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Deus abençoe a América: religião, política e relações internacionais dos Estados Unidos

Mateo, Luiza Rodrigues
Fonte: Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP) Publicador: Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP)
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: 142 f. : il. color., gráfs. tabs.
POR
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Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior (CAPES); Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (FAPESP); Pós-graduação em Relações Internacionais (UNESP - UNICAMP - PUC-SP) - FFC; A religião tem exercido uma influência multidirecional no plano internacional através de movimentos transnacionais e conflitos étnico-nacionais, formatação de identidades e legitimação política que perfazem o ressurgimento do sagrado que caracteriza o século XXI como pós-secular. Diante deste quadro, questiona-se a negligência dirigida ao tema religioso pela disciplina das Relações Internacionais, situando tanto os impasses teóricos como as possibilidades analíticas abertas contemporaneamente. A escolha dos Estados Unidos como estudo de caso se deve ao caráter extremamente devoto da população e sua relevância na construção do “espírito americano”. Os mitos fundacionais protestantes ajudam a entender a celebração da pátria contida na religião civil. De tempos em tempos, momentos de despertar religioso varreram os Estados Unidos, moldando seu dinâmico mercado religioso e o vigor evangélico engajado que caracteriza a atual “igreja americana”. Recentes mudanças no protestantismo trouxeram nova dinâmica para a intersecção entre religião e política...

Protecting and Implementing the Right to Freedom of Religion or Belief: Interview with Heiner Bielefeldt

Bielefeldt, Heiner
Fonte: Oxford University Press Publicador: Oxford University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
EN
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In our continuing series of reflections by human rights practitioners on their work, Heiner Bielefeldt reflects here on his first year in post as UN Special Rapporteur on freedom of religion or belief. In the interview, Professor Bielefeldt discusses various methodologies and vehicles for action available to him in the post, and reflects on a recent country visit to Paraguay. He also speaks about some of his chief concerns regarding protection and implementation of the right to freedom of religion or belief around the world today, and outlines some of his priorities for work in this area in the period ahead.

Triangulation of rights, balancing of interests : exploring the tensions between freedom of conscience and freedom of religion in comparative constitutional law

Dabby, Dia
Fonte: Université de Montréal Publicador: Université de Montréal
Tipo: Thèse ou Mémoire numérique / Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
EN
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La liberté de religion, souvent reconnue comme étant la « première liberté » dans de nombreuses traditions juridiques, reflète également les différentes conceptions de la place de l’individu et de la communauté dans la société. Notre étude analysera les modèles constitutionnels canadien, américain et européen de liberté de religion et conscience. Dans un premier chapitre, nous examinerons les conceptions théoriques de la religion dans les sciences sociales ainsi les approches juridiques afin de mieux cerner comment la religion est conçue et de plus, comprendre les diverses influences sur sa conceptualisation. Dans un second et troisième chapitre, nous tenterons d’une part, de qualifier la relation entre la liberté de conscience et la liberté de religion au Canada en nous livrant à une analyse approfondie des deux libertés et d’autre part, d’identifier les questions qui demeurent irrésolues. Dans le chapitre final, nous observerons comment la liberté de conscience a été interprétée dans les contextes américain et dans l’Union Européenne, par le biais de la Cour Européenne des droits de l’Homme. Notre hypothèse est que l’on peut arriver à une meilleure compréhension de la relation entre les libertés de conscience et religion en clarifiant les conceptions théoriques de la religion et de la conscience en droit constitutionnel comparé.; Freedom of religion...

Believing in Secular States. Freedom of Religion and Separation of State and Religion as Legal Concepts in Europe

SAMKALDEN, Channa
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
EN
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This thesis examines the meaning and scope of freedom of religion and the principle of separation of state and religion, as well as their interaction, in both theory and practice. The first part explores the theoretical aspects of these two principles and tries to create a basic framework of interpretation for further research. In the second part of the thesis, the practical interaction of freedom of religion and separation o state and religion is examined in four European countries. A recurring question goes to the current and expected European influence on the matters discussed. Throughout the thesis, I will therefore specifically look at European law and the European Convention on Human Rights, if applicable. In matters concerning state and religion, legal and political considerations are intertwined. Nevertheless, it is possible and desirable to define core, legal principles of religious freedom and to distinguish these from questions of a more political character. Discussions on religious freedom would benefit from more consistent judicial reasoning.; Defense date: 19/01/2009; Examining board: David Feldman (External Co-Supervisor, Cambridge University), Egbert Myjer (Free University of Amsterdam / European Court of Human Rights)...

