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The adaptive potential of a plant pathogenic fungus, Rhizoctonia solani AG-3, under heat and fungicide stress

Willi, Yvonne; Frank, Aline; Heinzelmann, Renate; Kaelin, Andrea; Spalinger, Lena; Ceresini, Paulo C.
Fonte: Springer Publicador: Springer
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 903-908
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.31%
Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq); The ability to improve fitness via adaptive evolution may be affected by environmental change. We tested this hypothesis in an in vitro experiment with the plant pathogen Rhizoctonia solani Anastomosis Group 3 (AG-3), assessing genetic and environmental variances under two temperatures (optimal and higher than optimal) and three fungicide concentrations (no fungicide, low and high concentration of a copper-based fungicide). We measured the mean daily growth rate, the coefficient of variation for genotypic (I (G)) and environmental variance (I (E)) in growth, and broad-sense heritability in growth. Both higher temperature and increased fungicide concentration caused a decline in growth, confirming their potential as stressors for the pathogen. All types of standardized variances in growth-I (G), phenotypic variance, and I (E) as a trend-increased with elevated stress. However, heritability was not significantly higher under enhanced stress because the increase in I (G) was counterbalanced by somewhat increased I (E). The results illustrate that predictions for adaptation under environmental stress may depend on the type of short-term evolvability measure. Because mycelial growth is linked to fitness...

Metodologia e avaliação de resistência de Sphaerotheca fuliginea a fungicidas em cucurbitáceas

Linhares, Andréa Iruzun
Fonte: Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP) Publicador: Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP)
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: x, 87 f. : il., tabs.
POR
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Pós-graduação em Agronomia (Proteção de Plantas) - FCA; O presente trabalho teve como objetivos comparar métodos de monitoramento de resistência de Sphaerotheca fuliginea, causador de oídio em cucurbitáceas, a fungicidas; avaliar a sensibilidade de isolados procedentes de vários locais a fungicidas e verificar a influência de doses de fungicidas na sensibilidade do patógeno. Foram comparados três variações de métodos de avaliação de resistência com discos cotiledonares: flutuando e imersos em solução aquosa do fungicida e retirados de plantas de pepino pulverizadas com fungicida. As culturas foram incubadas por 12 dias em sala de crescimento (222ºC e 12 h luz) e então avaliadas pela área foliar colonizada pelo patógeno. A sensibilidade de isolados, coletados na BA, no DF, em MG, RS e SP, foi verificada pelo método do disco foliar flutuando em solução do fungicida e a inoculação, as condições de crescimento e a avaliação conforme descrito acima. Determinou-se a concentração mínima inibitória (CMI) dos isolados para os fungicidas fenarimol (FE) e tebuconazole (TE) (nas concentrações de 0; 0,001; 0,01; 0,1 e 1 g.mL-1); benomyl (BE) e tiofanato metílico (TM) (0; 6,3; 12,5; 25 e 50 g.mL-1) e azoxystrobin (AZ) (0; 0...

Sensitivity reduction in Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei to triadimenol fungicide applied as barley seed treatment

Reis,Erlei Melo; Zanatta,Mateus; Brustolin,Fernando; Danelli,Anderson Luiz Durante
Fonte: Grupo Paulista de Fitopatologia Publicador: Grupo Paulista de Fitopatologia
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/12/2013 EN
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37.31%
Experiments were carried out in a growth chamber with controlled temperature and photoperiod to test two populations of Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei from Guarapuava, Paraná State, and Passo Fundo, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. Treatments consisted in application of the fungicide triadimenol (Baytan 150 SC®) at three rates of its commercial formulation: 150, 250, 350 mL/100 Kg barley seeds. The experiments were conducted separately in a growth chamber for each population, adopting the same temperature and photoperiod. For inoculation, pots containing barley seedlings colonized by the fungus were placed among the plots. After emergence of the first symptoms, the disease severity was assessed at two-day intervals. The experiments were repeated twice for each fungus population. Data were expressed as area under the disease progress curve and as powdery mildew control by comparing the severity after the fungicide treatments to that of control. Data were subjected to analysis of variance and regression analysis; the area under the disease progress curve was also calculated. Comparing the data obtained in the present study with those reported in the literature and the control, the maximum value of 26.1% is considered insufficient to prevent the damages caused by the disease. The control response to the fungicide rate was significant. We can conclude that there was a reduction in the sensitivity of both B. graminis f.sp. hordei populations to the fungicide triadimenol...

