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Task Force Report 5. Report of the Task Force on Family Medicine’s Role in Shaping the Future Health Care Delivery System

Roberts, Richard G.; Snape, Pam S.; Burke, Kevin
Fonte: Copyright 2004 Annals of Family Medicine, Inc. Publicador: Copyright 2004 Annals of Family Medicine, Inc.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /03/2004 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.24%
BACKGROUND Recognizing that the implementation of needed changes within family medicine will be enhanced through a concurrent effort to transform the broader health care system, this Future of Family Medicine task force was charged with determining family medicine’s leadership role in shaping the future health care delivery system.

Signaling of Grasp Dimension and Grasp Force in Dorsal Premotor Cortex and Primary Motor Cortex Neurons During Reach to Grasp in the Monkey

Hendrix, Claudia M.; Mason, Carolyn R.; Ebner, Timothy J.
Fonte: American Physiological Society Publicador: American Physiological Society
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.15%
A fundamental question is how the CNS controls the hand with its many degrees of freedom. Several motor cortical areas, including the dorsal premotor cortex (PMd) and primary motor cortex (M1), are involved in reach to grasp. Although neurons in PMd are known to modulate in relation to the type of grasp and neurons in M1 in relation to grasp force and finger movements, whether specific parameters of whole hand shaping are encoded in the discharge of these cells has not been studied. In this study, two monkeys were trained to reach and grasp 16 objects varying in shape, size, and orientation. Grasp force was explicitly controlled, requiring the monkeys to exert either three or five levels of grasp force on each object. The animals were unable to see the objects or their hands. Single PMd and M1 neurons were recorded during the task, and cell firing was examined for modulation with object properties and grasp force. The firing of the vast majority of PMd and M1 neurons varied significantly as a function of the object presented as well as the object grasp dimension. Grasp dimension of the object was an important determinant of the firing of cells in both PMd and M1. A smaller percentage of PMd and M1 neurons were modulated by grasp force. Linear encoding was prominent with grasp force but less so with grasp dimension. The correlations with grasp dimension and grasp force were stronger in the firing of M1 than PMd neurons and across both regions the modulation with these parameters increased as reach to grasp proceeded. All PMd and M1 neurons that signaled grasp force also signaled grasp dimension...

Compositional Constraint Is the Key Force in Shaping Codon Usage Bias in Hemagglutinin Gene in H1N1 Subtype of Influenza A Virus

Deka, Himangshu; Chakraborty, Supriyo
Fonte: Hindawi Publishing Corporation Publicador: Hindawi Publishing Corporation
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.23%
It is vital to unravel the codon usage bias in order to gain insights into the evolutionary forces dictating the viral evolution process. Influenza A virus has attracted attention of many investigators over the years due to high mutation rate and being cross-specific shift operational in the viral genome. Several authors have reported that the codon usage bias is low in influenza A viruses, citing mutational pressure as the decisive force shaping up the codon usage in these viruses. In this study, complete coding sequences of hemagglutinin genes for H1N1 subtype of influenza A virus have been explored for the possible codon usage bias acting upon these genes. The results indicate overall low bias with peaking ENC values. The GC content is found to be substantially low as against AT content in the silent codon sites. Significant correlations were observed in between the compositional parameters versus AT3, implying the possible role of the latter in shaping codon usage profile in the viral hemagglutinin. The data showed conspicuously that the sequences were A redundant with most codons preferring nucleotide A over others in the third synonymous codon site. The results indicated the pivotal role of compositional pressure affecting codon usage in this virus.

Collimation of electrons via three-dimensional spatial intensity shaping of laser focal volume

