The aim of this ex vivo was to investigate if two radiopaque root canal sealers with different formulations would influence the radiographic perception of root canal fillings. The root canals of 48 extracted maxillary canines were prepared and randomly assigned to 3 groups of 16 specimens each. In each group, the root canals were filled by lateral condensation of gutta-percha and one of the tested sealers: Endométhasone, Sealer 26, or a non-radiopaque sealer. A through-and-through void was simulated in half of the specimens from each group (n=8). The buccolingual radiographic images obtained were randomly interpreted for voids existence by a radiologist and an endodontist. The differences in sensitivity and specificity between groups and examiners were compared using, respectively, Fisher's Exact and McNemar tests at 5% significance level. Both radiopaque sealers caused a significant decrease in sensitivity at the coronal part of fillings. The use of Endométhasone increased specificity values for both coronal and apical portions of the root canal fillings. In conclusion, the tested sealers influenced the radiographic perceptions of laterally condensed root canal fillings in a different way.; O propósito deste estudo ex vivo foi investigar se dois cimentos obturadores de fórmulas diferentes influenciariam a percepção radiográfica de obturações de canais radiculares. Os canais radiculares de 48 caninos superiores extraídos foram preparados e divididos em 3 grupos. Em cada grupo os canais foram preenchidos através da condensação lateral da guta-percha e de um dos cimentos testados (Endométhasone...
Syrups with high sugar content and dehydrated fruits in its composition can be added to chocolate fillings to reduce the need of artificial flavor and dyes attributing a natural appeal to the product. Fruit bases were produced with lyophilized strawberry, passion fruit, and sliced orange peel. Rheological dynamic oscillatory tests were applied to determine the products stability and tendency of shelf life. Values of G´< G´´ were observed for strawberry and passion fruit flavor, whereas values of G´ > G´´ were found for orange flavor during the 90 days of storage. It was observed that shear stress values did not vary significantly suggesting product stability during the studied period. For all fillings, it was found a behavior similar to the fruit base indicating that it has great influence on the filling behavior and its stability. The use of a sugar matrix in fillings provided good shelf life for the fruit base, which could be kept under room temperature conditions for a period as long as one year. The good stability and storage conditions allow the use of fruit base for handmade products as well as for industrialized products.; Xaropes com alto conteúdo de açúcar e frutas desidratadas podem ser adicionados a recheios de produtos de chocolate a fim de reduzir a necessidade da adição de aromas e corantes...
O chocolate é um dos principais produtos oriundos do cacau, sendo comercializado em sua maior parte na forma de bombons maciços ou recheados. Bombons com recheio de fruta podem conter a fruta ou pedaços da fruta distribuídos no recheio. Eles podem ser produzidos em base fondant, gordura, geléia ou com o próprio chocolate (trufas), entre outros, adicionando-se aromas e corantes ou não. O objetivo deste trabalho foi produzir preparados de frutas e recheios para bombons em base fondant, gordura hidrogenada e chocolate branco (trufa), utilizando estes preparados como substituto parcial ou total de aromas e corantes na formulação final dos recheios. Os preparados foram elaborados utilizando-se açúcar invertido, xarope de glicose e água como matriz, adicionados de morango e maracujá liofilizados e casca de laranja, para conferir o aroma da fruta in natura, reduzindo de maneira significativa o uso de aromas e corantes artificiais. Avaliou-se pH nos preparados de frutas e nos recheios; teor de sólidos solúveis nos preparados de fruta; atividade de água nos recheios base fondant, gordura hidrogenada e "trufa". Os valores de pH apresentaram-se menores que 4,0 para os preparados e menores que 6,0 para os recheios. A atividade de água não apresentou variação durante o período estudado. O teor de sólidos solúveis encontrado foi de 68 ºBrix...