Relationship between IC50 determined in vitro/in vivo and the fungicide rate used in the Field

Reis,Erlei Melo; Zanatta,Mateus; Carmona,Marcelo; Menten,José Otávio Machado
Fonte: Grupo Paulista de Fitopatologia Publicador: Grupo Paulista de Fitopatologia
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/03/2015 EN
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37.37%
Published data containing fungicide concentrations that control 50% (IC50) of a given fungus were analyzed. In the analysis we considered: (i) the IC50 determined in vitro and in vivo for a given fungicide and for a specific fungus; (ii) the concentration (g/ha) of active ingredient for the fungicide indicated to control a specific disease in the field; (iii) water volume of 120/L used in the spray; (iv) the fungicide a.i. concentration (mg/L) in 120 L volume; (v) and the ratio of the concentration used in the field with that determined in the laboratory. The analysis were performed by using IC50 data for DMIs, QoIs, a carbamate and a benzimidazol against the following fungi Bipolaris sorokiniana, Drechslera tritici-repentis, D. siccans, Fusarium graminearum, Puccinia triticina, Exserohilum turcicum, Phakopsora pachyrhizi and Corynespora cassiicola. The fungicide concentrations sprayed in the field were 33.9 (D. siccans and trifloxystrobin) to 500,000.0 (E. turcicum and iprodione) times higher than that determined in the laboratory. It was concluded that the IC50 was not related to the concentration used in the field and therefore should be used to compare the power among fungicides and to monitor the fungal sensitivity shift towards fungicides

Induction of SCEs and DNA fragmentation in bovine peripheral lymphocytes by in vitro exposure to tolylfluanid-based fungicide

Siviková,Katarína; Dianovsky,Ján; Holecková,Beáta
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira de Genética Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira de Genética
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2011 EN
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37.31%
The potential for genotoxic and cytotoxic effects of tolylfluanid-based fungicide (50% active agent) was evaluated using sister chromatid exchange (SCE) and proliferation indices (PI) in cultured bovine peripheral lymphocytes. For the detection of possible genetic damage, DNA fragmentation assay was also applied. Bovine lymphocytes cultured for 72 h were treated with the fungicide at the final concentrations of 1.75, 3.5, 8.75, and 17.5 µg/mL for the last 24 and 48 h of culture without S9 metabolic activation, and during the last 2 h of culture with S9 metabolic activation. In the SCE assays no evidence for genotoxic activity of the fungicide was found in treatments of 24 h without and 2 h with S9. After the 24 h exposure to tolylfluanid, a weak decrease in the PI was observed. With the prolonged exposure time (48 h), dose dependence in the increase of SCE frequencies was observed. Moreover, after 48 h exposure slight fragmentation of DNA at the concentrations of 3.5 and 8.75 µg/mL was demonstrated. SCE quantification is the most widely used approach for the assessment of genotoxic/cytogenetic effects of chemical compounds. Positive results in the assay at 48 h exposure indicated a potential of the fungicide to increase frequency of chromosomal damage (replication injuries) that is the confirmation of early effect of exposure.

Mechanisms and significance of fungicide resistance

Deising,Holger B.; Reimann,Sven; Pascholati,Sérgio F.
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/06/2008 EN
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37.48%
In this review article, we show that occurrence of fungicide resistance is one of the most important issues in modern agriculture. Fungicide resistance may be due to mutations of genes encoding fungicide targets (qualitative fungicide resistance) or to different mechanisms that are induced by sub-lethal fungicide stress. These mechanisms result in different and varying levels of resistance (quantitative fungicide resistance). We discuss whether or not extensive use of fungicides in agricultural environments is related to the occurrence of fungicide resistance in clinical environments. Furthermore, we provide recommendations of how development of fungicide resistant pathogen populations may be prevented or delayed.