Brijesh, Prithviraj ; Meyerhofer, David D. ; Zuegel, Jonathan D.
Fonte: University of Rochester Publicador: University of Rochester
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: Number of Pages:xiii, 189 leaves
ENG
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36.25%
Thesis (Ph. D.)--University of Rochester. Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, 2010.; Controlling the physics of laser-matter interactions depends on the properties of matter and the characteristic parameters of the laser beam. The dynamics of electrons in the focus of a laser pulse is governed by the spatial intensity profile. The time-averaged ponderomotive force arising from the inhomogeneities in the focal intensity distribution leads to the ejection of a diverging bunch of electrons. This research deals with reducing the divergence angle of the ejected electrons by spatially shaping the three-dimensional focal distribution of a high-intensity laser. A novel laser focus with a centrally peaked transverse focal intensity, transforming into an annular distribution along the laser-propagation direction, has been ex- perimentally demonstrated. The longitudinal profile of such a shaped laser focal volume is approximately in the form of a "horseshoe". The horseshoe focus was re- alized experimentally by an incoherent, coaxial combination of Laguerre-Gaussian and Gaussian modes generated from segmented optical elements. A beam-shaping optical system consisting of reflective segmented optical elements was designed, custom fabricated and fielded on a 10 J...

Shaping the Future : A Long-Term Perspective of People and Job Mobility in the Middle East and North Africa

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.11%
The objective of this study is to provide a long-term perspective for the ongoing policy dialogue on the management of labor migration in Europe and the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) countries. It is organized as follows. Chapter one puts the report and migration in the context of the economic and social development in MENA countries. Chapter two provides the historical context of MENA migration patterns and an overview of the presence and skill characteristics of migrants in Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries today. This chapter also discusses the potential for insourcing, that is, migration of jobs into the region as an alternative or complement to labor migration. Chapter three analyzes the demand and supply framework for migration, the determinants of migration patterns, and the potential demand for labor in the European Union (EU), and the characteristics and trends of MENA labor supply. Chapter four looks to the worldwide impact of demographic and labor force developments in the decades ahead and their implications on labor and job mobility. The chapter analyzes the likely population and labor force growth in Europe and MENA...

Between Force and Legitimacy: Th e Worldview of Robert Cooper

FOLEY, Frank
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: 289001 bytes; application/pdf; digital
EN
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36.09%
Advisor to Javier Solana and a Director General at the European Council, Robert Cooper argues for an assertive European stance against threats while at the same time emphasising the importance of gaining international legitimacy for the EU’s actions abroad. This paper outlines how elements of a colonialist worldview inform the first part of Cooper’s proposed response to threats—force, preemptive if necessary, against terrorists and potentially aggressive ‘modern’ states. Yet Cooper is keenly aware that force by itself is unlikely to foster benign long term changes in unstable or potentially threatening parts of the world. Drawing on what he views as the ‘postmodern’ European achievement of peace and order between nations, Cooper argues that Europe and the West should strive to win legitimacy for their actions by consulting deeply with other countries and by making extensive financial and security commitments to the unstable regions where they intervene military. Fashioning a combination of realist, liberal and constructivist ideas, Cooper’s broadly coherent worldview is nevertheless marked by tensions between his conceptions of force and legitimacy. Demonstrating Cooper’s significant influence on the European Security Strategy...

Developing a Markov Model to be used as a force shaping tool for the Navy Nurse Corps

Kinstler, Daniel Paul; Johnson, Raymond W.
Fonte: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.95%
Approved for public release, distribution is unlimited; A Markov Model was used to determine the number of nurses the Navy must gain each year in order to maintain desired end strength. Significant characteristics affecting career progression of individuals in the Navy Nurse Corps were identified. The characteristic of primary concern, accession source, was determined to be significant. Markov models were created to identify personnel flow from ENS through LCDR. The models end-strength projections for 2006-2009 were then compared to Nurse Corps targeted end-strengths for this same period. Several scenarios were run to minimize overages and underages in rank distribution. Optimization was achieved by changing both the distribution of accession sources and the distribution of recruited ranks. Optimal distribution of accession source and rank are dependant upon the degree of accepTable deviation from these targets. As stated above we were not able to acquire this information limiting our ability to accurately forecast optimized distribution of accession source or rank. The Markov Model demonstrated that the Nurse Corps current business practices optimize accessions for two year projections. Increasing variation between the current force structure plan and our models projections suggest that greater efficiency could be obtained in the out-years. This Markov Model provides a tool for improving extended forecasts.