O objetivo do presente estudo foi diferenciar reações liquenóides de contato (RLC) de lesões de líquen plano oral (LPO) em pacientes do nosso ambulatório. De um total de 45 pacientes (36 mulheres e 9 homens; média idade = 48,7 anos) com lesões sugestivas de LPO, 18 apresentavam características clínicas compatíveis com RLC, ou seja, lesões próximas ou em contato direto com restaurações em amálgama. Estes pacientes foram classificados em classe I (discreta relação da lesão com amálgama), classe II (moderada relação) e classe III (intensa relação). Todos os pacientes com RLC foram encaminhados para realização de teste epicutâneo padrão (alérgenos "standard", Grupo Brasileiro de Dermatites de Contato) e específico (materiais odontológicos, Trolab, Hermal, Alemanha). A substituição do amálgama foi indicada para pacientes classe II e III; em pacientes classe I o tratamento foi indicado somente quando apresentavam teste epicutâneo positivo. Dois pacientes foram excluídos deste estudo por não comparecimento às consultas e 1 por não apresentar resultado anátomo-patológico compatível com LPO. Em pacientes classe I (3 casos), apenas um caso apresentou teste epicutâneo positivo, sendo que a substituição da restauração não resultou em melhora clínica da lesão. Em pacientes classe II (9 casos)...
Investigou-se o efeito da radiopacidade de diferentes materiais obturadores sobre a sensibilidade, especificidade e confiabilidade da análise radiográfica de obturações endodônticas. Após determinação da radiopacidade dos materiais, um total de 80 dentes caninos tiveram seus canais radiculares preparados com a técnica clássica antes de serem divididos em 5 grupos cada qual a ser obturado com um dos cimentos obturadores estudados (AH Plus, Endomèthasone®, Sealer 26, Acroseal e cimento não-radiopaco). Antes do preenchimento com a técnica de condensação lateral da guta-percha, em metade dos dentes de cada grupo, inseriu-se um fio de nylon radiolúcido (Ø 0.25 mm), ao longo do canal radicular para simular um defeito de obturação (n=8). Um total de 36 dentes molares superiores, depois de instrumentados, foram divididos em 3 grupos cada qual a ser obturado com um dos cimentos testados (AH Plus, Acroseal e cimento não-radiopaco) (n=12). Antes da obturação com a mesma técnica utilizada nos caninos, um fio de 0.08 mm de espessura foi estendido no canal disto-vestibular de cada dente. Após a utilização de artifícios para simular a sobreposição dos tecidos humanos, os dentes obturados foram radiografados e as imagens periapicais analisadas por endodontistas e radiologistas quanto à presença de defeitos de preenchimento nas obturações. Após análise estatística empregandose os testes exato de Fisher...
Recheios são componentes utilizados na indústria de chocolates e de confeitos. Os recheios para chocolates podem ser elaborados com gorduras vegetais, açúcar fondant, creme de leite, amido ou com preparados de frutas contendo gomas. Nesses produtos, as gomas podem ser empregadas com a função de estabilizante, espessante ou como redutores de gordura, minimizando alterações sensoriais, de textura e de separação de fases. A goma guar vem sendo utilizada em muitos produtos alimentícios. A goma chichá é extraída de uma árvore brasileira (Sterculia striata) que pertence à mesma família da goma comercial caraia (Sterculia urens). O murici (Byrsonima verbascifolia, Rich) é um fruto brasileiro de alto valor nutricional. Assim foram elaboradas formulações alterando-se a base gordurosa, com os tipos de gordura hidrogenada, low trans, de cupuaçu e manteiga de cacau em diferentes teores (10%, 7,5% e 5% p/v). A polpa de murici (13%) e as gomas chichá e guar (0,3% m/v) foram adicionadas com a finalidade de agregar valor nutricional e estabilizar os recheios. O estudo reológico das formulações foi realizado por testes oscilatórios e rotacionais realizados em conjunto com imagens de microscopia óptica, sendo importante para avaliar os aspectos estruturais e micro estruturais dos produtos decorrente dos ingredientes utilizados...
O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar in vitro a influência dos procedimentos de acabamento e polimento na decisão de substituir ou não restaurações de resina composta em molares decíduos, considerando-se as razões para a reintervenção, como também a experiência clínica do profissional. Onze molares decíduos, superiores e inferiores, foram apresentados a três grupos de examinadores (alunos de graduação, cirurgiões dentistas e odontopediatras) antes e após os procedimentos de acabamento, polimento e selamento marginal. Um questionário foi respondido em ambas às fases, considerando a substituição ou não das restaurações e os motivos para esse procedimento. A decisão de substituir as restaurações foi significativamente influenciada pelo acabamento e polimento, independente do grupo de examinadores (Wilcoxon, z=-8,06; p<0,0001). Os motivos mais freqüentemente citados para substituição foram fenda marginal e forma anatômica deficiente, duas fases do estudo. A decisão de substituição das restaurações foi também inversamente proporcional a experiência profissional.; The aim of this survey was evaluate in vitro the influence of finishing and burnishing procedures in decision of substitution or not composite fillings in primary teeth...
