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Na costura do sapato, o desmanche das operárias: um estudo das condições de trabalho e saúde das pespontadeiras da indústria de calçados de Franca (SP); In the shoe sewing, the female workers unmake: a reseach of the work conditions and health of the female sewing workers in the footwear industry of Franca (SP)

Prazeres, Taísa Junqueira
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 05/07/2010 PT
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36.29%
PRAZERES, T. J. Na costura do sapato, o desmanche das operárias: um estudo das condições de trabalho e saúde das pespontadeiras da Indústria de Calçados de Franca (SP). 2010. 196 f. Dissertação (Mestrado em Ciências) Programa de Pós-Graduação em Saúde da Comunidade, Departamento de Medicina Social, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, 2010. O mundo do trabalho, nas últimas décadas, foi palco de grandes transformações organizacionais e tecnológicas que modificaram os processos e as relações de trabalho, resultando no aumento dos contratos precários e temporários e na intensificação da jornada de trabalho, aliada à depreciação salarial e à exploração do trabalho em domicílio. Nesse contexto, observa-se um significativo aumento de adoecimentos relacionados ao trabalho e suas precárias condições, que atingem principalmente a classe trabalhadora feminina, devido às características e qualidade do trabalho a ela destinado. A escolha do trabalho na indústria calçadista francana como objeto de estudo deveu-se ao fato de nesta atividade se observar facilmente o resultado dessas mudanças, em especial na seção de costura mecânica (pesponto), onde há maior emprego de mulheres. Tendo como pano de fundo este contexto de mudanças...

Gênero e enfermagem: reafirmação de papeis sociais na Seção Feminina da Escola Profissional de Enfermeiros e Enfermeiras (1920 - 1921); Gender and Nursing: reaffirmation of social roles on the section of Female School of Professional Nurses (1920-1921)

Santo, Tiago Braga do Espirito
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 28/02/2012 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.32%
Tendo como objeto as relações sociais, por meio dos discursos de gênero relacionados à inauguração da seção feminina da Escola Profissional de Enfermeiros e Enfermeiras (EPEE), na reafirmação de poder dos papeis sociais, o presente estudo toma como objetivos: descrever as circunstâncias empreendidas para o produto em seção feminina da Escola Profissional de Enfermeiros e Enfermeiras, ou seja, a Escola Profissional de Enfermeiras Alfredo Pinto, exclusiva para mulheres; analisar as relações sociais de gênero, por meio das fontes relacionadas à Escola Profissional de Enfermeiras Alfredo Pinto, na sistemática educacional da Enfermagem; e discutir as relações sociais de gênero como estratégia para a instalação de um modelo profissional de assistência em prol do desenvolvimento da enfermagem brasileira. A delimitação temporal do estudo abrange o período 1920 a 1921, tendo em vista o intervalo em que ocorreu o processo de formação da primeira turma da seção feminina da EPEE, à época denominada Escola Profissional de Enfermeiras Alfredo Pinto (EPEAP), atual Escola de Enfermagem Alfredo Pinto, da Universidade Federal do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (EEAP-UNIRIO). Este fato histórico se deu na cidade do Rio de Janeiro...

The acceptability of reuse of the female condom among urban South African women

Pettifor, Audrey E.; Beksinska, Mags E.; Rees, Helen V.; Mqoqi, Nokuzola; Dickson-Tettell, Kim E.
Fonte: Springer-Verlag Publicador: Springer-Verlag
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /12/2001 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.3%
This study assessed whether reuse of the female condom was acceptable among two groups of women in central Johannesburg, South Africa, who were taking part in two separate studies of female condom reuse. The first group consisted of women (aged 17 to 43years) attending a family planning/sexually transmitted infections (STIs) clinic who were participating in a cross-sectional survey of the acceptability of female condoms reuse (n=100). The second group included women (aged 18–40 years) at high risk for STI (80% self-declared sex workers) who were taking part in an ongoing cohort study to investigate the safety of reuse of the female condom through a structural integrity and microbial retention study (n=50). Among women participating in the acceptability study, 83% said that they would be willing to reuse the female condom, and 91% thought the idea of reuse, of the female condom was acceptable. All women taking part in the safety of reuse study and who reused the female condom up to seven time (n=49) reported that the steps involved in reusing the device were easy to perform and acceptable. All 49 women said they would reuse the female condom at least once, while 45% said they would use it a maximum of seven or eight times. From the results of the interviews with both study groups...

