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Evaluation of the role of environmental factors in the human gastrointestinal tract on the behaviour of probiotic cultures of Lactobacillus casei Shirota and Lactobacillus casei LC01 by the use of a semi-dynamic in vitro model

CARVALHO, Katia Gianni De; KRUGER, Monika Francisca; FURTADO, Danielle Nader; TODOROV, Svetoslav Dimitrov; FRANCO, Bernadette Dora Gombossy De Melo
Fonte: INST MICROBIOLOGIA Publicador: INST MICROBIOLOGIA
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.29%
This study evaluated the influence of gastrointestinal environmental factors (pH, digestive enzymes, food components, medicaments) on the survival of Lactobacillus casei Shirota and Lactobacillus casei LC01, using a semi-dynamic in vitro model that simulates the transit of microorganisms through the human GIT. The strains were first exposed to different simulated gastric juices for different periods of time (0, 30, 60 and 120 min), and then to simulated intestinal fluids for zero, 120, 180 and 240 min, in a step-wise format. The number of viable cells was determined after each step. The influence of food residues (skim milk) in the fluids and resistance to medicaments commonly used for varied therapeutic purposes (analgesics, antiarrhythmics, antibiotics, antihistaminics, proton pump inhibitors, etc.) were also evaluated. Results indicated that survival of both cultures was pH and time dependent, and digestive enzymes had little influence. Milk components presented a protective effect, and medicaments, especially anti-inflammatory drugs, influenced markedly the viability of the probiotic cultures, indicating that the beneficial effects of the two probiotic cultures to health are dependent of environmental factors encountered in the human gastrointestinal tract.; CNPq; FAPESP; CAPES

"Endometriose do trato gastrointestinal: correlações clínicas e laparoscópicas; papel da corrida dos órgãos peritoneais na endometriose (COPE)" ; Gastrointestinal tract endometriosis : clinical and laparoscopic correlatio; the importance of the run in the peritoneal organs in the endometriosis

Sagae, Univaldo Etsuo
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 03/10/2005 PT
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O comprometimento do trato gastrintestinal pela endometriose em 40 pacientes com endometriose pélvica foi avaliado pelo método da COPE. A coorte estudada compreendeu 21 pacientes com sinais e sintomas gastrintestinais e 19 pacientes sem sinais e sintomas gastrintestinais, visando a estabelecer: 1. associações e correlações entre os parâmetros clínicos que sinalizam a presença de endometriose e as localizações das lesões em cada segmento do trato gastrintestinal; 2. correlação entre o estadiamento da endometriose (ASRM, 1996) e o comprometimento gastrintestinal e 3. correlação entre a classificação histológica da endometriose e o comprometimento gastrintestinal. Através da COPE, o diagnóstico e as correlações entre sinais e sintomas ginecológicos, ultra-sonografia vaginal, classificação da ASRM e histologia, com as características distributivas da doença no trato gastrintestinal, demonstraram que: 1. A idade foi significativamente mais elevada nas pacientes com sinais e sintomas no TGI; 2. A detecção de lesões no TGI ocorreu em 70% das pacientes; 3. A dismenorréia em intensidade severa ou incapacitante e dispareunia em intensidade severa correlacionaram-se com a endometriose ginecológica e a endometriose do trato gastrintestinal na presença de sinais e sintomas no TGI; 4. Os sinais e sintomas gastrintestinais correlacionados com a endometriose ginecológica e do TGI...

