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O idoso institucionalizado: avaliação da capacidade funcional e aptidão física; Institutionalized elderly: functional capacity and physical fitness

GONÇALVES, Lúcia Hisako Takase; SILVA, Aline Huber da; MAZO, Giovana Zarpsellon; BENEDETTI, Tânia R. Bertoldo; SANTOS, Silvia Maria Azevedo dos; MARQUES, Sueli; RODRIGUES, Rosalina A. Partezani; PORTELLA, Marilene Rodrigues; SCORTEGAGNA, Helenice de Mo
Fonte: Escola Nacional de Saúde Pública Sergio Arouca, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz Publicador: Escola Nacional de Saúde Pública Sergio Arouca, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.17%
O objetivo deste estudo foi explorar a relação entre a aptidão física e a capacidade funcional de residentes em instituições de longa permanência para idosos de baixa renda. Foi realizada avaliação em seis instituições localizadas em três regiões do país. Amostra foi composta de 78 idosos, com média de idade de 77,4 anos (DP = 7,9). A avaliação da aptidão física aplicando-se testes da AAHPERD adaptada para idosos institucionalizados, e da capacidade funcional pela escala de Katz, constatou que a aptidão física, em seus cinco componentes, em média era regular na flexibilidade, coordenação, agilidade e resistência aeróbia, era boa no componente força. Já o Índice de Aptidão Física Geral (IAFG), em média era regular. Os resultados demonstram que quanto maior o grau de dependência dos idosos institucionalizados menor é a força e o resultado do IAFG e, quanto melhor é a coordenação e a agilidade melhor é o nível de independência para a realização das atividades da vida diária. As implicações estão em contribuir com os programas de exercícios físicos adequados na manutenção e/ou recuperação da funcionalidade.; This study analyzed the relationship between physical fitness and functional capacity in 78 residents of long-stay institutions for low-income elderly located in five regions of Brazil. The majority of the sample consisted of women...

Exercise training associated with diet improves heart rate recovery and cardiac autonomic nervous system activity in obese children

Prado, D. M.; Silva, A. G.; Trombeta, I. C.; Ribeiro, M. M.; Guazzelli, I. C.; Matos, L. N.; Santos, M. S.; Nicolau, C. M.; Negrão, C. E.; Villares, S. M.
Fonte: GEORG THIEME VERLAG KG Publicador: GEORG THIEME VERLAG KG
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.25%
The purpose of this study was to test the hypotheses that in obese children: 1) hypocaloric diet (D) improves both heart rate recovery at 1 min (Delta HRR1) cfter an exercise test, and cardiac autonomic nervous system activity (CANSA) in obese children; 2) Diet and exercise training (DET) combined leads to greater improvement in both Delta HRR1 after an exercise test and in CANSA, than D alone. Moreover, we examined the relationships among Delta HRR1, CANSA, cardiorespiratory fitness and anthropometric variables (AV) in obese children submitted to D and to DET. 33 obese children (10 +/- 0.2 years; body mass index (BMI) >95(th) percentile) were divided into 2 groups: D (n = 15; BMI = 31 +/- 1 kg/m(2)) and DET (n = 18; 29 +/- 1 kg/m(2)). All children performed a maximal cardiopulmonary exercise test on a treadmill. The Delta HRR1 was defined as the difference between heart rate at peak and at 1-min post-exercise. CANSA was assessed using power spectral analysis of heart rate variability at rest. The sympathovagal balance (low frequency and high frequency ratio, LF/HF) was measured. After interventions, all obese children showed reduced body weight (P < 0.05). The D group did not improve in terms of peak VO(2), Delta HRR1 or LF/HF ratio (P > 0.05). In contrast...