A Markov Model for Marine Corps Acquisition Force Planning

Nicholson, Chris L.
Fonte: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.29%
This research is in response to a request by the Marine Aviation Detachment at Naval Air Station Patuxent River, MD. Currently, no manpower planning tools exist for force shaping of the Marine Corps Acquisition Community. This thesis creates a force shaping and forecasting tool for Marine Corps manpower planners. The tool assists planners in forecasting inventory levels across rank and Military Occupational Specialty combinations and in determining the most robust force structure for the acquisition officer community. Validation of the model reveals the usefulness of the planning tool for forecasting inventory levels, but it also indicates weakness in force structure analysis. This weakness is due to the small size and nascency of the current community, further data collection is required to validate the model for future use in force structure development.

Analysis of separation pay options

Viltz, Damian K.
Fonte: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.24%
Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.; MBA Professional Report; Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.; As the demand for and supply of skills in the Navy changes, the Navy needs the flexibility to shape the force as appropriate. This flexibility may include the need to reduce the number of personnel in some subspecialties. The question the Navy faces is how to shape the force in the most efficient means possible. This project analyzes the costs and benefits of various options for voluntarily separating members from the Navy. Drawing on recent market design research, it tests alternative force shaping policies and recommends a mechanism that can increase force shaping flexibility and efficiency.

Prediction markets: a review with an experimentally based recommendation for Navy force-shaping application

Chinn, Michael A.; Huffman, Leslie A.
Fonte: Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.47%
Approved for public release, distribution unlimited; MBA Professional Report; Prediction markets generally are small-scale electronic markets that tie payoffs to measurable future events. They are similar to stock markets, where the "stocks" are outcomes or events rather than shares in a company. The growing popularity of prediction markets reflects the notion that markets are an excellent means of efficient information aggregation among a disparate group of people. Trading prices in the prediction markets provide decision makers with a timely, accurate, and continuously updated picture on the likelihood of future events. This enables decision makers to better evaluate risk. Based on historical successes in prediction market utilization, it is both logical and important to assess the usefulness of prediction markets in contributing to critical elements of Navy total force shaping. Navy Manpower, Personnel, Training, and Education (N1) regularly forecasts re-enlistment rates, over/under endstrength, and many other force-shaping factors as an input into their resource allocation decision-making process. In an effort to improve upon the force-shaping decision-making process, N1 has shown interest in using prediction markets to complement or replace alternative methods for forecasting various Navy force-shaping elements. The aim of this thesis is to act as a foundation for ongoing prediction market research within the Department of Defense (DoD).

Shaping future African peacekeeping forces : organization design and civil-military relations lessons learned from the West African Peace Force in Liberia

Fall, Alassane.
Fonte: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.2%
The Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) established in 1990, a peace force, the ECOWAS Monitoring Group (ECOMOG), to help resolve the Liberian civil war. This force is considered as a model for future African peacekeeping forces, the idea of which has significantly evolved during the first half of the 1990s, and is supported by the international community. The effectiveness of such forces, based on the ECOMOG experience, is thought to be dependent on the availability of resources and on training. This thesis discusses organization design and civil-military relations considerations to take into account when shaping future African peacekeeping forces. It makes recommendations toward improving effectiveness.

Prediction Markets: A Review with an Experimentally Based Recommendation for Navy Force-shaping Application

Michael Chinn; Leslie Huffman
Fonte: Escola de Pós-Graduação Naval Publicador: Escola de Pós-Graduação Naval
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.47%
Sponsored Report (for Acquisition Research Program); Prediction markets generally are small-scale electronic markets that tie payoffs to measurable future events. They are similar to stock markets, in which the 'stocks' are outcomes or events rather than shares in a company. The growing popularity of prediction markets reflects the notion that markets are an excellent means of efficient information aggregation among a disparate group of people. Trading prices in the prediction markets provide decision-makers with a timely, accurate, and continuously updated picture on the likelihood of future events. This enables decision-makers to better evaluate risk. Based on historical successes in prediction market utilization, it is both logical and important to assess the usefulness of prediction markets as they contribute to critical elements of Navy total force-shaping. Navy Manpower, Personnel, Training, and Education (N1) regularly forecasts re-enlistment rates, over/under end strength, and many other force-shaping factors as an input into their resource allocation decision-making process. In an effort to improve upon the force-shaping decision-making process, N1 has shown interest in using prediction markets to complement or replace alternative methods for forecasting various Navy force-shaping elements. The aim of this thesis is to act as a foundation for ongoing prediction market research within the Department of Defense (DoD).