Posthatching water and feed deprivation affect the gastrointestinal tract and intestinal mucosa development of broiler chicks

Maiorka, A.; Santin, E.; Dahlke, F.; Boleli, I. C.; Furlan, R. L.; Macari, Marcos
Fonte: Poultry Science Assoc Inc Publicador: Poultry Science Assoc Inc
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 483-492
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.24%
We studied the effect of feed and water deprivation on gastrointestinal tract and intestinal mucosa development of chicks at 24, 48, and 72 h posthatching. The treatments were water and feed ad libitum, water ad libitum and no feed, no water but feed ad libitum, and no water and no feed. The relative weight of the yolk sac was not influenced by the treatments. However, at 48 and 72 h posthatching, the relative weight of the liver increased, and the gizzard + proventriculus weight decreased in birds receiving feed ad libitum. An increase in jejunum and ileum relative weights and lengths was observed when the birds were supplied with feed and water. The lack of water produced the same effect as the lack of feed, both causing a higher number of villi per area with reduction in villus size, when compared with feed and water ad libitum treatments. The results of this study revealed that feed and water are able to affect intestinal villus development after hatching, indicating that both feed and water must be supplied to the chicks immediately after hatching.

Magnetic images of pharmaceutical dosage forms in the human gastrointestinal tract

Baffa, O.; Corá, L. A.; Américo, M. F.; Fonseca, P. R.; Oliveira, R. B.; Miranda, J. R A
Fonte: Universidade Estadual Paulista Publicador: Universidade Estadual Paulista
Tipo: Conferência ou Objeto de Conferência Formato: 7254-7257
ENG
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Oral administration with solid dosage forms is a common route in the drug therapy widely used. The drug release by the disintegration process occurs in several gastrointestinal tract (GIT) regions. AC Biosusceptometry (ACB) was originally proposal to characterize the disintegration process of tablets in vitro and in the human stomach, through changes in magnetic signals. The aim of this work was to employ a multisensor ACB system to monitoring magnetic tablets and capsules in the human GIT and to obtain the magnetic images of the disintegration process. The ACB showed accuracy to quantify the gastric residence time, the intestinal transit time and the magnetic images allowed to visualize the disintegration of magnetic formulations in the GIT. The ACB is a non-invasive, radiation free technique, completely safe and harmless to the volunteers and had demonstrated potential to evaluate pharmaceutical dosage forms in the human gastrointestinal tract. © 2005 IEEE.

Action of the extracts of Pluchea sagittalis on the absorptive characteristics of the gastrointestinal tract

Burger,Marilise E.; Baldisserotto,Bernardo; Teixeira,Elisângela P.; Soares,Joceana
Fonte: Instituto de Tecnologia do Paraná - Tecpar Publicador: Instituto de Tecnologia do Paraná - Tecpar
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2000 EN
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Pluchea sagittalis (Lam.) Cabrera, (quitoco or erva lucera) is commonly used to treat digestive disorders in Southern Brazil and countries of the South Cone. The crude aqueous extracts from the leaves, stalks or flowers were used in acute oral toxicity in mice and in pharmacological studies to determine the gastrointestinal transport of water, sodium, and potassium in rats. The oral administration of 5000 mg/kg of extracts examined did not produce signs of intoxication nor induce the death of any mice during the period of 14 days. The extracts from the leaves and stalk have reduced the absorption of water in the jejunum and jejunum and ileum, respectively with relation to the control. There was an absorption of sodium with the administration of these extracts, especially those from the flowers, when compared with that of the control. There was an increase in the absorption of potassium in different parts of the gastrointestinal tract in comparison to that of the control, being increased in most parts with the application of extracts from the stalks. It could be concluded that the extracts from the stalk, leaves and flowers of P. sagittalis have substances that alter the absorptive characteristics of several portions of the gastrointestinal mucosa.

Ion levels in the gastrointestinal tract content and plasma of four teleosts with different feeding habits

Becker, Alexssandro Geferson; Gon??alves, Jamile Fabbrin; Garcia, Luciano de Oliveira; Behr, Everton Rodolfo; Mallmann, F??bio Joel Kochem; Gra??a, Dominguita L??hers; Baldisserotto, Bernardo
Fonte: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande Publicador: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
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66.32%
The levels of various ions (Na+, Cl), Ca2+, Mg2+, K+) in the fluid phase of the gastrointestinal contents and of the plasma were determined in four teleosts with different feeding habits: traira (Hoplias malabaricus), hassar (Hoplosternum littorale), silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen), and grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella). The results showed that most ionic levels in the fluid phase of the gastrointestinal tract seem to be affected by feeding habit and that these levels can be different from those found in the plasma. In practical terms, these results suggest that ionic levels of the gastrointestinal contents should be considered when preparing solutions for studies of intestinal absorption in fishes.