Evaluation of contact fungicide spray regimes for control of late blight (Phytophthora infestans) in southern Ethiopia using potato cultivars with different levels of host resistance

Mekonen,Shiferaw; Alemu,Tameru; Kassa,Bekele; Forbes,Greg
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira de Fitopatologia Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira de Fitopatologia
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/02/2011 EN
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37.14%
Late blight is an important disease of potato in Ethiopia, causing up to 100% loss in susceptible cultivars. In this study, two putatively resistant cultivars of relatively recent introduction (Jalenie and Gudenie) and a widely grown susceptible cultivar (White Flower) were evaluated for late blight severity and yield under five different contact fungicide (mancozeb) regimes and in unsprayed plots. Trials were carried out at two major potato production locations in southern Ethiopia: Awassa and Kokate, located at 1700 and 2156 meters above sea level, respectively. Greater disease pressure occurred at Awassa but the three cultivars performed consistently based on relative disease severity levels at the two locations. While White Flower was assigned a susceptibility score of 8 (highly susceptible) in both sites, Jalenie had scores between 1 and 0, and Gudenie had scores of 3 and 4, in Awassa and Kokate, respectively. With Jalenie, one application of contact fungicide was sufficient in both trials, while for Gudenie, two sprays appeared more appropriate as little or no gain was clear with three or more sprays. With the susceptible White Flower, four sprays were beneficial but little benefit was evident with the fifth spray.

Treatment of wheat seed with zinc, fungicide, and polymer: seed quality and yield

Rufino,Cassyo Araujo; Tavares,Lizandro Ciciliano; Brunes,André Pich; Lemes,Elisa Souza; Villela,Francisco Amaral
Fonte: ABRATES - Associação Brasileira de Tecnologia de Sementes Publicador: ABRATES - Associação Brasileira de Tecnologia de Sementes
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2013 EN
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27.45%
The objective of this study was to assess performance of wheat seeds after application of three components [fungicide, zinc (Zn), and polymer], separately or with their combinations, as well as assessing seed quality and yield. Thus, the treatments consisted in combinations of fungicide + zinc (Zn) + polymer, totaling six treatments, with four replicates per treatment, as follow: T0 - without application of Zn, fungicide, or polymer (control); T1 - Zn; T2 - Zn + polymer; T3 - polymer; T4 - fungicide; T5 - polymer + fungicide; and T6 - Zn + polymer + fungicide. The performance of the seeds originating from plants whose seeds had been pre-treated was assessed by tests of germination and vigor, in addition to analyzes of growth and yield. It was concluded that wheat seeds treated with zinc, fungicide and polymer are positively influenced until 30 days after emergence. The germination of wheat seeds is positively influenced by the treatment with fungicide, as much when separately applied as in combined application with zinc and polymer. The yield per plant increases when seeds are treated with Zn.

At Least Two Origins of Fungicide Resistance in Grapevine Downy Mildew Populations▿

Chen, Wei-Jen; Delmotte, François; Cervera, Sylvie Richard; Douence, Lisette; Greif, Charles; Corio-Costet, Marie-France
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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Quinone outside inhibiting (QoI) fungicides represent one of the most widely used groups of fungicides used to control agriculturally important fungal pathogens. They inhibit the cytochrome bc1 complex of mitochondrial respiration. Soon after their introduction onto the market in 1996, QoI fungicide-resistant isolates were detected in field plant pathogen populations of a large range of species. However, there is still little understanding of the processes driving the development of QoI fungicide resistance in plant pathogens. In particular, it is unknown whether fungicide resistance occurs independently in isolated populations or if it appears once and then spreads globally by migration. Here, we provide the first case study of the evolutionary processes that lead to the emergence of QoI fungicide resistance in the plant pathogen Plasmopara viticola. Sequence analysis of the complete cytochrome b gene showed that all resistant isolates carried a mutation resulting in the replacement of glycine by alanine at codon 143 (G143A). Phylogenetic analysis of a large mitochondrial DNA fragment including the cytochrome b gene (2,281 bp) across a wide range of European P. viticola isolates allowed the detection of four major haplotypes belonging to two distinct clades...