The combinatorial retention auction mechanism (CRAM): integrating monetary and non-monetary reenlistment incentives

Coughlan, Peter J.; Gates, William R.; Zimmerman, Brooke M.
Fonte: Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Relatório
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.95%
This research addresses the potential retention and cost impacts of providing an optimal individualized portfolio of non-monetary and monetary incentives to influence reenlistment and retention behavioral in enlisted Sailors. Specifically, it explores three mechanisms for administrating enlisted retention: a purely monetary auction, a Universal Incentive Package (UIP) auction, and the Combinatorial Retention Auction Mechanism (CRAM). In this text, the mechanisms are simulated, their outcomes compared and their respective strengths and weaknesses explored. The findings of this research confirm that CRAM clearly outperformed the monetary and UIP auctions. Cost savings to the Navy reanged from 25 to 80% over monetary incentives alone. Additionally, this research addresses the force-diversfying potential of CRAM. It is shown, for the sample used, that offering certain non-monetary incetives changed the demographic mix of Sailors retained. By allowing Sailors to choose only those benefits which suit them, the Navy can eliminate the waste associated with unwanted benefits, while at the same time empowering its members.

Personnel retention policy and force quality: twice-passed Staff Sergeants

Fitzgerald, Mark T.
Fonte: Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.06%
Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited; Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited; In the Marine Corps, Staff Sergeants twice-passed (2P) for promotion to Gunnery Sergeant lower the quality of the enlisted force, slow promotion rates, and carry an institutional cost. The objectives of this study are to determine predictors of 2P likelihood, evaluate the efficacy of retention policy alternatives, and investigate institutional costs of retaining 2P Staff Sergeants in terms of productivity loss, excess subordinate attrition, and retirement obligations. Logistic regression is used to evaluate the likelihood of a Staff Sergeant being passed twice for promotion. At the time of reenlistment, Physical Fitness Test score, Commander’s recommendation, adverse material, Marine Corps Martial Arts Program belt attainment, racial identification, Armed Forces Qualification Test score, and body composition are significant factors in the chosen model. Markov model evaluation shows a 20-percent reduction in approved Staff Sergeant reenlistments reduces the twice-passed inventory by 9 percent, and a non-retention policy for 2P Staff Sergeants reduces their inventory by 60 percent. The annual cost of retaining 2P Staff Sergeants is estimated to have a present value of $120 million in retirement obligations...

External and internal factors shaping the Japan Maritime Self-Defense Force (JMSDF)

Tsukigi, Shinji
Fonte: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 84 p.
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.27%
Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited; This thesis examines factors shaping the Japan Maritime Self-Defense Force (JMSDF). It focuses on issues concerning Japan's financial resources to improve the JMSDF in the future and the level of complementarity between the JMSDF and the U.S. Navy. The examination reveals that there is a high level of complementarity overall between the JMSDF and the U.S. Pacific Fleet. This relationship is most likely going to continue into the future. The JMSDF most likely will not to have the financial resources it will need to enhance its inventory much beyond its current force level because of the mounting pressure of other domestic budgetary needs and a lower expected Gross National Product (GNP) rate of growth. It is concluded that the future direction of the JMSDF will be that of keeping an effective complementary relationship with that of the U.S. Navy.... Japan Maritime Self-Defense Force; http://archive.org/details/externalinternal00tsuk; Lieutenant Commander, Japan Maritime Self-Defense Force

An in-depth analysis of the Department of the Navy's targeted separation incentive program as a force-shaping tool

Hudson, Daniel P.
Fonte: Monterey California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey California. Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: xiv, 61 p.
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.02%
This research examines how the Targeted Separation Incentive Program, currently underway by the Navy, is being administered to bring about the voluntary separations of junior officers to meet the requirements of the Navyâ s most recent force reduction. This study evaluates the effects of past separation incentive programs as well as the current compensation package that the service-member may receive which is outlined in the Fiscal Year 2006 National Defense Authorization Act. In addition, an analysis was conducted of the costs associated with retaining the service-member versus the personal costs of that individual of leaving. The objective of this thesis is to evaluate the Department of the Navyâ s (DoN) Targeted Separation Incentive Program in order to see if this program can adequately meet the goals of the current force reduction and whether or not savings can be realized through alternative separation programs.