Morfometria do trato gastrintestinal e qualidade de carcaça de frangos de corte alimentados com sorgo grão inteiro; Morphometry of gastrointestinal tract and quality of broiler carcass fed with whole grain sorghum

Carolino, Andrêssa Cristina Xavier Gomes
Fonte: Universidade Federal de Uberlândia Publicador: Universidade Federal de Uberlândia
Tipo: Dissertação
POR
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Nos dias atuais já não se discute a eficiência da utilização do sorgo na alimentação de frangos de corte, bem como as alterações anato-fisiológicas desencadeadas pelo maior tamanho de partícula da ração. O êxito da combinação destes fatores pode gerar grande vantagem econômica na avicultura moderna. Neste sentido, foram realizados três experimentos com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito do sorgo grão inteiros em comparação ao milho e ao sorgo moído sobre o trato gastrintestinal e sobre as características de carcaça de frangos de corte aos 7 e aos 42 dias de idade. O sorgo grão inteiro: (1) Em frangos de corte aos 7 e 42 dias de idade proporciona maior peso corporal por apresentar maior digestibilidade e maior peso da moela por exercer maior trabalho mecânico devido o maior tamanho de partícula; (2) Aumenta a profundidade de cripta do duodeno aos 7 e 42 dias e do jejuno aos 42 dias de idade, sem contudo, afetar a característica das vilosidades do intestino delgado e a área de superfície de absorção da mucosa intestinal nas duas idades avaliadas; (3) Não afeta o peso e o comprimento relativo do intestino; (4) Pode substituir o milho sem prejudicar o rendimento de cortes comerciais bem como as características químicas da carcaça; (5) Aumenta a o conteúdo visceral e não é vantajoso para o rendimento de carcaça...

IFNγ differentially controls the development of idiopathic pneumonia syndrome and GVHD of the gastrointestinal tract; IFNgamma differentially controls the development of idiopathic pneumonia syndrome and GVHD of the gastrointestinal tract

Burman, A.; Banovic, T.; Kuns, R.; Clouston, A.; Stanley, A.; Morris, E.; Rowe, V.; Bofinger, H.; Skoczylas, R.; Raffelt, N.; Fahy, O.; McColl, S.; Engwerda, C.; Mcdonald, K.; Hill, G.
Fonte: Amer Soc Hematology Publicador: Amer Soc Hematology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2007 EN
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Although proinflammatory cytokines are key mediators of tissue damage during graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), IFNgamma has previously been attributed with both protective and pathogenic effects. We have resolved this paradox by using wild-type (wt), IFNgamma(-/-), and IFNgammaR(-/-) mice as donors or recipients in well-described models of allogeneic stem cell transplantation (SCT). We show that donor-derived IFNgamma augments acute GVHD via direct effects on (1) the donor T cell to promote T helper 1 (Th1) differentiation and (2) the gastrointestinal (GI) tract to augment inflammatory cytokine generation. However, these detrimental effects are overwhelmed by a protective role of IFNgamma in preventing the development of idiopathic pneumonia syndrome (IPS). This is the result of direct effects on pulmonary parenchyma to prevent donor cell migration and expansion within the lung. Thus, IFNgamma is the key cytokine differentially controlling the development of IPS and gastrointestinal GVHD after allogeneic SCT.; Angela C. Burman, Tatjana Banovic, Rachel D. Kuns, Andrew D. Clouston, Amanda C. Stanley, Edward S. Morris, Vanessa Rowe, Helen Bofinger, Renae Skoczylas, Neil Raffelt, Olivier Fahy, Shaun R. McColl, Christian R. Engwerda, Kelli P. A. McDonald...

