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Evolução do conceito de Segurança nas Relações Internacionais: uma análise das políticas de Segurança Alimentar Caso Bolívia; Evolution of the concept of Security in International Relations: an analysis of Food Security policies for Case Bolivia

Cordero, Claudia Carola Rios
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 29/08/2013 PT
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A Segurança sempre foi um tema de grande interesse para as nações, para os grandes líderes de governos e para os acadêmicos que foram testemunhas das mudanças no sistema internacional ao longo do tempo. Essas mudanças repercutiram em transformações no conceito de segurança que acompanharam o contexto internacional, criando assim um debate teórico em torno ao conceito. Depois da Guerra Fria, o realismo entra em crise, demandando uma mudança no conceito que, hoje, tem a ver com o indivíduo e as ameaças existentes que se tornam problemas internacionais toda vez que transcendem fronteiras. A Segurança Humana surge como resposta do PNUD à nova agenda internacional, e inclui ameaças não estatais à segurança internacional. Dentro destas ameaças estão presentes os problemas ambientais, as epidemias, o desemprego, a fome, o narcotráfico, o terrorismo, a migração, os conflitos étnicos, as violações dos direitos humanos, dentre outros. São sete as dimensões que procuram classificar todas as ameaças ao individuo. Uma das dimensões da Segurança Humana é a Segurança Alimentar, que busca garantir o acesso, disponibilidade e uso dos alimentos com uma estabilidade ao longo do tempo. Com base nisto, este trabalho abordará as condições e os debates teóricos durante a Guerra Fria...

Conceptualizing food security for Aboriginal people in Canada

Power, Elaine
Fonte: Canadian Journal of Public Health Publicador: Canadian Journal of Public Health
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 88418 bytes; application/pdf
EN
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Food insecurity is an urgent public health issue for Aboriginal people in Canada because of high rates of poverty; the effects of global climate change and environmental pollution on traditional food systems; and high rates of diet-related diseases. However, to date, public health has operated with conceptualizations of food security that were developed in non-Aboriginal contexts; they do not take full account of the traditional food practices of Aboriginal people or Aboriginal conceptualizations of food security. In this paper, I argue that there are unique food security considerations for Aboriginal people related to the harvesting, sharing and consumption of country or traditional foods, which impact the four pillars of food security: access, availability, supply and utilization. Thus food security conceptualizations, policies, and programs for Aboriginal people must consider both the market food system and traditional food system. Given the centrality of traditional food practices to cultural health and survival, I propose that cultural food security is an additional level of food security beyond individual, household and community levels. Conceptualizations of food security for Aboriginal people will be incomplete without qualitative research to understand Aboriginal perspectives; such research must take account of the diversity of Aboriginal people.; "Reproduced with permission of the Canadian Public Health Association. Originally published in CJPH Power...

Nutrition Interventions for the Most Vulnerable and Access to Humanitarian Supplies : Progress and Prospects

World Bank; UN System High Level Task Force on Food Security
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
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This report relates to the food security pillar of the declaration on Development by G20 Leaders of the G20 Seoul Summit. It responds to a request from Brazil, Canada, France and Japan (co-facilitators on Food Security), on behalf of the co-chairs of the G20 Development Working Group. It contributes to Food Security Pillar Action 2 - the mitigation of risk associated with food insecurity and price volatility, and enhancement of protection for the most vulnerable. It focuses on enhancing human and social capital within communities at risk through a) ensuring access to humanitarian supplies and b) addressing the nutritional needs of the most vulnerable. It complements reports produced by others working on food security, including Price volatility in food and agricultural markets: Policy Responses prepared by nine international organizations under the coordination of FAO and OECD.

The Impact of the Global Food Crisis on Self-Assessed Food Security

Headey, Derek D.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
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The paper provides the first large-scale survey-based evidence on the impact of the global food crisis of 2007-08 using an indicator of self-assessed food security from the Gallup World Poll. For the sampled countries as a whole, this subjective indicator of food security remained the same or even improved, seemingly owing to a combination of strong economic growth and limited food inflation in some of the most populous countries, particularly India. However, these favorable global trends mask divergent trends at the national and regional levels, with a number of countries reporting substantial deterioration in food security. The impacts of the global crisis therefore appear to be highly context specific.