The role of the Army National Guard in strategic shaping

Hutchinson, Andrew F.
Fonte: Monterey, California ; Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California ; Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: xii, 63 p.;28 cm.
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.4%
This thesis asks whether the Army National Guard is a capable instrument for strategically shaping the post-Cold War environment to meet United States foreign policy objectives. Further, it examines foreign policy and military benefits of Guard participation in strategic shaping missions. It focuses on the National Guard State Partnership Program (SPP) and the NATO partnership for Peace (PfP) program, although it also refers to National Guard peace operations deployments to Bosnia. The thesis provides background on SPP and PfP and discusses assets the National Guard possesses for strategic shaping, including force structure, expertise, and institutional culture. It addresses the effects strategic shaping missions have on the National Guard's traditional dual missions of providing a disciplined force ready to respond to local and state emergencies and providing properly trained and equipped units for mobilization in response to war and national emergencies. This thesis also compares and contrasts two similar case studies of strategic shaping: a current study of the SPP Partner Challenge 1999 and the NATO PfP Baltic Challenge 1998 exercises. The case studies illustrate capabilities and benefits of the National Guard in strategic shaping. Finally...

Shaping the Future : Long-Term Perspectives on People and Job Mobility for MENA

Zlaoui, Leila
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Brief; Publications & Research
ENGLISH
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36.09%
This quick note summarizes the similarly titled report released on February 17, 2009, which assesses global labor and job mobility that is migration and outsourcing with a focus on Europe and Middle East and North Africa (MENA). The report looks at long term global demographic and labor force developments to assess which parts of the world will experience aging populations and major declines in their labor force and which will see an expansion. Two pillars underpin the analysis presented in this report. First, increasingly strong forces will be pulling for the migration of people and jobs across the world's regions in the future. Second, countries and regions can adopt a proactive approach to prepare for these global changes, to seize opportunities, and to address risks head on.

Self-shaping dynamical systems and learning

Janson, Natalia B.; Marsden, Christopher J.
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 18/11/2011
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.36%
We associate learning and adaptation in living systems with the shaping of the velocity vector field in the respective dynamical systems in response to external, generally random, stimuli. With this, a mathematical concept of self-shaping dynamical systems is proposed. Initially there is a zero vector field and an "empty" phase space with no attractors or other non-trivial objects. As the random stimulus begins, the vector field deforms and eventually becomes smooth and deterministic, despite the random nature of the applied force, while the phase space develops various geometrical objects. We consider gradient self-shaping systems, whose vector field is the gradient of some energy function, which under certain conditions develops into the multi-dimensional probability density distribution (PDD) of the input. Self-shaping systems are relevant to neural networks (NNs) of two types: Hopfield, and probabilistic. Firstly, we show that they can potentially perform pattern recognition tasks traditionally delegated to Hopfield NNs, but without supervision and on-line, and without developing spurious minima of the energy. Secondly, like probabilistic NNs, they can reconstruct the PDD of input signals, without the limitation that new training patterns have to enter as new hardware units. Thus...

Force

Crowley, Lee
Fonte: Rochester Instituto de Tecnologia Publicador: Rochester Instituto de Tecnologia
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.2%
Energy, force, matter and volume are fundamental characteristics of the universe. These defining characteristics exist in all scales and can be found throughout space. My work considers the actions and reactions of forces and how movements are challenged by various energies. My creative investigations began by looking at the world in its entirety and considering both natural and man-made forces. I approached the work with the intent to alter what we recognize as structure and strength, and to act upon it, to challenge its integrity and create a progression of an implied action. Influenced by pioneers in the photographic capture of movement, my art considers the interactions between acting forces and capturing moments in time to suggest movement. The use of a progression formed by multiples became vital to how I view and understand the forces that shape my work. Utilizing the idea of stop action photography became necessary in depicting a moment in time. As my art continued to develop, the idea of multiples remained relevant. My art was usurped by ideas of volume and space and an urge to depict larger theoretical spaces thus putting more emphasis on the feeling or essence of a moment in time and space. Out of a need for my sculptural forms to feel less orchestrated and more random and natural...