Kit signaling is essential for development and maintenance of interstitial cells of Cajal and electrical rhythmicity in the embryonic gastrointestinal tract

Spencer, E.; Ro, S.; Bayguinov, Y.; Sanders, K.; Ward, S.
Fonte: Wiley-Liss Publicador: Wiley-Liss
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2007 EN
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Interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) are specialized cells in smooth muscle organs that generate and propagate pacemaker activity, receive inputs from motor neurons, and serve as mechanosensors. In the gastrointestinal tract, development and maintenance of the ICC phenotype have been linked to intracellular signaling via Kit, but its role in development of ICC during embryogenesis is controversial. Here we have studied the development of functional ICC-MY during the late gestational period in mice. Blocking Kit with a neutralizing antibody before and after development of spontaneous electrical activity (E17 to P0) caused loss of ICC-MY networks and pacemaker activity. ICC-MY and pacemaker activity developed normally in W/+ and W(V)/+ heterozygotes, but failed to develop between E17 to P0 in W/W(V) embryos with compromised Kit function. Muscles treated with Kit neutralizing antibody or the tyrosine kinase inhibitor, imatinib mesylate (STI571), from E17-P0 for 3 days caused loss of functionally developed ICC-MY networks, but ICC-MY and pacemaker activity recovered within 9 days after discontinuing treatment with neutralizing antibody or imatinib mesylate. These data suggest that Kit signaling is an important factor in lineage decision and in the development of functional ICC in late gestation. ICC-MY demonstrate significant plasticity in gastrointestinal tissues. Manipulation of the ICC phenotype might provide useful therapies in gastrointestinal disease where the Kit-positive cell population is either lost or amplified.; Elizabeth A. H. Beckett...

HER2 targeted therapies for cancer and the gastrointestinal tract

Al-Dasooqi, N.; Gibson, R.; Bowen, J.; Keefe, D.
Fonte: Bentham Science Publishers Ltd. Publicador: Bentham Science Publishers Ltd.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2009 EN
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HER2 (v-erb-b2 erythroblastic leukemia viral oncogene) is a member of the epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor family of receptor tyrosine kinases. Since the discovery of a role for HER2 and other EGF receptors in the development and progression of cancer, they have become targets for a number of targeted anti-cancer drugs. These drugs have proven to be effective in treating and managing a range of cancers, however, recent observations in the clinic have suggested that their administration causes many toxicities, including gastrointestinal toxicity. Drugs with HER2 inhibitory activity fall into two categories; the monoclonal antibodies and small molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitors. Both of these drug classes have been shown to induce symptoms consistent with mucositis development; including nausea and vomiting, diarrhoea and abdominal pain. However, to date, limited studies have been carried out to justify the source of these toxicities. This review summarizes our current knowledge of the toxicities associated with commonly used HER2 targeted therapy drugs, the role of HER2 in cancer and the healthy gastrointestinal tract and the possible mechanisms by which drugs with HER2 inhibitory activity can induce gastrointestinal damage and possibly mucositis in patients.; Al-Dasooqi Noor...