The Effects of Physical Fitness and Body Composition on Oxygen Consumption and Heart Rate Recovery After High-Intensity Exercise

Campos, E. Z.; Bastos, F. N.; Papoti, M.; Freitas Junior, I. F.; Gobatto, C. A.; Balikian Junior, Pedro
Fonte: Georg Thieme Verlag Kg Publicador: Georg Thieme Verlag Kg
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 621-626
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.29%
The aim of this study was to investigate the potential relationship between excess post-exercise oxygen consumption (EPOC), heart rate recovery (HRR) and their respective time constants (tvo(2) and t(HR)) and body composition and aerobic fitness (VO(2)max) variables after an anaerobic effort. 14 professional cyclists (age = 28.4 +/- 4.8 years, height = 176.0 +/- 6.7 cm, body mass = 74.4 +/- 8.1 kg, VO(2)max = 66.8 +/- 7.6 mL. kg(-1) . min(-1)) were recruited. Each athlete made 3 visits to the laboratory with 24h between each visit. During the first visit, a total and segmental body composition assessment was carried out. During the second, the athletes undertook an incremental test to determine VO(2)max. In the final visit, EPOC (15-min) and HRR were measured after an all-out 30s Wingate test. The results showed that EPOC is positively associated with % body fat (r = 0.64), total body fat (r = 0.73), fat-free mass (r = 0.61) and lower limb fat-free mass (r = 0.55) and negatively associated with HRR (r = - 0.53, p < 0.05 for all). HRR had a significant negative correlation with total body fat and % body fat (r = - 0.62, r = - 0.56 respectively, p < 0.05 for all). These findings indicate that VO(2)max does not influence HRR or EPOC after high-intensity exercise. Even in short-term exercise...

Gag Non-Cleavage Site Mutations Contribute to Full Recovery of Viral Fitness in Protease Inhibitor-Resistant Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1

Myint, Lay; Matsuda, Masakazu; Matsuda, Zene; Yokomaku, Yoshiyuki; Chiba, Tomoko; Okano, Aiko; Yamada, Kaneo; Sugiura, Wataru
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /02/2004 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.25%
It is well documented that human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) Gag cleavage site mutations (CSMs) emerge in conjunction with various HIV-1 mutations for protease inhibitor (PI) resistance and improve viral replication capacity, which is reduced by acquisition of the resistance. However, CSMs are not the only mutations that emerge in Gag during treatment; many mutations other than CSMs (non-CSMs) have been found to accumulate in the Gag region. In the present study we demonstrate the important role of Gag non-CSMs with regard to viral fitness recovery. We selected three Gag-protease sequences with different PI resistance-associated mutations and CSMs from patients with antiretroviral treatment failure. To clarify the significance of CSMs and non-CSMs, four types of recombinant viruses with different patterns in each sequence were constructed. These were the GP type (patient-derived Gag and protease), the P type (HXB2 Gag and patient-derived protease), the GP−c type (CSMs removed from the GP type), and the P+c type (CSMs in the HXB2 Gag frame and patient-derived protease). By comparison of these four types of recombinant viruses in each patient-derived Gag-protease sequence, we found that non-CSMs, which had no systematic pattern...

Few Mutations in the 5′ Leader Region Mediate Fitness Recovery of Debilitated Human Immunodeficiency Type 1 Viruses

Yuste, Eloísa; Bordería, Antonio V.; Domingo, Esteban; López-Galíndez, Cecilio
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /05/2005 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.4%
Repeated bottleneck passages of RNA viruses result in fitness losses due to the accumulation of deleterious mutations. In contrast, repeated transfers of large virus populations result in exponential fitness increases. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) manifested a drastic fitness loss after a limited number of plaque-to-plaque transfers in MT-4 cells. An analysis of the mutations associated with fitness loss in four debilitated clones revealed mutation frequencies in gag that were threefold higher than those in env. We now show an increase in the fitness of the debilitated HIV-1 clones by repeated passages of large populations. An analysis of the entire genomic nucleotide sequences of these populations showed that few mutations, from two to seven per clone, mediated fitness recovery. Eight of the 20 mutations affected coding regions, mainly by the introduction of nonsynonymous mutations (75%). However, most of the mutations accumulated during fitness recovery (12 of 20) were located in the 5′ untranslated leader region of the genome, and more specifically, in the primer binding site (PBS) loop. Two of the viruses incorporated the same mutation in the primer activation signal in the PBS loop, which is critical for the tRNA3Lys-mediated initiation of reverse transcription. Moreover...