Mestrado em Engenharia Alimentar - Processamento de Alimentos - Instituto Superior de Agronomia; The main objective of this work involves the development of formulations of low-calorie
fillings for chocolate candies that have a positive impact on consumers health. This theme of
master’s thesis, was developed within the QREN Project - I&DT Co-promotion 33880
“HealthyBombons”, in partnership with AJM Pastelarias, Lda. Fruit fillings based on three
types of fruit, pear (pera rocha), blueberries and green apple were produced. Thee fillings
were compared with two commercial fruit fillings, raspberry and passionflower, produced by
the company AJM Pastelarias, Lda. For the production of the fillings were four types of
ingredients with different features, were produced, gelling agents (rice flour or psyllium and
inulin), chocolate, sweeteners and spices.
The effect of psyllium, sweeteners, protein and fiber concentration in the structure of the
fillings and the effect of the type of the fruit fillings with the additions of rice flour or psyllium
and inulin, were studied. The filling was produced at 90°C, on a mixer with an helix pad, for
30 minutes at a rotation speed of 400 rpm at let to set at 20ºC for 12 hours. There was a
significant reduction in caloric value...
Syrups with high sugar content and dehydrated fruits in its composition can be added to chocolate fillings to reduce the need of artificial flavor and dyes attributing a natural appeal to the product. Fruit bases were produced with lyophilized strawberry, passion fruit, and sliced orange peel. Rheological dynamic oscillatory tests were applied to determine the products stability and tendency of shelf life. Values of G´< G´´ were observed for strawberry and passion fruit flavor, whereas values of G´ > G´´ were found for orange flavor during the 90 days of storage. It was observed that shear stress values did not vary significantly suggesting product stability during the studied period. For all fillings, it was found a behavior similar to the fruit base indicating that it has great influence on the filling behavior and its stability. The use of a sugar matrix in fillings provided good shelf life for the fruit base, which could be kept under room temperature conditions for a period as long as one year. The good stability and storage conditions allow the use of fruit base for handmade products as well as for industrialized products.
The aim of this ex vivo was to investigate if two radiopaque root canal sealers with different formulations would influence the radiographic perception of root canal fillings. The root canals of 48 extracted maxillary canines were prepared and randomly assigned to 3 groups of 16 specimens each. In each group, the root canals were filled by lateral condensation of gutta-percha and one of the tested sealers: Endométhasone, Sealer 26, or a non-radiopaque sealer. A through-and-through void was simulated in half of the specimens from each group (n=8). The buccolingual radiographic images obtained were randomly interpreted for voids existence by a radiologist and an endodontist. The differences in sensitivity and specificity between groups and examiners were compared using, respectively, Fisher's Exact and McNemar tests at 5% significance level. Both radiopaque sealers caused a significant decrease in sensitivity at the coronal part of fillings. The use of Endométhasone increased specificity values for both coronal and apical portions of the root canal fillings. In conclusion, the tested sealers influenced the radiographic perceptions of laterally condensed root canal fillings in a different way.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the standard quality of 1,347 root fillings performed by postgraduate students in Endodontics according to 3 radiographic quality parameters. The analyzed quality parameters included apical extension (AE), taper (TA) and homogeneity (HO), which received scores S2 (ideal standard), S1 (slight deviation) or S0 (accentuated deviation). A perfect filling (PF) received S2 for all parameters. In the absence of one or two S2 score, the fillings were deemed as satisfactory (SF) or deficient (DF), respectively. The results showed 51.7%, 41.5% and 6.8% of PF, SF, and DF, respectively. AE, TA, and HO presented equivalent quality parameters in root-filled canals of mandibular incisors and mandibular premolars (p>0.05). Conversely, in maxillary incisors, canines and distal root of mandibular molars, significant differences (p<0.05) were found between 2 parameters. Besides, there were significant differences (p<0.05) among the measured parameters in root-filled canals of maxillary premolars, all root canals of the maxillary molars and mesial root of the mandibular molars. AE showed the lowest frequency of S2 score for all groups. In conclusion the prevalence of perfect, satisfactory and deficient fillings varied significantly according to the root canal group. The quality parameters categorized fillings in 3 complexity degrees. AE was the most critical parameter of quality in root canal fillings.