Butyrate esterified to starch is released in the human gastrointestinal tract

Clarke, J.; Topping, D.; Christophersen, C.; Bird, A.; Lange, K.; Saunders, I.; Cobiac, L.
Fonte: Amer Soc Clinical Nutrition Publicador: Amer Soc Clinical Nutrition
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2011 EN
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BACKGROUND: Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) maintain human colonic function and may help prevent colonic disease. A study with ileostomists showed that starches acylated with specific SCFAs largely survive passage through the small intestine, but the percentage released in the colon has not been established. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to determine the percentage of ingested esterified butyrate released in the human gastrointestinal tract. DESIGN: The study was a randomized, crossover, controlled trial consisting of baseline and four 2-wk periods during which 16 volunteers consumed diets low in resistant starch plus 20 and 40 g cooked high-amylose maize starch (HAMS: HAMS20 or HAMS40) or butyrylated HAMS (HAMSB20 or HAMSB40) daily. HAMSB20 contained 31.8 mmol esterified butyrate. Complete 48-h fecal collections were made on days 2-3 and 12-13 of each period. RESULTS: Free fecal butyrate concentrations were higher after HAMSB40 than after HAMSB20 (P < 0.005) and HAMS (P < 0.0001) and higher than baseline data (P < 0.0001). Fecal esterified butyrate concentrations were highest in the HAMSB40 (days 12-13; P < 0.0001) group, and concentrations in the HAMSB40 (days 2-3) and HAMSB20 groups were higher than those in the HAMS groups and those at baseline (P < 0.0001). Ingestion of HAMSB20 and HAMSB40 resulted in the release of 26.8 ± 1.0 and 50.2 ± 2.4 mmol butyrate/d (days 12-13) (84.2 ± 3.0% and 79.0 ± 3.1% of total ingested esterified butyrate)...

Wertigkeit der endosonographisch gesteuerten Feinnadelpunktion im oberen Gastrointestinaltrakt unter klinischen Alltagsbedingungen; Value of endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration in the upper gastrointestinal tract on clinical daily routine conditions

Meier, Claudia
Fonte: Universidade de Tubinga Publicador: Universidade de Tubinga
Tipo: Dissertação
DE_DE
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ZIEL: Die endosonographische Feinnadelpunktion (EUS-FNP) kommt seit gut 30 Jahren im oberen Gastrointestinaltrakt (GI), den umliegenden Organen und veränderten Strukturen zum Einsatz. Das Ziel der Studie war es die Wertigkeit der EUS-FNP unter nicht-optimierten klinischen Alltagsbedingungen zu untersuchen. PATIENTEN UND METHODEN: Retrospektiv wurden die Daten aller Patienten erhoben die sich zwischen Januar 2002 und April 2010 im Klinikum Stuttgart, Katharinenhospital, einer EUS-FNP im oberen GI unterzogen hatten. Zytologische und histologische Befunde, sowie andere Laborergebnisse die mittels der EUS-FNP ermittelt wurden, wurden der endgültigen Diagnose gegenüber gestellt. ERGEBNISSE: An 193 Patienten wurden 236 EUS-FNP durchgeführt (Durchschnittsalter 62,2 Jahre, 68 Frauen, 125 Männer). 201 Proben waren adäquat (85,2%). Insgesamt betrugen Sensitivität, Spezifität und Treffsicherheit (accuracy) 66,7%, 99,1% und 84,8%. Die Ergebnisse der Lymphknotenpunktionen waren besser (77,3%, 100%, 92,1%) als die Punktionen der soliden Pankreastumoren (36%, 83,3%, 45%). Die Komplikationsrate betrug 3%. Über die Zeit zeigte sich eine positive Lernkurve bei Punktionen der Lymphknoten. SCHLUSSFOLGERUNG: Die Methode der EUS-FNP schneidet im klinischen Alltag schlechter ab als unter Studienbedingungen. Dennoch ist sie ein wesentlicher Bestandteil gastroenterologischer Untersuchungen und ein wertvolles Hilfsmittel zur Stellung von Differentialdiagnosen. Bei der EUS-FNP handelt es sich um ein minimalinvasives Verfahren und um eine wichtige...