Mechanisms and significance of fungicide resistance†

Deising, Holger B.; Reimann, Sven; Pascholati, Sérgio F.
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.45%
In this review article, we show that occurrence of fungicide resistance is one of the most important issues in modern agriculture. Fungicide resistance may be due to mutations of genes encoding fungicide targets (qualitative fungicide resistance) or to different mechanisms that are induced by sub-lethal fungicide stress. These mechanisms result in different and varying levels of resistance (quantitative fungicide resistance). We discuss whether or not extensive use of fungicides in agricultural environments is related to the occurrence of fungicide resistance in clinical environments. Furthermore, we provide recommendations of how development of fungicide resistant pathogen populations may be prevented or delayed.

Qualidade fisiol??gica e sanit??ria de sementes de arroz com diferentes graus de umidade, tratadas com fungicida; Phisiological and sanitary quality of rice seeds whit different moisture contents, trated with fungicide

SILVA, Clarissa Santos da
Fonte: Universidade Federal de Pelotas; Agronomia; Programa de P??s-gradua????o em Ci??ncia e Tecnologia de Sementes; UFPel; BR Publicador: Universidade Federal de Pelotas; Agronomia; Programa de P??s-gradua????o em Ci??ncia e Tecnologia de Sementes; UFPel; BR
Tipo: Dissertação Formato: application/pdf
POR
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37.45%
This work was conducted to evaluate the quality of rice seeds treated whit fungicide in different moisture contents during of stored period. Were used two rice seeds lots, cv EL PASO 144, produced in Pelotas/RS during 04/05. For the formularization of fungicide, were additioned 10mL (1%), 20mL (2%) e 30mL (3%) of water in mixed with fungicide Carboxin/Thiram (300mL/ 100Kg of seeds). Same water percentages, without addition of the fungicide, besides one control, had constituted the seven treatments. The seeds were stored in hermetic recipient during eight months period. The quality of seeds was submitted to moisture determination, standard germination, vigor and health. Biochemical evaluation of the seeds was obtained by the technique of electrophoresis of enzymatic systems, being evaluated the activity of the enzymes Acid Phosphates, Alcohol Dehydrogenize, Glutamate Oxalacetate Transaminase, Esterase and a- amylase. The statistic model was of randomizes completely blocks with three replications. The benefic effect of fungicide on physiological quality are evident immediately after the treatment of seeds. The results indicate the germination and vigor reduction of treated seeds increase after 60 days of storage. The fungicide used in treatments of seeds is efficient in reduction of the fungi associates on the rice seeds. Wasn t possible to identify the effect of fungicide in the expression of enzymes of viable seeds.; Este trabalho foi conduzido com objetivo avaliar a qualidade de sementes de arroz tratadas com fungicida em diferentes graus de umidade durante o per??odo de armazenamento. Foram utilizados dois lotes de sementes da cultivar EL PASO 144...

Sistema de aspers??o no recobrimento de sementes de soja com amino??cido, fungicida, inseticida e pol??mero; Treater with spray system in coating of soybean seeds with aminoacid, fungicide, insecticide and polymer

LUDWIG, Marcos Paulo
Fonte: Universidade Federal de Pelotas; Agronomia; Programa de P??s-gradua????o em Ci??ncia e Tecnologia de Sementes; UFPel; BR Publicador: Universidade Federal de Pelotas; Agronomia; Programa de P??s-gradua????o em Ci??ncia e Tecnologia de Sementes; UFPel; BR
Tipo: Dissertação Formato: application/pdf
POR
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27.45%
The objective of this paper was to evaluate seed coating of soybean seed using equipment for treatment with spray system Grazmec??. The treatments applied with the equipment were: 1) control, 2) fungicide, 3) amino acid, 4) polymer, 5) fungicide + amino acid, 6) fungicide + insecticide, 7) fungicide + polymer, 8) fungicide + insecticide + polymer, 9) fungicide + amino acid + insecticide. The evaluation of the spray system was followed by moisture content determination, weight of 1000 seeds and coverage. Also field emergence was evaluated. The seed quality evaluations were followed by germination, vigor, dry matter of plants and seed health. The seeds were storage for six months and evaluations were done every 60 days. The results shows that soybean seed moisture content was 1% lower with the treatment; the field emergence and weight of 1000 seeds were no affected by treatment; when the change of product and/or seed the equipment should regulated for a coating good. The applied of polymer improve seed coating. The application of amino acid isolate improve the performance of the seeds; the use of amino acid combined with fungicide, insecticide and polymer do not improve the seed quality; the use of polymer fungicide + insecticide + polymer improve leaf area...