Making Freedom of Religion or Belief a True EU Priority

THAMES, Knox
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: application/pdf; digital
EN
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The Council of the European Union recently released its Strategic Framework on Human Rights and Democracy, which included freedom of religion or belief in a list of 36 desired outcomes. The timing is good, as countries around the world are grappling with religion/state questions and the role of religious freedom for minority religious communities and dissenting members of the majority faith. Freedom of religion or belief stands at the crux of these issues, yet the Strategic Framework risks losing the religious freedom among the list of other worthy issues. By learning from the experience of the United States in its decade of religious freedom work, the European Union can jump start its efforts and ensure they have impact during this time of global transition.

Two Concepts of Religious Freedom in the European Court of Human Rights

BHUTA, Nehal
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: application/pdf; digital
EN
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This paper considers the way in which recent historical work on the history of freedom of religion and freedom of conscience opens up a new interpretation of the decisions of the European Court of Human Rights in the headscarf cases. These decisions have been widely criticized as adopting a militantly secularist approach to the presence of Islamic religious symbols in the public sphere, an approach that seems inconsistent or even overtly discriminatory in light of the court’s recent decision in Lautsi that the compulsory display of crucifixes in the classroom did not breach Italy’s convention obligations. I argue that the headscarf cases turn less on the balance between state neutrality and religious belief, than on an understanding of certain religious symbols as a threat to public order and as harbingers of sectarian strife which undermine democracy.

Prince or pariah? : the place of freedom of religion in a system of international human rights

ZUCCA, Lorenzo
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: application/pdf; digital
EN
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The human right to freedom of religion (HRFR) at the international level is a deeply contested concept and is interpreted in radically different ways in the respective historical constitutional instruments of the US and Europe. It is, for example, embedded in the First Amendment of the American Constitution, but finds no explicit recognition in the French Declaration of Rights. The question that emerges from this simple starting point is: what is the place of freedom of religion in a system of protection of international human rights? Is there a single answer to this question, or is it a deeply contingent matter that depends on discrete constitutional histories? This paper attempts to unravel this deeply contentious issue, which goes to the very core of disagreement about the nature of the human rights to freedom of religion. Lacking agreement as to what constitutes freedom of religion, international intervention should limit itself to the bare minimum in this area. This renders freedom of religion a pariah at the international level.

The place of religion in public education : theoretical considerations

IBADOV, Rashad
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
EN
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This PhD thesis, entitled ‘The Place of Religion in Public Education: Theoretical Considerations’, aims at answering the following question: ‘what should be the permissible room for religion in modern public education under the principle of neutrality’. The fundamental nature of this question requires a structuring and theorization of the interaction between religion and public education in two interrelated theoretical steps. The first step clarifies the general principles (or approaches) guiding the interaction of religion with public education, which are the principle of cooperation and the principle of accommodative neutrality; the latter clarifying the general degree of cooperation between religion and public education. The second step identifies and constructs the dimensions of this relationship, which are ‘freedom’, ‘interest’, ‘instruction’ and ‘support’. In this regard, while considering the permissible room for religion in public education, the primary research question of this thesis aims at setting up a theoretical platform from which one can reason and argue any religious issue or claim that emerges in the course of public education. Hence, this research examines and re-designs those important principles...

Freedom of religion or belief in foreign policy : which one?