Biological and clinical review of stromal tumors in the gastrointestinal tract

Nishida, T.; Hirota, S.
Fonte: Murcia : F. Hernández Publicador: Murcia : F. Hernández
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
ENG
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66.43%
Submucosal tumors of the gastrointestinal tract (G1 tract) mainly consist of gastrointestinal mesenchymal tumors (GIMTs) that are distributed in the G1 tract from the esophagus through the rectum. GIMTs include myogenic tumors, neurogenic tumors and gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs). The term "GIST" is now preferentially used for the tumors that express CD34 and KIT. GIMTs are composed of spindle or epithelioid cells, and 20% to 30% show malignant behavior, including peritonea1 dissemination and hematogenous metastasis. KIT expression and mutations in the c-kit gene are found only in GISTs, but not in myogenic or neurogenic tumors. Mutation in the c-kit gene is associated with aggressive features and poor prognosis, and malignant GISTs frequently have mutations in the c-kit gene. The clinicopathological features of GISTs with or without c-kit mutations are markedly different. Therefore, GIMTs may be divided into four major categories based on histochemical and genetic data: myogenic tumors; neurogenic tumors; GISTs with c-kit mutation; and GISTs without c-kit mutation. The origin of GISTs is not fully understood. However, phenotypical resemblance to the interstitial cells of Cajal (ICCs) and gain-of-function mutations in the c-kit gene may suggest origin from ICCs andlor multipotential mesenchymal cells that differentiate into ICCs.

Characterization of metaplastic and heterotopic epithelia in the human gastrointestinal tract by the expression pattern of acyl-CoA synthetase 5

Gassler, N.; Obermüller, N.; Keith, M.; Schirmacher, P.; Autschbachl, F.
Fonte: Murcia : F. Hernández Publicador: Murcia : F. Hernández
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
ENG
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66.34%
Metaplastic and heterotopic epithelia are frequently found in the human intestine. The recently cloned human acyl-CoA synthetase 5 (ACS5) is a key enzyme in providing cytosolic acyl-CoA thioesters. The aim of the study was to identify and to locate the expression of ACS5 in the gastric body and the small intestine with metaplasia or heterotopia by different methods. In the normal gastrointestinal tract, ACS5 was predominantly found in the villus epithelium of the small intestine, but not in the gastric mucosa. Of note, strong expression of ACS5 was also detectable in intestinal metaplasia of the stomach. Inversely, ACS5 expression could neither be detected in heterotopic gastric mucosa of the corpus type nor in gastric, pseudopyloric, or antral metaplasia of the small intestine. In conclusion, our data implicate that ACS5 is a suitable differentiating marker molecule in the gastrointestinal tract.

Immunolocalization of histamine H3 receptors on endocrine cells in the rat gastrointestinal tract

Grandi, Daniela; Shenton, Fiona C.; Chazot, Paul L.; Morini, Giuseppina
Fonte: Murcia : F. Hernández Publicador: Murcia : F. Hernández
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
ENG
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The histamine H3 receptor (H3R) has been identified in the gastrointestinal tract of the rat by immunohistochemistry, using the first validated anti-H3 receptor antibody. Immunoreactivity to H3R was exclusively localized to the endocrine cells scattered in the gastrointestinal mucosa, with positive cells being prominently abundant in the gastric fundus, while they were rarely found in the other regions. In the fundus, positive cells were distributed in the lower half of the mucosa and their number significantly decreased after a 24 h-fasting period. Double-labeling studies were undertaken to identify the H3R-immunoreactive cell types in the fundic and antral mucosa. The H3Rimmunoreactive cells were positive for chromogranin A. In the fundus, approximately 90% of cells positive to H3R were also positive to the histamine-forming enzyme, histidine decarboxylase. None of the cells expressing H3R displayed immunoreactivity for gastrin, somatostatin or ghrelin. Location, the influence of food deprivation and colocalization with histidine decarboxylase indicate that H3R positive cells correspond to the enterochromaffin-like cells (ECL).