Mutagenesis-Induced, Large Fitness Variations with an Invariant Arenavirus Consensus Genomic Nucleotide Sequence

Grande-Pérez, Ana; Gómez-Mariano, Gema; Lowenstein, Pedro R.; Domingo, Esteban
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /08/2005 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.96%
Enhanced mutagenesis may result in RNA virus extinction, but the molecular events underlying this process are not well understood. Here we show that 5-fluorouracil (FU)-induced mutagenesis of the arenavirus lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) resulted in preextinction populations whose consensus genomic nucleotide sequence remained unaltered. Furthermore, fitness recovery passages in the absence of FU, or alternate virus passages in the presence and absence of FU, led to profound differences in the capacity of LCMV to produce progeny, without modification of the consensus genomic sequence. Molecular genetic analysis failed to produce evidence of hypermutated LCMV genomes. The results suggest that low-level mutagenesis to enrich the viral population with defector, interfering genomes harboring limited numbers of mutations may mediate the loss of infectivity that accompanies viral extinction.

Analysis of the fitness effect of compensatory mutations

Zhang, Liqing; Watson, Layne T.
Fonte: HFSP Publishing Publicador: HFSP Publishing
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.32%
This paper extends previous work on the Darwinian evolutionary fitness effect of the fixation of deleterious mutations by incorporating compensatory mutations, which are mutations (deleterious by themselves) that ameliorate other deleterious mutations, thus reducing the genetic load of populations. Since having compensatory mutations essentially changes the distributional shapes of deleterious mutations, the effect of compensatory mutations is studied by comparing distributions of deleterious mutations without compensatory mutations to those with compensatory mutations. The effect of effective population size (Ne), fitness distributional shape, and mutation rate on population fitness reduction is studied. Results indicate that, first, the smaller a population’s Ne, the larger the effect of compensatory mutations on fitness recovery, and the compensatory effect increases sharply with decreasing Ne. Second, the larger the squared coefficient of variation in the fitness effect of deleterious mutations, the larger the effect of compensatory mutations. Third, for fixed Ne, the higher the rate of deleterious mutations, the more effective compensatory mutation is in fitness recovery, and this effect is more pronounced for smaller Ne.

Transition from Positive to Neutral in Mutation Fixation along with Continuing Rising Fitness in Thermal Adaptive Evolution

Kishimoto, Toshihiko; Iijima, Leo; Tatsumi, Makoto; Ono, Naoaki; Oyake, Ayana; Hashimoto, Tomomi; Matsuo, Moe; Okubo, Masato; Suzuki, Shingo; Mori, Kotaro; Kashiwagi, Akiko; Furusawa, Chikara; Ying, Bei-Wen; Yomo, Tetsuya
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.39%
It remains to be determined experimentally whether increasing fitness is related to positive selection, while stationary fitness is related to neutral evolution. Long-term laboratory evolution in Escherichia coli was performed under conditions of thermal stress under defined laboratory conditions. The complete cell growth data showed common continuous fitness recovery to every 2°C or 4°C stepwise temperature upshift, finally resulting in an evolved E. coli strain with an improved upper temperature limit as high as 45.9°C after 523 days of serial transfer, equivalent to 7,560 generations, in minimal medium. Two-phase fitness dynamics, a rapid growth recovery phase followed by a gradual increasing growth phase, was clearly observed at diverse temperatures throughout the entire evolutionary process. Whole-genome sequence analysis revealed the transition from positive to neutral in mutation fixation, accompanied with a considerable escalation of spontaneous substitution rate in the late fitness recovery phase. It suggested that continually increasing fitness not always resulted in the reduction of genetic diversity due to the sequential takeovers by fit mutants, but caused the accumulation of a considerable number of mutations that facilitated the neutral evolution.