Assessing the impact of fungicide enostroburin application on bacterial community in wheat phyllosphere

Gu, L.; Bai, Z.; Jin, B.; Hu, Q.; Wang, H.; Zhuang, G.; Zhang, H.
Fonte: I O S Press Publicador: I O S Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2010 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.31%
Fungicides have been used extensively for controlling fungal pathogens of plants. However, little is known regarding the effects that fungicides upon the indigenous bacterial communities within the plant phyllosphere. The aims of this study were to assess the impact of fungicide enostroburin upon bacterial communities in wheat phyllosphere. Culture-independent methodologies of 16S rDNA clone library and 16S rDNA directed polymerase chain reaction with denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) were used for monitoring the change of bacterial community. The 16S rDNA clone library and PCR-DGGE analysis both confirmed the microbial community of wheat plant phyllosphere were predominantly of the γ-Proteobacteria phyla. Results from PCR-DGGE analysis indicated a significant change in bacterial community structure within the phyllosphere following fungicide enostroburin application. Bands sequenced within control cultures were predominantly of Pseudomonas genus, but those bands sequenced in the treated samples were predominantly strains of Pantoea genus and Pseudomonas genus. Of interest was the appearance of two DGGE bands following fungicide treatment, one of which had sequence similarities (98%) to Pantoea sp. which might be a competitor of plant pathogens. This study revealed the wheat phyllosphere bacterial community composition and a shift in the bacterial community following fungicide enostroburin application.; http://www.elsevier.com/wps/find/journaldescription.cws_home/709941/description#description; Likun Gu...

Histopathology of the male reproductive system induced by the fungicide benomyl

Hess, R.A.; Nakai, M.
Fonte: Murcia : F. Hernández Publicador: Murcia : F. Hernández
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
ENG
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Benomyl is an effective fungicide that has been in use for many years. This chemical and its primary metabolite, carbendazim, are microtubule poisons that are relatively nontoxic to all mammalian organs, except for the male reproductive system. Its primary effects, at moderate to low dosages, are on the testis, where it causes sloughing of germ cells in a stagedependent manner. Sloughing is caused by the effects of the chemical on microtubules and intermediate filaments of the Sertoli cell. These effects spread to dividing germ cells and also lead to abnormal development of the head of elongating spermatids. At higher dosages, it causes occlusion of the efferent ducts, blocking passage of sperm from the rete testis to epididymis. The mechanism of occlusion appears to be related to fluid reabsorption, sperm stasis, followed by leukocyte chemotaxis, sperm granulomas, fibrosis and often the formation of abnormal microcanals. The occlusion results in a rapid swelling of the testis and ultimately seminiferous tubular atrophy and infertility. In conclusion, studies that reveal long term testicular atrophy following chronic or subchronic exposure to a toxicant should be re-examined for histopathological lesions in the efferent ductules and head of the epididymis. Lesions in the male track that cause blockage may induce permanent testicular damage and a decrease in sperm production.

Mechanisms and significance of fungicide resistance; Mecanismos e significância da resistência a fungicidas

DEISING, Holger B.; REIMANN, Sven; PASCHOLATI, Sérgio F.
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.48%
In this review article, we show that occurrence of fungicide resistance is one of the most important issues in modern agriculture. Fungicide resistance may be due to mutations of genes encoding fungicide targets (qualitative fungicide resistance) or to different mechanisms that are induced by sub-lethal fungicide stress. These mechanisms result in different and varying levels of resistance (quantitative fungicide resistance). We discuss whether or not extensive use of fungicides in agricultural environments is related to the occurrence of fungicide resistance in clinical environments. Furthermore, we provide recommendations of how development of fungicide resistant pathogen populations may be prevented or delayed.; A ocorrência de resistência a fungicidas é uma das mais importantes conseqüências da agricultura moderna. Este fato pode ser resultado de mutações em genes codificadores de resistência a fungicidas (resistência quantitativa) ou a diferentes mecanismos que são induzidos por stresse devido a doses subletais dos produtos utilizados. Estes mecanismos produzem diferentes e variados níveis de resistência (resistência quantitativa). Também é discutido se o uso extensivo de fungicidas em ambientes agricultáveis é relacionado ou não com a ocorrência de resistência em ambientes clínicos. Além disso...