Fonte: European University Institute Publicador: European University Institute
Tipo: Livro Formato: application/pdf; digital
EN
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-- Introduction * Pasquale Annicchino -- The Protection and Promotion of Freedom of Religion or Belief in Foreign Policy: Three Puzzles. * Lorenzo Zucca -- Religious Group Rights: Four Analytic Touchstones * Frederick Mark Gedicks -- New Challenges To Religious Freedom In Europe * Hegumen Philip Ryabykh -- Rethinking religious freedom * Elizabeth Shakman Hurd -- The Politics of Religious Freedom: Competing Claims in the United States (and Other Places) * T. Jeremy Gunn -- Supporting Subversion? International Organisations and ‘Freedom of Conscience’ in Islamic States * Matthew J. Nelson -- The role of the European Parliament in helping to protect freedom of religion or belief via the EU’s external relations * Dr. Cornelis (Dennis) de Jong -- The European External Action Service and Freedom of Religion or Belief * Jean Bernard Bolvin -- The United States’ Approach to Promoting International Religious Freedom: the 1998 International Religious Freedom Act * Elizabeth K. Cassidy -- Reporting on religious freedom: the “governmental” approach and the issue of legitimacy * Pasquale Ferrara

Recent developments concerning the promotion of freedom of religion or belief in Italian foreign policy

ANNICCHINO, Pasquale
Fonte: Routledge Journals, Taylor & Francis Ltd Publicador: Routledge Journals, Taylor & Francis Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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Italy recently joined the growing group of countries with dedicated policies for the protection and promotion of freedom of religion or belief in its foreign policy. The records of two recent Ministers of Foreign Affairs, Franco Frattini and Giulio Terzi di Sant'Agata, show increased engagement, both bi-laterally and within the EU, on religious freedom. Italy played an important role in the development of new EU guidelines on religious freedom promotion, has been active at the UN in opposing resolutions on defamation of religion, and has recently established a unique, and possibly problematic, new institution, the Italian Oversight Committee for Religious Freedom.

Freedom of religion under bills of rights

Babie, P.; Rochow, N.
Fonte: University of Adelaide Press; Australia Publicador: University of Adelaide Press; Australia
Tipo: Book (edited)
Publicado em //2012 EN
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'The Australian Constitution contains no guarantee of freedom of religion or freedom of conscience. Indeed, it contains very few provisions dealing with rights — in essence, it is a Constitution that confines itself mainly to prescribing a framework for federal government, setting out the various powers of government and limiting them as between federal and state governments and the three branches of government without attempting to define the rights of citizens except in minor respects. […] Whether Australia should have a national bill of rights has been a controversial issue for quite some time. This is despite the fact that Australia has acceded to the ICCPR, as well as the First Optional Protocol to the ICCPR, thereby accepting an international obligation to bring Australian law into line with the ICCPR, an obligation that Australia has not discharged. Australia is the only country in the Western world without a national bill of rights.4 The chapters that follow in this book debate the situation in Australia and in various other Western jurisdictions.' From Foreword by The Hon Sir Anthony Mason AC KBE: Human Rights and Courts; edited by Paul Babie and Neville Rochow

Freedom of religion : a case study of the Church of Lukumí Babalú Ayé v. City of Hialeah

Aelion, David Maurice
Fonte: FIU Digital Commons Publicador: FIU Digital Commons
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
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This thesis attempted to explain society's worldview of Santeria and its practice of animal sacrifice, and the breakdown between the federal and local government after a 1993 Supreme Court ruling affirming their right to engage in this sacred ritual. Santeria practitioners are harassed and prosecuted for exercising their right to practice animal sacrifice. The research was intended to present the cosmology of the Lukumi tradition, the intellectual framework explored, a review of Freedom of Religion and the case of Lukumi v. Hialeah, and finally the media's role in shaping the worldview of Santeria that have perpetuated this breakdown. The thesis consisted of 87 research items, a community survey, interviews, a Santeria divination, and review of case law, books,newspaper and online journals. These findings demonstrated that freedom of religion is not so free in the U.S., and exists only to the extent the media and municipal laws choose to allow.