Shorter, Cheaper, Quicker, Better : Linking Measures of Household Food Security to Nutritional Outcomes in Bangladesh, Nepal, Pakistan, Uganda, and Tanzania

Tiwari, Sailesh; Skoufias, Emmanuel; Sherpa, Maya
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
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Using nationally representative household survey data from five countries -- three from South Asia (Bangladesh, Pakistan, and Nepal) and two from Sub-Saharan Africa (Tanzania and Uganda) -- this paper conducts a systematic assessment of the correlation between various measures of household food security and nutritional outcomes of children. The analysis, following the universally accepted and applied definition of food security, is based on some of the most commonly used indicators of food security. The results show that the various measures of household food security do appear to carry significant signals about the nutritional status of children that reside within the household. This result holds even after the analysis controls for a wide array of other socio-economic characteristics of the households that are generally also thought to be associated with the quality of child nutrition. If using these food security indicators as proxy measures for the underlying nutritional status of children is of some interest...

Enhancing Food Security in Afghanistan : Private Markets and Public Policy Options

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
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This report analyzes some key aspects of food security, namely production, trade, markets and food aid at the national level, and consumption at the household level. In doing so it aspires to make a contribution to the on-going work in Afghanistan regarding the attainment of the poverty and hunger Millennium Development Goal. The major findings of the report can be summarized as follows: Food security (at the national level) does not necessarily require national self-sufficiency in wheat or other food staples, as long as the country has access to international markets. Rather, diversification into legal high-value crops and livestock products may be the most effective means of increasing food security, by generating foreign exchange and raising the incomes and purchasing power of the rural poor. In spite of very difficult conditions, wheat markets in Afghanistan have performed fairly well and private sector international trade has helped to stabilize supply and prices. Therefore, further developing the infrastructure and institutions to support wheat markets and facilitating private sector trade is called for and will enhance food security. At the household level...

Analyzing Food Security Using Household Survey Data : Streamlined Analysis with ADePT Software

Moltedo, Ana; Troubat, Nathalie; Lokshin, Michael; Sajaia, Zurab
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
EN_US
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Since the end of the Second World War, the international community has been focusing on reducing the number and the proportion of people who suffer from hunger. Over time it became clear that no single indicator would provide a comprehensive picture of the food security situation. Rather, a suite of indicators is necessary to describe food insecurity in all its dimensions. The demand for evidence-based policies, which brings together providers such as statistical offices and users of food security indicators including policy makers and researchers, has also been increasing. The stand-alone software, ADePT-Food Security Module (available for free downloading), was developed to produce food security indicators from food consumption data collected in household surveys. These indicators, derived at the national and subnational levels, include the consumption of calories and macronutrients, the availability of micronutrients and amino acids, the distribution of calories and the proportion of people undernourished. The book focuses on the theory, methodology, and analysis of these indicators. It has five chapters beginning with a brief overview on concepts of food security. The theory and methodology are further described in the following chapter. To help users with the interpretation of the results some examples are given in chapter 3. Chapter 4 of the book provides guidelines for the preparation of the input datasets. Finally...

Trade Policy and Food Security : Improving Access to Food in Developing Countries in the Wake of High World Prices

Gillson, Ian; Fouad, Amir
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
EN_US
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Based on forecasts of global population growth, food security will remain an important economic development issue over the next several decades. In addition, real food prices have risen in recent years after decades of decline, bringing the issue of food security even further into the public spotlight. However, there is no global food shortage: the problem is one of moving food, often across borders, from surplus production areas to deficit ones at prices that low-income consumers in developing countries can afford. Trade can be an excellent buffer for domestic fluctuations in food supply. World output of a given food commodity is far less variable than output in individual countries so increased trade integration holds considerable potential to stabilize food prices, boost returns to farmers and reduce the prices faced by consumers. Trade liberalization protects national food markets against domestic shocks by allowing more food to be imported in times of shortage and exported in periods of plenty. Historically, however, most countries have chosen to take the opposite approach by restricting imports of food and discouraging exports to keep domestic markets isolated from international shocks. Food commodity markets, therefore, remain highly distorted despite the wave of liberalization that has swept world trade since the 1980s. In addition to examining the determinants of recent food price spikes...