Control of Asian soybean rust with mancozeb, a multi-site fungicide

Silva,Luís Henrique Carregal Pereira da; Campos,Hercules Diniz; Silva,Juliana Resende Campos; Reis,Erlei Melo
Fonte: Grupo Paulista de Fitopatologia Publicador: Grupo Paulista de Fitopatologia
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/03/2015 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.14%
An experiment conducted in the field the action of mancozeb, a fungicide of multi-site action was tested, to control soybean rust caused by Phakopsora pachyrhizi. Its performance was compared to that of the mixture cyproconazole (DMI) + azoxystrobin (QoI). The soybean cultivar NA 7337 RR was used with a population of 400,000 plants/ha cultivated in 20m2 plots. Treatments consisted of mancozeb levels (1.5 and 2.0 kg/ha) applied four, six and eight times. The DMI + QoI mixture was applied three times at 0.3 L/ha + Nimbus. Rust severity was assessed six times in the plots and data were integrated as the area under the disease progress curve (AUDPC). The plots were harvested and grain yield was expressed as kg/ha. Data on AUDPC and yield were subjected to analysis of variance and means compared according to Turkey's test (p = 0.005). Treatments with mancozeb were superior to DMI + QoI mixture both for rust control and grain yield. Four applications of 2.0 k/ha mancozeb were more efficient than three applications of the mixture used as standard. Mancozeb has the potential to be added to fungicide mixtures in the establishment of soybean rust anti-resistance strategy.

Sooty blotch and flyspeck control with fungicide applications based on calendar, local IPM, and warning system

Spolti,Piérri; Valdebenito-Sanhueza,Rosa Maria; Gleason,Mark Lawrence; Del Ponte,Emerson Medeiros
Fonte: Embrapa Informação Tecnológica; Pesquisa Agropecuária Brasileira Publicador: Embrapa Informação Tecnológica; Pesquisa Agropecuária Brasileira
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/07/2011 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.14%
The objective of this work was to compare fungicide application timing for the control of sooty blotch and flyspeck (SBFS) of 'Fuji' apples in Rio Grande do Sul state, Brazil. The following treatments were evaluated in two growing seasons: two warning system-based (modified version of the Brown-Sutton-Hartmann system) spray of captan plus thiophanate methyl, with or without summer pruning; two calendar/rain-based spray of captan or a mixture of captan plus thiophanate methyl; fungicide spray timing based on a local integrated pest management (IPM) for the control of summer diseases; and a check without spraying. Sooty blotch and flyspeck incidence over time and their severity at harvest were evaluated. The highest number of spray was required by calendar/rain-based treatments (eight and seven sprays in the sequential years). The warning system recommended five and three sprays, in the sequential years, which led to the highest SBFS control efficacy expressed by the reduced initial inoculum and disease progress rate. Summer pruning enhanced SBFS control efficacy, especially by suppressing SBFS signs which tended to be restrained to the peduncle region of the fruit. Sooty blotch and flyspeck can be managed both with calendar and the grower-based IPM practices in Brazil...

Avaliação da sobrevivência de bradirrizóbios em sementes de soja tratadas com fungicidas, protetor celular "power" e o inoculante "nitragin optimize"

Marks, Bettina Berquó
Fonte: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul Publicador: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul
Tipo: Trabalho de Conclusão de Curso Formato: application/pdf
POR
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27.45%
O Brasil é considerado o segundo maior produtor de soja do mundo, e ocupa o primeiro lugar em exportação desse grão. A aplicação de técnicas agrícolas modernas tem grande importância no alcance e manutenção desse patamar. Entre essas técnicas destacam-se o surgimento do inoculante, o tratamento de sementes com fungicida e a adubação de micronutrientes via semente. Atualmente as sementes de soja veiculam fungicida, micronutriente e inoculante. Entretanto, estudos já realizados demonstraram incompatibilidade entre as bactérias inoculadas com as demais práticas de tratamento de sementes. Em função disso, algumas indústrias elaboraram aditivos celulares, que aumentariam a sobrevivência de microorganismos inoculados nas sementes, mesmo em presença de fungicidas e micronutriente. Esse estudo teve como objetivo avaliar o efeito do aditivo celular "Power" na sobrevivência de bradirrizóbios presentes no inoculante "Nitragin Optimize", e a taxa de nodulação em sementes tratadas com fungicidas. O ensaio foi conduzido no Laboratório de Fixação Biológica do Nitrogênio (LFBN) da FEPAGRO e na casa de vegetação da Faculdade de Agronomia da UFRGS. Sementes de soja foram tratadas com quatro tipos de fungicidas ("Protreat 2" (PT2)...