Evolutionary Recovery of a Recombinant Viral Genome

Springman, Rachael; Kapadia-Desai, Devanshi S.; Molineux, Ian J.; Bull, James J.
Fonte: Genetics Society of America Publicador: Genetics Society of America
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 01/07/2012 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.31%
It is well appreciated that the evolutionary divergence of genes and genomes from a common ancestor ultimately leads to incompatibilities if those genomes are hybridized. Far less is known about the ability and nature of compensatory evolution to yield the recovery of function in hybrid genomes. Here the major capsid gene of the bacteriophage T7 (40-kb dsDNA) was replaced with the homologous gene of either T3 or K11, each 22% different at the protein level from the T7 homolog. Initial fitness was moderately impaired for the T3 exchange, but the K11 exchange was not viable without a compensatory change in the T7 scaffolding protein. Subsequent adaptation of the transgenic phages led to nearly complete fitness recoveries. Compensatory changes were few, mostly in the transgene and its main interacting partner, the scaffolding protein gene. The large magnitude of fitness recovery with relatively few mutations suggests that the fitness costs of hybridizations and horizontal gene exchanges between moderately diverged genomes can potentially be short-lived through compensatory evolution.

Slow Fitness Recovery in a Codon-Modified Viral Genome

Bull, J.J.; Molineux, I.J.; Wilke, C.O.
Fonte: Oxford University Press Publicador: Oxford University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.34%
Extensive synonymous codon modification of viral genomes appears to be an effective way of attenuating strains for use as live vaccines. An assumption of this method is that codon changes have individually small effects, such that codon-attenuated viruses will be slow to evolve back to high fitness (and thus to high virulence). The major capsid gene of the bacterial virus T7 was modified to have varying levels of suboptimal synonymous codons in different constructs, and fitnesses declined linearly with the number of changes. Adaptation of the most extreme design, with 182 codon changes, resulted in a slow fitness recovery by standards of previous experimental evolution with this virus, although fitness effects of substitutions were higher than expected from the average effect of an engineered codon modification. Molecular evolution during recovery was modest, and changes evolved both within the modified gene and outside it. Some changes within the modified gene evolved in parallel across replicates, but with no obvious explanation. Overall, the study supports the premise that codon-modified viruses recover fitness slowly, although the evolution is substantially more rapid than expected from the design principle.

Realistic Three Dimensional Fitness Landscapes Generated by Self Organizing Maps for the Analysis of Experimental HIV-1 Evolution

Lorenzo-Redondo, Ramón; Delgado, Soledad; Morán, Federico; Lopez-Galindez, Cecilio
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 28/02/2014 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.36%
Human Immunodeficiency Virus type 1 (HIV-1) because of high mutation rates, large population sizes, and rapid replication, exhibits complex evolutionary strategies. For the analysis of evolutionary processes, the graphical representation of fitness landscapes provides a significant advantage. The experimental determination of viral fitness remains, in general, difficult and consequently most published fitness landscapes have been artificial, theoretical or estimated. Self-Organizing Maps (SOM) are a class of Artificial Neural Network (ANN) for the generation of topological ordered maps. Here, three-dimensional (3D) data driven fitness landscapes, derived from a collection of sequences from HIV-1 viruses after “in vitro” passages and labelled with the corresponding experimental fitness values, were created by SOM. These maps were used for the visualization and study of the evolutionary process of HIV-1 “in vitro” fitness recovery, by directly relating fitness values with viral sequences. In addition to the representation of the sequence space search carried out by the viruses, these landscapes could also be applied for the analysis of related variants like members of viral quasiespecies. SOM maps permit the visualization of the complex evolutionary pathways in HIV-1 fitness recovery. SOM fitness landscapes have an enormous potential for the study of evolution in related viruses of “in vitro” works or from “in vivo” clinical studies with human...

A comparison of metabolic recovery from exhaustive exercise in Lepomis macrochirus, Lepomis gibbosus, and Lepomis (F1 Hybrid) from Lake Opinicon, Ontario