Niger : Food Security and Safety Nets

Aker, Jenny C.; del Ninno, Carlo; Dorosh, Paul A.; Mulder-Sibanda, Menno; Razmara, Setareh
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
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This study aims to assist the Government of Niger in developing a multi-sectoral approach to reducing the population s vulnerability to food insecurity. The study reviews food security policies and programs in Niger, and provides an action plan for strengthening the existing system and developing an effective safety net strategy. The study finds that targeting of food aid has been either weak with significant leakages. Moreover, although the need to support poor and food insecure households is substantial, safety nets are small, receive limited funding, and are designed for emergency food crises. The study recommends to improve the efficiency and scope of safety net programs in Niger and to promote effective strategies to improve food availability and the emergency response systems.

Republic of Moldova Food Security Assessment

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Relatório
EN_US
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This report provides an analysis of food security in Moldova. It attempts to outline the specific characteristics of food insecurity found in Moldova and to identify its underlying causes. This report provides a basis on which sound public policy can be built. The understanding of food security as a concept has evolved in Moldova over time, but policy has remained focused on food availability as the primary attribute of food security. The report looks at how many people are food insecure in Moldova, where these people live, who they are, and why they face food security challenges. The report adopts the international food security concept and analytical framework based on the four key dimensions: (i) the availability of food; (ii) access to food; (iii) utilization of food; and (iv) the stability of these three dimensions over time. The report is divided into following parts. The part one outlines the methodology used and provides a brief overview of Moldovas agriculture sector. In part two the report focuses on overall food security outcomes by assessing how many people are food insecure in Moldova...

Use of Catastrophe Risk Models in Assessing Sovereign Food Security for Risk Transfer

Sharma, Mohan; Hohl, Roman
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento
EN_US
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This paper discusses how catastrophe crop risk models can be used to assess food security needs at the sovereign level for the purpose of risk transfer. The rationale for a system to evaluate food security needs at the national level is discussed. The role of technology and remote sensing data availability as an enabler of catastrophe crop risk models is discussed followed by a description of the framework of catastrophe crop models for droughts, representing the peril for which catastrophe models have had the most success. The integration of the output of catastrophe crop models with a food security vulnerability assessment model is described next. Recent advances in analytical modeling of various types of shocks in assessing food security are described but the operational use of these analytical models in the development of food security assessment for risk transfer is seen to be limited for now because of the complexity of these analytical models. The food security vulnerability modeling in the African Risk Capacity...

Trade policies and global food security

Anderson, Kym
Fonte: Oxford University Press: Oxford, United Kingdom Publicador: Oxford University Press: Oxford, United Kingdom
Tipo: Parte de Livro Formato: 23 pages
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Global food price spikes in 2008 and again in 2011 coincided with a surge of political unrest in low- and middle-income countries. Angry consumers took to the streets in scores of nations. In some places, food riots turned violent, pressuring governments and in a few cases contributed to their overthrow. Foreign investors sparked a new global land rush, adding a different set of pressures. With scientists cautioning that the world has entered a new era of steadily rising food prices, perhaps aggravated by climate change, the specter of widespread food insecurity and sociopolitical instability weighs on policymakers worldwide. In the past few years, governments and philanthropic foundations began redoubling efforts to resuscitate agricultural research and technology transfer, as well as to accelerate the modernization of food value chains to deliver high quality food inexpensively, faster, and in greater volumes to urban consumers. But will these efforts suffice? This volume explores the complex relationship between food security and sociopolitical stability up to roughly 2025. Organized around a series of original essays by leading global technical experts, a key message of this volume is that actions taken in an effort to address food security stressors may have consequences for food security...