Contribution of different segments of the gastrointestinal tract to digestion in growing Saanen goats

Leite, R. F.; Krizsan, S. J.; Figueiredo, F. O. M.; Carvalho, V. B.; Teixeira, I. A. M. A.; Huhtanen, P.
Fonte: Amer Soc Animal Science Publicador: Amer Soc Animal Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 1802-1814
ENG
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66.32%
Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (FAPESP); Processo FAPESP: 2008/57302-0; Processo FAPESP: 2010/20087-5; Processo FAPESP: 2013/06259-6; This study examined mean retention time (MRT) of particulate and liquid matter in different segments of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) of growing Saanen goats of different sexes and subjected to different levels of feed restriction. In addition, feeding behavior and total tract digestibility were determined for all animals ahead of slaughter. In total, 54 Saanen goats (18 each of females, castrated males, and intact males) with initial BW 15.3 +/- 0.4 kg were used in a 3 x 3 factorial arrangement comprising the 3 sexes and 3 levels of feed restriction (unrestricted/ad libitum, moderate, and severe restriction). Six blocks per sex group, each consisting of 3 goats, were randomly formed and the goats within each block were randomly allocated to 1 of 3 different feed restrictions. The daily amounts of feed offered to animals subjected to moderate and severe feed restriction (approximately 75% and 50% of ad libitum rate, respectively) were determined within block based on the DMI by ad libitum fed goats on the previous day. The MRT of particulate matter was determined either using Yb-labeled diet or indigestible NDF (iNDF) determined in situ as markers. Mean retention time of the liquid phase was determined by Cr-EDTA. Orthogonal polynomial contrasts were used to determine linear and quadratic effect of feed restriction...

In vivo assessment of potential probiotic Lactobacillus salivarius strains: evaluation of their establishment, persistence, and localisation in the murine gastrointestinal tract

Murphy, Lisa; Dunne, Colum; Kiely, Barry; Shanahan, Fergus; O'Sullivan, Gerald C; Collins, Kevin J
Fonte: Co-Action Publishing Publicador: Co-Action Publishing
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; all_ul_research; ul_published_reviewed
ENG
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66.34%
peer-reviewed; The enteric flora comprise approximately 95% of the total number of cells in the human body. Numerous studies have investigated potentially beneficial members of this microbial community due to their ability to elicit immune responses while also protecting against microbial pathogens. We have previously reported on the isolation and identification, from surgically-resected segments of the human gastrointestinal tract (GIT), of potential probiotic lactic acid bacteria (LAB). These bacterial strains exhibit potentially beneficial probiotic traits in vitro such as bile tolerance in the absence of deconjugation; gastric acid resistance; and adherence to epithelial cell lines. The objective of this study was to administer two strains of the previously-isolated LAB to mice over a period of 7 or 14 days in order to assess their ability to establish themselves within specific regions of the GIT. Throughout this feeding period, and for 4 days following cessation of feeding, the numbers of total culturable lactobacilli and of the administered LAB present in faeces were monitored. Spontaneous rifampicin resistant derivatives (50 mg:ml) of Lactobacillus salivarius subsp. salivarius UCC1(LM5) and Lb. salivarius subsp. salivarius UCC118(LM2) were generated to facilitate enumeration of the strains in GIT and faecal samples. Each potential probiotic strain was individually administered to Balb:c mice at a daily concentration of approximately 4.0 109 CFU. After 1 day of feeding...

Macroscopia do aparelho digestório do cágado sul-americano Mesoclemmys vanderhaegei (Bour, 1973); Macroscopic aspects of the Gastrointestinal Tract of the South American freshwater turtle Mesoclemmys vanderhaegei (Bour, 1973)