Cox, Jason
Fonte: Quens University Publicador: Quens University
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.1%
Hybridization between species has the potential to reduce fitness in hybrids through genomic incompatibilities capable of affecting reproduction, growth, survival, and metabolism. In my thesis I examined the stress of exhaustive exercise on the metabolic phenotypes of bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus), pumpkinseed (Lepomis gibbosus), and their unidirectional F1 hybrid (male bluegill x female pumpkinseed). Species-group response to exhaustive exercise was evaluated by measuring [lactate], [glycogen], [glucose], [ATP], [PCr], and [Cr] in white muscle immediately post-exercise, after a 6 hour recovery period, and after a 16 hour recovery period. Immediately post-exercise metabolic fuels or end products were not significantly different between pumpkinseeds, bluegills, or pumpkinseed-bluegill hybrids. Additionally, after both short term recovery (6 hours) and long term recovery (16 hours) [PCr], [Cr], [ATP], [glucose], [glycogen], and [lactate] were not significantly different among pumpkinseeds, bluegills, and pumpkinseed-bluegill hybirds. Though analysis of metabolites among species at each recovery time-point yielded no statistically significant differences, future research should more closely examine anaerobic energy production pathways to determine if there is compensation as a result of hybrid mitochondrial dysfunction.; NSERC

Exercise-induced improvements in cardiorespiratory fitness and heart rate response to exercise are impaired in overweight/obese postmenopausal women

CIOLAC, Emmanuel Gomes; GREVE, Júlia Maria D'Andréa
Fonte: Faculdade de Medicina / USP Publicador: Faculdade de Medicina / USP
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.2%
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to compare the heart rate response to exercise and the exercise-induced improvements in muscle strength, cardiorespiratory fitness and heart rate response between normal-weight and overweight/obese postmenopausal women. METHODS: Sedentary women (n = 155) were divided into normal-weight (n = 79; BMI <25 kg/m²; 58.3 + 8.6 years) and overweight/obese (n = 76; BMI >25 kg/m²; 58.3 + 8.6 years) groups, and have their 1-repetition maximum strength (adjusted for body mass), cardiorespiratory fitness and heart rate response to a graded exercise test compared before and after 12 months of a three times-per-week exercise-training program. RESULTS: Overweight/obese women displayed decreased upper and lower extremity muscle strengths, decreased cardiorespiratory fitness, and lower peak and reserve heart rates compared to normal-weight women. After follow-up, both groups improved their upper (32.9% and 41.5% in normal-weight and overweight/obese women, respectively) and lower extremity(49.5% and 47.8% in normal-weight and overweight/obese women, respectively) muscle strength. However, only normal-weight women improved their cardiorespiratory fitness (6.6%) and recovery heart rate (5 bpm). Resting, reserve and peak heart rates did not change in either group. CONCLUSIONS: Overweight/obese women displayed impaired heart rate response to exercise. Both groups improved muscle strength...

Effects of recovery type after a judo match on blood lactate and performance in specific and non-specific judo tasks

Franchini, Emerson; Bertuzzi, Rômulo Cássio de Moraes; Takito, Monica Yuri; Kiss, Maria Augusta Peduti Dal' Molin
Fonte: SPRINGER Publicador: SPRINGER
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.12%
The objective of the present study was to verify if active recovery (AR) applied after a judo match resulted in a better performance when compared to passive recovery (PR) in three tasks varying in specificity to the judo and in measurement of work performed: four upper-body Wingate tests (WT); special judo fitness test (SJFT); another match. For this purpose, three studies were conducted. Sixteen highly trained judo athletes took part in study 1, 9 in study 2, and 12 in study 3. During AR judokas ran (15 min) at the velocity corresponding to 70% of 4 mmol l(-1) blood lactate intensity (similar to 50% (V) over dotO(2) peak), while during PR they stayed seated at the competition area. The results indicated that the minimal recovery time reported in judo competitions (15 min) is long enough for sufficient recovery of WT performance and in a specific high-intensity test (SJFT). However, the odds ratio of winning a match increased ten times when a judoka performed AR and his opponent performed PR, but the cause of this phenomenon cannot be explained by changes in number of actions performed or by changes in match`s time structure.; FAPESP Fundacao de Amparo a Pesquisa do Estado de Sao Paulo[99/06408-2]

Continuos and intervalic training on cardiovascular fitness in sedentary women; Entrenamiento continuo e interválico sobre el fitness cardiovascular en mujeres sedentarias