Our Daily Bread Achieving Sustainable Food Security in Australia

Freeze, Jack William Klusmeier
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Relatório
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Every day there are millions of people around the world who struggle with food security. Currently, Australia is in an enviable position of food security, being rated as food secure by the IPC. However, as weather patterns around the world become more and more volatile and unpredictable, current food production outcomes and techniques might not always be possible. To find an example of this, one only needs to look back to the intense droughts all over Australia in 2006. It is because of these uncertainties in weather patterns that can and do affect food security that Australia needs to be forward looking and progressive with the issue of food security, and the best way to do so would be to try and achieve food security sustainably. It is an unfortunate fact that many of the resources used today in food production will one day be gone. Non-renewable resources such as petroleum (used in countless items including gasoline and plastics) and phosphorus (used in fertilizers) will run out, and when they do there will be a need for an alternative. Because of this sustainability becomes important, as without sustainability, the current system will not be able to be continued for much longer. As weather patterns are becoming more and more volatile...

Filling Hungry Bellies: The move to put food security on the agenda at the G20

Musgrove, Alison
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Relatório
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Hunger affects approximately one billion people worldwide. The food price crisis of 2007-08 pushed food prices so high that an estimated 100 million people were pushed over the poverty line. After a brief reprieve in 2009, food prices have risen again, and in early 2011 w ere even higher than during the previous crisis. Despite the efforts of international organisations such as the World Food Programme and the Food and Agricultural Organization, the problem of global hunger has remained intractable and it is clear that a new approach needs to be formulated to solve this problem. In recent years, expectations have fallen on the G20 to step into the breach. With nineteen of the world's largest economies and the European Union, the G20 has been called the 'Goldilocks' of world organisations, being small enough to facilitate negotiation yet large enough to have the necessary economic and political clout to drive the development agenda forward. With over 65% of the world's farmland and producing 77% of the world's cereals, the G20 countries are vital to achieving world 'food security', defined as access to safe and sufficient food for everyone at all times. Given that 54% of the world's hungry live in member states China and India alone...

Using Public Food Grain Stocks to Enhance Food Security

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Commodities Study; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH
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The recurrent global food price spikes in 2008 and 2010 rekindled interest in the use of national food grain stockpiles ('stocks') to enhance food security. They were a commonly used instrument in government responses to these food prices spikes. They were also widely considered as a useful tool after the 1974 food crisis and its associated food price volatility and supply disruptions. Large stocks became a reality at the global level in the 1980s and 1990s as a side-product of farm income support policies in the developed countries. However, large 'buffer' or 'intervention' stocks, as the grain accumulations in developed countries came to be called, eventually proved to be very costly forms of producer income support and were drawn down for fiscal and other reasons starting in the late 1990s. This report, prepared for government and development partner practitioners, revisits the issues and evidence concerning grain stocks. It starts with an open mind concerning stocks as policy tools and specifically seeks to avoid the polarization of views that grew up around the topic in the 1980s and 1990s. It takes the form of an evidence-based review of developing country experience. Historically...

Trusting Trade and the Private Sector for Food Security in Southeast Asia

Alavi, Hamid R.; Htenas, Aira; Kopicki, Ron; Shepherd, Andrew W.; Clarete, Ramon
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH
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This book challenges policy makers who oversee the rice sector in Southeast Asia to reexamine deep-rooted precepts about their responsibilities. As an essential first step, it calls on them to redefine food security. Fixating on national self-sufficiency has been costly and counterproductive. In its stead, coordination and cooperation can both improve rice production at home and structure expanding regional trade. To enhance regional food security through quantitative and qualitative gains in rice production, policy makers cannot solely rely on government programs. They need to also enlist private investors both as entrepreneurs and as partners who can bring capital, energy, modern technology, and experienced management into sustained efforts to reduce losses and heighten efficiency in supply chains. For such investors and participants to enter vigorously into the rice sector from which they have long held back, they will need a number of incentives, among them a confidence that the regional market for rice will evolve toward a structured...

