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Digital Images Are Data: And Should Be Treated as Such

Cromey, Douglas W.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2013 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
The scientific community has become very concerned about inappropriate image manipulation. In journals that check figures after acceptance, 20–25% of the papers contained at least one figure that did not comply with the journal’s instructions to authors. The scientific press continues to report a small, but steady stream of cases of fraudulent image manipulation. Inappropriate image manipulation taints the scientific record, damages trust within science, and degrades science’s reputation with the general public. Scientists can learn from historians and photojournalists, who have provided a number of examples of attempts to alter or misrepresent the historical record. Scientists must remember that digital images are numerically sampled data that represent the state of a specific sample when examined with a specific instrument. These data should be carefully managed. Changes made to the original data need to be tracked like the protocols used for other experimental procedures. To avoid pitfalls, unexpected artifacts, and unintentional misrepresentation of the image data, a number of image processing guidelines are offered.

Azerbaijan : Country Procurement Assessment Report

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Country Procurement Assessment (CPAR); Economic & Sector Work
Relevância na Pesquisa
The Country Procurement Assessment Report (CPAR) reviews Azerbaijan's public sector procurement structure, including the new legal framework, organizational responsibilities and capabilities, and present procedures and practices. It also looks at how these practices may differ from the formal rules and procedures. In each area, including the legal and regulatory framework, fraud and corruption, the State Procurement agency, control and review, procurement procedures, public sector management performance, bank-assisted projects, private sector competitiveness, private sector performance, and the general business environment, the CPAR makes specific recommendations for action. The report makes a general assessment of the institutional, organizational and other risks associated with the procurement process; establishes the basis for dialogue between the country and donors on how to streamline and improve the economy, efficiency and transparency of public sector procurement; develops a detailed action plan for reform to achieve institutional improvements...

Jordan V Farber (1352/09) [2009] Zanchc 81 (15/12/2009)

Barnard,J; Nagel,C
Fonte: PER: Potchefstroomse Elektroniese Regsblad Publicador: PER: Potchefstroomse Elektroniese Regsblad
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2010 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
This case note deals with several aspects of the law of contract, such as public policy and validity, error, cancellation, repudiation, undue influence and damages. It concerns the case of an elderly couple who had to stop their farming operations because of ill health. The attorney whom they approached for assistance offered to lease the farm, equipment and animals from them in his personal capacity, although in his professional capacity he also drafted the contracts of lease. It later transpired that the attorney used his position to mislead the couple as regards the contracts in question and that he was guilty of unethical and unprofessional conduct. The couple applied to court to have the leases declared void, alternatively cancelled, and to have the attorney evicted from the farm. The order was granted; however, the discussion seeks to demonstrate that the couple were afforded only minimal justice in that they did not claim, nor were they granted, any damages. The various possibilities open to them in the circumstances are examined and the conclusion is that ventilating the matter by way of application was probably not the best manner in which to have sought assistance.