differences in school attainment and learning. The study indicates that within-country ethnic and linguistic heterogeneity partly explains both national female primary school completion rates and gender differences in these rates...

Belarus : Country Gender Profile

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Country Gender Assessment (CGA); Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.39%
Belarus demonstrated strong economic growth 2000-2008 and this translated into fast poverty reduction. Belarus invested a lot in the human capital of its population both in men and women. This assessment identifies and describes main gender disparities in Belarus in agency, education, health, and access to economic opportunities. The report builds on the framework of the World Bank's regional gender report, Europe and Central Asia: opportunities for men and women, as well as the World development report on gender and development. The assessment takes a quantitative approach using a wide range of different international data sources including World Bank's world development indicators, the global financial inclusion database, the life in transition survey, European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD)-World Bank business environment and enterprise performance survey as well as local household living standards survey. The report is organized as follows: section one discusses agency and describes factors which may shape the process how men and women use their endowments and utilize economic opportunities to achieve desired outcomes. The second section analyzes gender disparities in endowments...