In a survey of 640 human subjects, a subgroup of 356 persons without recent exposure to antibiotics demonstrated that those with a high prevalence of Hg resistance in their intestinal floras were significantly more likely to also have resistance to two or more antibiotics. This observation led us to consider the possibility that mercury released from amalgam ("silver") dental restorations might be a selective agent for both mercury- and antibiotic-resistant bacteria in the oral and intestinal floras of primates. Resistances to mercury and to several antibiotics were examined in the oral and intestinal floras of six adult monkeys prior to the installation of amalgam fillings, during the time they were in place, and after replacement of the amalgam fillings with glass ionomer fillings (in four of the monkeys). The monkeys were fed an antibiotic-free diet, and fecal mercury concentrations were monitored. There was a statistically significant increase in the incidence of mercury-resistant bacteria during the 5 weeks following installation of the amalgam fillings and during the 5 weeks immediately following their replacement with glass ionomer fillings. These peaks in incidence of mercury-resistant bacteria correlated with peaks of Hg elimination (as high as 1 mM in the feces) immediately following amalgam placement and immediately after replacement of the amalgam fillings. Representative mercury-resistant isolates of three selected bacterial families (oral streptococci...
OBJECTIVES--To describe people with high mercury (Hg) uptake from their amalgam fillings, and to estimate the possible fraction of the occupationally unexposed Swedish population with high excretion of urinary Hg. METHODS--Three case reports are presented. The distribution of excretion of urinary Hg in the general population was examined in pooled data from several sources. RESULTS--The three cases excreted 23-60 micrograms of Hg/day (25-54 micrograms/g creatinine), indicating daily uptake of Hg as high as 100 micrograms. Blood Hg was 12-23 micrograms/l, which is five to 10 times the average in the general population. No other sources of exposure were found, and removal of the amalgam fillings resulted in normal Hg concentrations. Chewing gum and bruxism were the probable reasons for the increased Hg uptake. Extrapolations from data on urinary Hg in the general population indicate that the number of people with urinary excretion of > or = 50 micrograms/g creatinine could in fact be larger than the number of workers with equivalent exposure from occupational sources. CONCLUSION--Although the average daily Hg uptake from dental amalgam fillings is low, there is a considerable variation between people; certain people have a high mercury uptake from their amalgam fillings.
The aim of the present study was to investigate whether removal of all amalgam fillings was associated with long-term changes in health complaints in a group of patients who attributed subjective health complaints to amalgam fillings. Patients previously examined at the Norwegian Dental Biomaterials Adverse Reaction Unit were included in the study and assigned to a treatment group (n = 20) and a reference group (n = 20). Participants in the treatment group had all amalgam fillings replaced with other restorative materials. Follow-ups took place 3 months, 1 and 3 years after removal of all amalgam fillings. There was no intervention in the reference group. Subjective health complaints were measured by numeric rating scales in both groups. Analysis of covariance was used to compare changes in health complaints over time in the two groups. In the treatment group, there were significant reductions in intra-oral and general health complaints from inclusion into study to the 3-year follow-up. In the reference group, changes in the same period were not significant. Comparisons between the groups showed that reductions in intra-oral and general health complaints in the treatment group were significantly different from the changes in the reference group. The mechanisms behind this remain to be identified. Reduced exposure to dental amalgam...
Introduction: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the radiographic quality of root canal fillings by fourth-, fifth-, and sixth-year undergraduate students at Tabriz Faculty of Dentistry between 2006 and 2012. Methods and Materials: A total of 1183 root canal fillings in 620 teeth were evaluated by two investigators (and in case of disagreement by a third investigator) regarding the presence or absence of under-fillings, over-fillings and perforations. For each tooth, preoperative, working and postoperative radiographs were checked. The Pearson’s chi-square test was used for statistical evaluation of the data. Inter-examiner agreement was measured by Cohen’s kappa (k) values. The level of significance was set at 0.05. Results: Total frequencies of over-filling, under-filling and perforation were 5.6%, 20.4% and 1.9%, respectively. There were significant differences between frequencies of over- and under-fillings (P<0.05). Unacceptable quality, under- and over-fillings were detected in 27.9% of 1183 evaluated canals. Conclusion: The technical quality of root canal therapies performed by undergraduate dental students using step-back preparation and lateral compaction techniques was unacceptable in almost one-fourth of the cases.