Pinheiro, Juliana Normando; Godoy, Isabela de; Brito, Elizângela Silva de; Strüssmann, Christine; Ferraz, Rosa Helena dos Santos
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; ; ; ; ; ; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 01/01/2010 POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.37%
Ainda há poucas descrições anatômicas a cerca do trato digestório de representantes da ordem Testudines, especialmente sobre o cágado-de-Vanderhaegei, Mesoclemmys vanderhaegei. A ocorrência desta espécie abrange as bacias dos rios Paraguai, Paraná e Amazônica. Estudos sobre a sua ecologia e morfologia ainda são pouco explorados, dessa forma, o aparelho digestório foi caracterizado macroscopicamente pela dissecção desse sistema em dez espécimes. A boca possui comprimento orocaudal ligeiramente maior que o laterolateral. Os lábios são formados por placas córneas. A língua é macia e está totalmente fixada ao assoalho da cavidade oral. O esôfago possui luz ampla e paredes delgadas na região cervical, tornando-se gradativamente mais estreito e de paredes espessas caudalmente. O estômago apresenta forma semelhante à letra "U" e podem ser distinguidas as regiões do cárdia, do corpo e do piloro, com mucosa totalmente pregueada. Na transição deste para o intestino delgado o esfíncter pilórico é conspícuo. O intestino apresenta-se disposto entre o delgado e grosso, sendo o primeiro constituído pelo duodeno e jejuno, não sendo possível identificar macroscopicamente o íleo. Da mesma forma, não se observa o ceco como primeiro segmento do intestino grosso...

Diversity analysis of commensal porcine Escherichia coli - associations between genotypes and habitat in the porcine gastrointestinal tract

Dixit, Sameer; Gordon, David; Wu, Xi-Yang; Chapman, Toni; Kailasapathy, Kaila; Chin, James
Fonte: Society for General Microbiology Publicador: Society for General Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Diversity studies of enteric Escherichia coli have relied almost entirely on faecal isolations on the assumption that they are representative of flora found throughout the gastrointestinal tract. The authors have addressed this belief by analysing isolates obtained from the duodenum, ileum, colon and faeces of pigs. E coli isolates were obtained from eight pigs and characterized using multi-locus enzyme electrophoresis and PCR-based screening for a range of factors thought to be associated with intestinal and extra-intestinal disease. There are four main genetic groups of commensal E. coli (A, B1, B2, D). Group A strains represented 76% of the isolates from the duodenum, ileum and colon compared to 58% of the strains isolated from faeces. A nested molecular analysis of variance based on the allozyme and virulence factor screening results showed that differences among individual pigs accounted for 6% of the observed genetic diversity, whilst 27% of the genetic variation could be explained by clonal composition differences among gut regions. Finally, the absence of virulence genes in these commensals indicates that they may be suitable as a probiotic consortium, particularly if they also display increased adherence to enterocytes and antagonistic activity against pathogenic strains of E. coli.

Mucoadhesion studies in the gastrointestinal tract to increase oral drug bioavailability; Estudos de mucoadesão no trato gastrointestinal para o aumento da biodisponibilidade oral de fármacos

Varum, Felipe Oliveira; Basit, Abdul Waseh; Sousa, João; Veiga, Francisco
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; Artigo Avaliado pelos Pares Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 01/12/2008 POR
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The oral bioavailability of many drugs can be limited by the residence time of pharmaceutical dosage forms in the gastrointestinal tract. Mucoadhesion has been proposed as a method to increase residence time at a specific area, hence increasing the therapeutic effect of drugs. Most research efforts on mucoadhesion have focused on the stomach and small intestine, with promising results observed from in in vitro studies. However, γ-scintigraphy data obtained in human studies have revealed the lack of success of mucoadhesion approaches in order to increase the contact time of formulations in the upper gut. The lack of in vitro/in vivo correlation can be attributed to the complex nature of the human gastrointestinal tract, with most in vitro models providing little resemblance to the in vivo situation, such as motility, pH, mucus thickness and mucus turnover, presence of enzymes and food. In the colon, the mucus turnover, the sensibility to mucus secretory stimulus and motility are lower than in the stomach and small intestine. Therefore, colonic mucoadhesion may be a more successful approach. Nevertheless, more studies in animals and humans are needed to evaluate its potential, as well as, pharmacokinetic studies to investigate drug release and absorption from mucoadhesive systems.; A biodisponibilidade oral de muitos fármacos é limitada pelo tempo de residência das formas farmacêuticas ao longo do trato gastrointestinal. A mucoadesão tem sido proposta como forma de prolongar o tempo de residência em determinada zona...