Blue Water and the Consequences of Alternative Food Security Policies in the Middle East and North Africa for Water Security

Larson, Donald F.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
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In the Middle East and North Africa, food security and water security are tightly entwined. In particular, choices about the extent to which food security policies rely on trade rather than domestically produced staples have stark consequences for the region's limited water resources. This paper builds on previous modeling results comparing the cost and benefits of policies to protect consumers against surging international wheat prices, and expands the analysis to consider the consequences of the policies for water resources. A self-sufficiency policy is analyzed as well. Results suggest that trade-based food security policies have no significant effect on the sustainability of water resources, while the costs of policies based on self-sufficiency for water resources are high. The analysis also shows that while information about the water footprint of alternative production systems is helpful, a corresponding economic footprint that fully measures the resource cost of water is needed to concisely rank alternative policies in economic terms that are consistent with sustainable outcomes.

Niger : Food Security and Safety Nets

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Policy Note; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
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66.48%
Niger is a very poor country that faces serious problems of poverty and household food insecurity. With a per capita gross national income (GNI) of US$240 and an estimated 62 percent of the population living below the poverty line, Niger is one of the lowest-ranked countries on the United Nations' human development index. Reducing vulnerability and ensuring food and nutrition security is an overarching priority for the Government. Maintaining food security at the national and household level is an important priority for developing countries in general, both for the welfare of the poor and for political stability. In order to ensure food security, governments have adopted various strategies, including efforts to increase staple food crop production, market interventions, and a variety of safety net programs, especially during emergencies. In Niger, where profound vulnerabilities combined with a high level of population growth have resulted in endemic food insecurity, the Government is faced with a serious challenge. In this context...

(In)segurança alimentar no assentamento rural Horto Vergel, Mogi Mirim,SP; (In)food security in the rural settlement Horto Vergel, Mogi Mirim, SP

Iris Cecilia Ordonez Guerrero
Fonte: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp Publicador: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 17/02/2009 PT
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Esta pesquisa desenvolveu-se no Assentamento Rural Horto Vergel, localizado entre os municípios de Mogi Mirim e Itapira - Estado de São Paulo e teve como universo de estudo às 90 famílias titulares do assentamento. O objetivo principal foi identificar os principais entraves e potencialidades que as famílias do assentamento Horto Vergel têm para alcançar a Segurança Alimentar entendida como a realização do direito de todos ao acesso regular e permanente a alimentos de qualidade, em quantidade suficiente, sem comprometer o acesso a outras necessidades essenciais, tendo como base práticas alimentares promotoras da saúde que respeitem a diversidade cultural e que sejam ambiental, cultural, econômica e socialmente sustentáveis. Para tal fim, utilizou-se, como principal instrumento de coleta de dados, o questionário de "(In)segurança Alimentar para grupos de Agricultores Familiares do Brasil", questionário testado e validado para a realidade Brasileira e que contem alem da metodologia da Escala Brasileira de Insegurança Alimentar (EBIA), indicadores sócio-demográficos, renda familiar, escolaridade, trabalho, saúde, dentre outros. A EBIA é um método que consiste na formulação de 15 perguntas à pessoa responsável da família com a finalidade de captar...

Factors associated with household food security of participants of the MANA food supplement program in Colombia

Hackett,Michelle; Melgar-Quiñonez,Hugo; Taylor,Christopher A; Alvarez Uribe,Martha Cecilia
Fonte: Sociedad Latinoamericana de Nutrición Publicador: Sociedad Latinoamericana de Nutrición
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/03/2010 EN
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The objective of this study was to explore demographic and economic characteristics associated with household food security of 2,784 low-income households with pre-school aged children receiving food supplements from the Colombian Plan for Improving Food and Nutrition in Antioquia -MANA (Mejoramiento Alimentario y Nutricional de Antioquia) in the Department of Antioquia, Colombia. Included in the study was a 12-item household food security survey was collected from a cross-sectional, stratified random sample of MANA participants in which households were characterized as food secure, mildly food insecure, moderately food insecure, and severely food insecure. It was hypothesized that household food security status would be strongly associated with demographic characteristics, food expenditure variables, and food supplement consumption by children in MANA. Food insecure households were characterized by more members, older parents, and lower income (p<0.0001). Rural residence and female head of households had higher rates of food insecurity (p<0.01). Food insecure households had the lowest monthly expenditures food (p<0.0001). Severely food insecure households saved the highest percentage of per capita food expenditure from consuming MANA supplements (p<0.0001)...