Sooty blotch and flyspeck control with fungicide applications based on calendar, local IPM, and warning system.

SPOLTI, P.; VALDEBENITO-SANHUZA, R. M.; GLEASON, M. L.; PONTE, E. M. D.
Fonte: Pesquisa Agropecuaria Brasileira, Brasília, v.46, n.7, p.697-705, jun. 2011 Publicador: Pesquisa Agropecuaria Brasileira, Brasília, v.46, n.7, p.697-705, jun. 2011
Tipo: Artigo em periódico indexado (ALICE)
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
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The objective of this work was to compare fungicide application timing for the control of sooty blotch and flyspeck (SBFS) of 'Fuji' apples in Rio Grande do Sul state, Brazilarning system-based (modified version of the Brown-Sutton-Hartmann system) spray of captan plus thiophanate methyl, with or without summer pruning; two calendar/rain-based spray of captan or a mixture of captan plus thiophanate methyl; fungicide spray timing based on a local integrated pest management (IPM) for the control of summer diseases; and a check without spraying. Sooty blotch and flyspeck incidence over time and their severity at harvest were evaluated. The highest number of spray was required by calendar/rain-based treatments (eight and seven sprays in the sequential years). The warning system recommended five and three sprays, in the sequential years, which led to the highest SBFS control efficacy expressed by the reduced initial inoculum and disease progress rate. Summer pruning enhanced SBFS control efficacy, especially by suppressing SBFS signs which tended to be restrained to the peduncle region of the fruit. Sooty blotch and flyspeck can be managed both with calendar and the grower-based IPM practices in Brazil, but a reduced number of sprays is required when the warning system is used.; 2011

BEHAVIOR OF THE FUNGICIDE METALAXYL IN SOME BRAZILIAN SANDY AND CLAYEY SOILS; COMPORTAMENTO DO FUNGICIDA METALAXIL EM SOLOS BRASILEIROS ARENOSOS E ARGILOSOS

Spessoto, Andrea Maria; Universidade Federal de São Carlos; Melo, Itamar Soares; Embrapa Meio Ambiente - SP; Ferracini, Vera Lucia; Embrapa Meio Ambiente, SP
Fonte: UFPR Publicador: UFPR
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; Artigo Avaliado pelos Pares Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 07/03/2007 POR
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In this study high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used to measure the adsorption coefficients (Kd) and degradation of metalaxyl added to four different Brazilian soils at concentrations of 0.003 and 0.03 g Kg-1. Previous in vitro studies have shown that soil microorganisms can degrade N-(2,6- dimethylphenyl)-N-(2-methoxyacetyl)-alanine methyl ester (metalaxyl), a fungicide used in agriculture to control diseases caused by fungi from the order Peronosporales. The results showed that metalaxyl was not degraded in autoclaved soils during the timecourse of the experiments. The HPLC results indicated that at both concentrations the Kd values were highest and more metalaxyl was degraded in clayey soils than in the other types of investigatedsoils. It appears that the behavior of metalaxyl in soils differs depending on the application rate, soil characteristics and level of microbial activity.; Utilizou-se a cromatografia a líquido de alta eficiência (CLAE) para quantificar o coeficiente de adsorção (Kd) e a degradação do metalaxil suplementado em quatro diferentes solos brasileiros nas concentrações de 0,003 e 0,03 g Kg-1. Os resultados mostraram que o metalaxil não foi degradado em solos autoclavados durante o período de avaliação. Estudos preliminares “in vitro” têm demonstrado que microrganismos do solo podem degradar N-(2...