Of Eureka Moments and Magic Barometers: Freedom of Religion as the “First” Freedom in the Canadian Constitutional Context

DABBY, Dia
Fonte: Centre de recherche en droit public (CRDP) Publicador: Centre de recherche en droit public (CRDP)
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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"La liberté de religion, souvent reconnue comme étant la « première liberté » dans de nombreuses traditions juridiques, reflète également les différentes conceptions de la place de l'individu et de la communauté dans la société. Cet article examinera la liberté de religion dans le contexte constitutionnel canadien. Nous avons choisi d'étudier la liberté de religion dans trois vagues successives : avant l'entrée en vigueur de la Déclaration canadienne des droits, sous la Déclaration canadienne des droits; et enfin, après l'entrée en vigueur de la Charte canadienne des droits et libertés. De plus, l'accommodement ainsi que de la proportionnalité de la liberté de religion d'un individu sera également traité. Ainsi que nous le démontrerons, la liberté de religion a engendré un repositionnement de l'individu face aux intérêts de la communauté ainsi qu'une réinterprétation des justifications menant à la sauvegarde de ces croyances."; "Freedom of religion, often recognised as “first freedom” in numerous legal traditions, also reflects the different conceptions of the place of the individual and the collectivity in society. This article will examine freedom of religion in the Canadian constitutional context. I have elected to study freedom of religion in three successive waves: first...

Legal doctrines of freedom of conscience and religion: comparative analysis of the current state in Russia, European Union, Italy and Spain; Instituição jurídica da liberdade de consciência e de religião. Análise comparativa: O estado atual na Rússia, na União Europeia, Itália e Espanha

Lagoda, Ekaterina
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Direito Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Direito
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; ; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 01/01/2012 POR
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This paper examines the development of main aspects of the doctrine of freedom of conscience and religion at the present stage in the Russian Federation, in the context of European Union law and law of certain European countries - Italy and Spain. On the basis of comparative analysis, it was highlighted global trends and particular features of the constitutional regulation which predetermine the form and content of the doctrine of freedom of conscience and religion in the studied countries, taking into account the influence of international law-making in this area.; No artigo serão examinadas as direções principais de desenvolvimento da instituição da liberdade de consciência e de religião na etapa atual na Federação Russa, no contexto do direito da União Europeia e do direito de certos países europeus – Itália e Espanha. Na base da análise comparativa se revelam as tendências globais e as características distintivas da regulamentação constitucional as quais predeterminam a forma e conteúdo da constituição jurídica da liberdade de consciência e de religião nos países pesquisados, considerando a influência do Direito Internacional nesta área.

Freedom of religion or belief: Group right or individual right?

Scolnicov, Anat
Fonte: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis Publicador: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis
Tipo: Thesis; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2006 EN
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Freedom of religious and belief is a recognized right in international law. In order to understand, interpret, develop and implement this right, it is important to go back and analyse the fundamental reasoning behind this right. Freedom of religion and belief is a contradictory right: a freedom for self-constraint. It is a double-sided right, a right of expression and a right of identity, two aspects related to individual and group perceptions of this right. Therefore, this right must be understood through a conflict between competing conceptions of individual and group rights. International law should protect the religious freedoms of individuals, and should protect groups only as derivative from the rights of individuals, and never in contravention of them, and generally does so. Current tendencies towards recognising group rights raise concerns, highlighting the importance of this determination. The conceptual analysis of the right serves as a critical tool for discussion of specific conflicts of rights regarding religious freedom, in different area of legal regulation. Different state constitutional structures concerning religion have important implications for analysis of the group/individual conflict. A categorization of constitutional arrangements shows that each presents problems for guaranteeing religious freedom. The constitutional analysis shows religions have public characteristics...

Calvinism, atheism and freedom of religion: A South African perspective

van Wyk,J.H. (Amie)
Fonte: In die Skriflig Publicador: In die Skriflig
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/03/2014 EN
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In this article the author investigates the approaches of Calvinism and atheism regarding the freedom of religion. The different views on God, man and science according to these worldviews function as a background for the explanation of freedom of religion. Special attention is been paid to the South African Constitution of 1996 and the stipulations of this constitution regarding freedom of religion for churches and schools. The article ends with a few concluding remarks and suggestions for further investigation.