Javier-Fernando Bonilla-Briceño; Moreno Zabaleta, Johana Catherine
Fonte: Universidade do Rosário Publicador: Universidade do Rosário
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 14/07/2010 SPA
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.34%
The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate if the intervallic exercise near to the maximum of intensity in a similar fitness population and in women is more effective to improve aerobic capacity than the continuous one of smaller intensity. In order to do it, ten healthy women between 18 and 25 years habitual inhabitants of Bogotá city (located at 2600masl) were selected. They signed the informed consent and were divided randomly in two groups of five participants. They were undergoing to two traditional types of training of ten weeks, three times per week, one hour of duration every day. The continuous training group (Group 1) had a VO2peak intensity of 60%; for his part, the intervallic training group (Group 2) had five sessions of ten minutes of exercise at 70% of VO2peak and 90 seconds of recovery between each session. It was possible to demonstrate that, although the Cardiac Frequency (CF) average of group 2 participants during the exercise sessions were always over those of group 1, this difference was not statistically significant. In the same way, the basal CF and the recovery CF, as well as the VO2peak, did not have significant differences between both groups. The systolic and diastolic blood pressure average, as well as the Respiratory Frequency (FR) were always superior in group 2...

Dynamics of In Vitro Fitness Recovery of HIV-1 ▿

Lorenzo-Redondo, Ramón; Bordería, Antonio V.; Lopez-Galindez, Cecilio
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology (ASM) Publicador: American Society for Microbiology (ASM)
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.34%
The study on the evolutionary consequences of an RNA viral population's fluctuations can be approached by in vitro experiments. This work describes the fitness recovery of HIV-1 after 20 large-population passages in 10 debilitated clones. The serial passages promoted an increase in viral fitness. In addition, we detected a significant number of mutations fixed in the complete genome consensus sequence of the final viral populations. Among the mutations, events of convergent evolution with important phenotypic characteristics occurred in several independent clones. One common change, V35I, in the nuclear localization signal of the p17 protein appeared in four viruses of three different lineages. Other common alterations mapped in position E196K of the reverse transcriptase or in position S316K of the V3 loop of the gp120 residue that is associated with the X4/R5 phenotype. Together with this mutational analysis, we studied the quasispecies heterogeneity of the initial and final viruses, revealing that fitness increase correlated with an augmentation in the genetic heterogeneity of viral quasispecies. However, while heterogeneity was mostly composed of synonymous (dS) mutations in the first 10 passages performed, at passage 21 it switched to nonsynonymous (dN) substitutions...

Exercise-induced improvements in cardiorespiratory fitness and heart rate response to exercise are impaired in overweight/obese postmenopausal women

Ciolac,Emmanuel Gomes; Greve,Júlia Maria D'Andréa
Fonte: Faculdade de Medicina / USP Publicador: Faculdade de Medicina / USP
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2011 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.2%
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to compare the heart rate response to exercise and the exercise-induced improvements in muscle strength, cardiorespiratory fitness and heart rate response between normal-weight and overweight/obese postmenopausal women. METHODS: Sedentary women (n = 155) were divided into normal-weight (n = 79; BMI <25 kg/m²; 58.3 + 8.6 years) and overweight/obese (n = 76; BMI >25 kg/m²; 58.3 + 8.6 years) groups, and have their 1-repetition maximum strength (adjusted for body mass), cardiorespiratory fitness and heart rate response to a graded exercise test compared before and after 12 months of a three times-per-week exercise-training program. RESULTS: Overweight/obese women displayed decreased upper and lower extremity muscle strengths, decreased cardiorespiratory fitness, and lower peak and reserve heart rates compared to normal-weight women. After follow-up, both groups improved their upper (32.9% and 41.5% in normal-weight and overweight/obese women, respectively) and lower extremity(49.5% and 47.8% in normal-weight and overweight/obese women, respectively) muscle strength. However, only normal-weight women improved their cardiorespiratory fitness (6.6%) and recovery heart rate (5 bpm). Resting, reserve and peak heart rates did not change in either group. CONCLUSIONS: Overweight/obese women displayed impaired heart rate response to exercise. Both groups improved muscle strength...