Ivanov and Tuzhilin started an investigation of a particular case of Gromov
Minimal Fillings problem (generalized to the case of stratified manifolds).
Weighted graphs with non-negative weight function were used as minimal fillings
of finite metric spaces. In the present paper we introduce generalized minimal
fillings, i.e. minimal fillings where the weight function is not necessarily
non-negative. We prove that for any finite metric space its minimal filling has
the minimum weight in the class of all generalized fillings of the space.
In this paper we show that there is a one-to-one correspondence between
minimal symplectic fillings and Milnor fibers associated to a quotient surface
singularity, and we present explicit ways to compare them. First we classify
minimal symplectic fillings of the link of a quotient surface singularity up to
diffeomorphism, and we then show that there are no exotic fillings. After that,
we prove that every minimal symplectic filling of a quotient surface
singularity is diffeomorphic to the Milnor fiber of a smoothing of the
singularity (which shows a one-to-one correspondence between them) and that, as
a corollary, any symplectic fillings of a quotient surface singularity are
obtained by a sequence of rational blow-downs from a special resolution (the
so-called maximal resolution) of the singularity. Finally, we construct an
explicit bijection between Milnor fibers and minimal symplectic fillings as
follows: For any minimal symplectic filling, we construct a smoothing whose
Milnor fiber is diffeomorphic to the given minimal symplectic filling by
applying Pinkham's theory of smoothings of negative weight. Conversely we
provide an algorithm to identify Milnor fibers with minimal symplectic fillings
using special partial resolutions (called $P$-resolutions) and complex 3-fold
birational geometry.; Comment: 54 pages...
We put recent results by Chen, Deng, Du, Stanley and Yan on crossings and
nestings of matchings and set partitions in the larger context of the
enumeration of fillings of Ferrers shape on which one imposes restrictions on
their increasing and decreasing chains. While Chen et al. work with
Robinson-Schensted-like insertion/deletion algorithms, we use the growth
diagram construction of Fomin to obtain our results. We extend the results by
Chen et al., which, in the language of fillings, are results about
$0$-$1$-fillings, to arbitrary fillings. Finally, we point out that, very
likely, these results are part of a bigger picture which also includes recent
results of Jonsson on $0$-$1$-fillings of stack polyominoes, and of results of
Backelin, West and Xin and of Bousquet-M\'elou and Steingr\'\i msson on the
enumeration of permutations and involutions with restricted patterns. In
particular, we show that our growth diagram bijections do in fact provide
alternative proofs of the results by Backelin, West and Xin and by
Bousquet-M\'elou and Steingr\'\i msson.; Comment: AmS-LaTeX; 27 pages; many corrections and improvements of
short-comings; thanks to comments by Mireille Bousquet-Melou and Jakob
Jonsson, the final section is now much more profound and has additional
It was proved by Rubey that the number of fillings with zeros and ones of a
given moon polyomino that do not contain a northeast chain of size $k$ depends
only on the set of columns of the polyomino, but not the shape of the
polyomino. Rubey's proof is an adaption of jeu de taquin and promotion for
arbitrary fillings of moon polyominoes. In this paper we present a bijective
proof for this result by considering fillings of almost-moon polyominoes, which
are moon polyominoes after removing one of the rows. Explicitly, we construct a
bijection which preserves the size of the largest northeast chains of the
fillings when two adjacent rows of the polyomino are exchanged. This bijection
also preserves the column sum of the fillings. We also present a bijection that
preserves the size of the largest northeast chains, the row sum and the column
sum if every row of the fillings has at most one 1.; Comment: 18 pages
We extend the theory of Littlewood-Richardson fillings (defined over the
non-negative integers) to include diagrams with rows and boxes of real-valued
length. We realize such fillings as invariants of matrix pairs over rings with
a real-valued valuation. We then prove a bijection between pairs of fillings
determined by a matrix pair, and connect this to the classical row-switching
bijection for Littlewoo-Richardson fillings. We utilize matrix calculations to
interpret continuous deformations of generalized Littlewood-Richardson
fillings.; Comment: 39 pages