Uses of social theory in comparative Religious Studies: Assessing Chidester's sociological analysis of 'Wild Religion' in post-apartheid South Africa

Strijdom,Johan
Fonte: Journal for the Study of Religion Publicador: Journal for the Study of Religion
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2014 EN
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In analysing 'sociality' (the formation of inclusive or exclusionary collective identities), 'materiality' (the desire for material objects, sensory experiences and gendered bodily performances of rituals) and 'exchange' (communist or capitalist economic exchanges in rituals of gift-giving and expenditure) as three aspects of religion within local and global contexts, David Chidester has used the social theories of Durkheim, Bataille, WEB Du Bois, Weber, Marx-Adorno-Horkheimer, Benjamin and others. The purpose of this paper will be to assess what we have gained from Chidester' s use of social categories such as 'sociality' and 'exchange' to analyse unconventional or 'wild' forms of religion in post-apartheid South Africa within a global context. On the basis of his sociological analysis of Freedom Park and the 2010 FIFA World Cup as forms of ' wild religion', I will in conclusion argue for the legitimacy and relevance of using etic vis-à-vis emic categories to afford a critical understanding of African religious realities within a global context.

Reasonable accommodation in the workplace: to be or not to be?

Bernard,RB
Fonte: PER: Potchefstroomse Elektroniese Regsblad Publicador: PER: Potchefstroomse Elektroniese Regsblad
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2014 EN
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Freedom of religion is a fundamental right enshrined in and protected by section 15 of the Constitution. This right allows for the practice of religion without interference from the state and individuals. A question which often arises relates to the extent to which freedom of religion can be exercised in the workplace. Religious practice often extends beyond societal norms, but religious intolerance has proven to be a source of conflict. In the workplace this conflict arises "where the employer's right to the employee's labour and service conflicts with the employee's inability or refusal to render services because of a religious or cultural belief".a The courts have played an important role in balancing the rights of the employer to manage his business operations efficiently with the rights of the employee to practice his religious or cultural beliefs. The critical question is how the employer is expected to balance and maintain an orderly, disciplined and efficient workplace whilst accommodating an employee's right to religious freedom. The case of Department of Correctional Services v Police and Prison Civil Rights Union (POPCRU) 2011 32 IU 2629 (LAC) is one where the employer's application of rules relating to the dress code of employees impacted on the religious beliefs and practices of five staff. In this note...

Spiritual abuse under the banner of the right to freedom of religion in religious cults can be addressed

Pretorius,SP
Fonte: Acta Theologica Publicador: Acta Theologica
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2011 EN
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The international endeavour to afford the right to freedom of religion to all world citizens is essential. This right ensures that people can choose their own religion and freely participate in the practice thereof. Although the conventions on religious freedom prohibit the use of unethical coercion in order to proselytise and retain members, the enforcement of this prohibition is problematic. Underlying psychological processes that induce members in cults to engage in radical behaviour changes cannot be proved without reasonable doubt in any legal action. The conclusion reached in this article is that although - on paper - the right to religious freedom ensures freedom in the sense that people can choose their religion, it cannot ensure that worship in any religion is a voluntary act on the part of the participants. On the one hand, religious freedom has opened the world of religion to people; but at the same time, it has also created a vague, or "grey" area where abuse can flourish under the banner of so-called "freedom". Freedom that is not clearly defined can lead to anarchism. Abuse in religious cults can be addressed by cultivating public awareness through the gathering and distribution of information on the abusive practices of these groups.

Freedom of religion in South Africa: Then and now 1652 -2008

Coertzen,P
Fonte: Verbum et Ecclesia Publicador: Verbum et Ecclesia
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2008 EN
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This article is about freedom of religion in South Africa before and after 1994. It is often argued that the relationship between church and state, and the resultant freedom of religion, during 1652-1994 was determined by a theocratic model of the relationship between church and state. In a theocratic model it is religion and its teachings that determine the place and role of religion in society. This article argues that it was, in fact, a Constantinian model of the relationship between state and church which determined the place and role of religion in society between 1652 and 1994. In a Constantinian model it is the governing authority's understanding and application of religion that determines the place and role of religion in society as well as the resulting degree of freedom of religion. Examples from history are used to prove the point. The second part of the article discusses freedom of religion in South Africa after 1994.