Few mutations in the 5' leader region mediate fitness recovery of debilitated human immunodeficiency type 1 viruses

Yuste, Eloísa; Bordería, Antonio V.; Domingo, Esteban; López-Galíndez, Cecilio
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artículo Formato: 262470 bytes; application/pdf
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.4%
Repeated bottleneck passages of RNA viruses result in fitness losses due to the accumulation of deleterious mutations. In contrast, repeated transfers of large virus populations result in exponential fitness increases. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) manifested a drastic fitness loss after a limited number of plaque-to-plaque transfers in MT-4 cells. An analysis of the mutations associated with fitness loss in four debilitated clones revealed mutation frequencies in gag that were threefold higher than those in env. We now show an increase in the fitness of the debilitated HIV-1 clones by repeated passages of large populations. An analysis of the entire genomic nucleotide sequences of these populations showed that few mutations, from two to seven per clone, mediated fitness recovery. Eight of the 20 mutations affected coding regions, mainly by the introduction of nonsynonymous mutations (75%). However, most of the mutations accumulated during fitness recovery (12 of 20) were located in the 5' untranslated leader region of the genome, and more specifically, in the primer binding site (PBS) loop. Two of the viruses incorporated the same mutation in the primer activation signal in the PBS loop, which is critical for the tRNA3Lys-mediated initiation of reverse transcription. Moreover...

Efeitos da prática da natação adaptada sobre o perfil bioquímico e o estado de condicionamento físico de indivíduos com lesão medular; The effects of adaptated swimming program on the biochemstry blood profile and physical fitness in individuals with spinal cord injury

Almeida, Patricia A. de; Barbosa, Valéria R.C.; Dias, Matheus C.; Neiva, Cassiano M.
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 30/12/2011 POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.17%
Introdução: A ausência de exercícios físicos gerada pela imobilização dos membros inferiores conduza mudanças na composição corporal que geralmente estão associadas com o desequilíbrio da taxametabólica que somados ao estado sedentário podem resultar em obesidade, diabetes mellitus edoenças cardiovasculares. Assim, a melhora do condicionamento físico pode contribuir para promoçãode saúde e qualidade de vida desses indivíduos. Como existe um número muito reduzido de pesquisasnesse sentido, nossa proposta foi investigar os efeitos de um programa de natação adaptada, emprotocolo intervalado, para pessoas com lesão medular, tendo como objetivo verificar a melhora do seucondicionamento físico e, conseqüentemente, de algumas variáveis bioquímicas importantes para asaúde. Metodologia: Participaram do estudo 17 indivíduos com lesão medular, sedentários, distribuí-dos em 2 grupos: 11 participantes do grupo treinamento (GT) e 6 do grupo controle (GC). No GT foiaplicado um protocolo de treinamento intervalado em natação, durante oito semanas consecutivas, 3vezes por semana. O protocolo empregou a braçada do nado peito, nos períodos de trabalho de intensidade moderada a intensa, e a braçada do nado costas...

RATES OF FITNESS DECLINE AND REBOUND SUGGEST PERVASIVE EPISTASIS

Perfeito, L.; Sousa, A.; Bataillon, T.; Gordo, I.
Fonte: Wiley Publicador: Wiley
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /01/2014 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.23%
Unraveling the factors that determine the rate of adaptation is a major question in evolutionary biology. One key parameter is the effect of a new mutation on fitness, which invariably depends on the environment and genetic background. The fate of a mutation also depends on population size, which determines the amount of drift it will experience. Here, we manipulate both population size and genotype composition and follow adaptation of 23 distinct Escherichia coli genotypes. These have previously accumulated mutations under intense genetic drift and encompass a substantial fitness variation. A simple rule is uncovered: the net fitness change is negatively correlated with the fitness of the genotype in which new mutations appear--a signature of epistasis. We find that Fisher's geometrical model can account for the observed patterns of fitness change and infer the parameters of this model that best fit the data, using Approximate Bayesian Computation. We estimate a genomic mutation rate of 0.01 per generation for fitness altering mutations, albeit with a large confidence interval, a mean fitness effect of mutations of -0.01, and an effective number of traits nine in mutS(-) E. coli. This framework can be extended to confront a broader range of models with data and test different classes of fitness landscape models.; LAO/ITQB...