Female plumage as a potential signal in the American redstart (Setophaga ruticilla)

Osmond, Matthew
Fonte: Quens University Publicador: Quens University
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 264704 bytes; application/msword
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Female ornamentation has been largely attributed to sexual selection on males for elaborate ornamentation and subsequent genetic correlation between the sexes, and therefore assumed non-functional. However, a functional role for female ornamentation has been supported with recent evidence of male mate choice, female-female competition, and relationships between female ornamentation and individual quality in many species. I use reflectance spectrometry of female carotenoid-based tail and flank feathers to determine the correlates of plumage with female age, reproductive success, and maternal and paternal care in the American redstart (Setophaga ruticilla). Female tail colour (tail PC1) is negatively correlated with age but positively correlated with reproductive success within age-class, measured by whether or not a female fledged offspring, suggesting that within age-class tail colour is an accurate indicator of female quality but carotenoid availability in the previous breeding season renders between age-class comparisons uninformative. Female tail colour (tail PC1) is positively correlated with maternal and paternal care, suggesting that female plumage is an accurate indicator of maternal care (good parent hypothesis) and that males adjust their level of parental care based on a perception of their mate’s quality (differential allocation hypothesis). Female flank colour (flank PC2) is positively correlated with age...

Does female condition influence mate choice? A test using Drosophila melanogaster.

Shah, Jalpa
Fonte: Quens University Publicador: Quens University
Tipo: Article; Image
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.31%
Using a laboratory population of Drosophila melanogaster as a model, we examined the influence of indirect benefits on female mate preferences between high and low-condition females, with the expectation that an underlying compatible-genes preference influences female mate choice. To evaluate female mate preferences we conducted replicate binomial mate choice trials, where a single virgin female was paired with two different male genotypes, and monitored which male she mated first. To differentiate between the male genotypes we marked males with non-toxic paint. Our results indicate a significant male genotype effect and consistent female mate preferences across our different female genotypes, independent of female condition, suggesting a good genes preference. We also found a significant paint effect, but only for high-condition females, and a significant condition effect but only for low success males. Our findings suggest that high-condition females are inherently choosier, even as non-experienced virgins, than corresponding low-condition females. Because even our high-condition females showed a preference for medium success males, we feel that a good genes benefit may be influencing female mate preferences for D. melanogaster. If this is in fact the case...

Conditional Cash Transfers and Female Schooling : The Impact of the Female School Stipend Program on Public School Enrollments in Punjab, Pakistan

Chaudhury, Nazmul; Parajuli, Dilip
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.31%
Instead of mean-tested conditional cash transfer (CCT) programs, some countries have implemented gender-targeted CCTs to explicitly address intra-household disparities in human capital investments. This study focuses on addressing the direct impact of a female school stipend program in Punjab, Pakistan: Did the intervention increase female enrollment in public schools? To address this question, the authors draw on data from the provincial school censuses of 2003 and 2005. They estimate the net growth in female enrollments in grades 6-8 in stipend eligible schools. Impact evaluation analysis, including difference-and-difference (DD), triple differencing (DDD), and regression-discontinuity design (RDD) indicate a modest but statistically significant impact of the intervention. The preferred estimator derived from a combination of DDD and RDD empirical strategies suggests that the average program impact between 2003 and 2005 was an increase of six female students per school in terms of absolute change and an increase of 9 percent in female enrollment in terms of relative change. A triangulation effort is also undertaken using two rounds of a nationally representative household survey before and after the intervention. Even though the surveys are not representative at the subprovincial level...

Economic Development and Female Labor Participation in the Middle East and North Africa : A Test of the U-Shape Hypothesis

Verme, Paolo
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.3%
The Middle East and North Africa region is known for having low female labor market participation rates as compared with its level of economic development. A possible explanation is that these countries find themselves at the turning point of the U-shape hypothesis when countries transition from declining to rising female participation rates. This paper tests the U-shape hypothesis in countries in the Middle East and North Africa. It finds that the region has outperformed other world regions in terms of the main drivers of the U-shape hypothesis, including gross domestic product per capita, economic transformation away from the agricultural sector, female education, and fertility rates. These facts are consistent with nonparametric evidence that shows countries in the region are distributed over a U-shaped curve. However, parametric tests of the hypothesis point in a different direction. The region shows an inverted U-shape overall and great heterogeneity across countries and age cohorts that defies any law on the relation between gross domestic product and female participation rate. The explanation behind these findings may be economic and cultural. Jobless growth and the lack of growth in employment sectors such as manufacturing and services...

Soil Endowments, Female Labor Force Participation and the Demographic Deficit of Women in India

Carranza, Eliana
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.3%
Differences in relative female employment by soil texture are used to explain the heterogeneous deficit of female children across districts within India. Soil texture varies exogenously and determines the depth of land tillage. Deep tillage, possible in loamy but not in clayey soil textures, reduces the demand for labor in agricultural tasks traditionally performed by women. Girls have a lower economic value where female labor opportunities are fewer. Consistently, higher relative female employment in agriculture improves the ratio of female to male children in districts that have a smaller fraction of loamy relative to clayey soils.

Maternal education, female labour force participation and child mortality : evidence from the Indian census

Tulasidhar, V.B
Fonte: Health Transition Centre, National Centre for Epidemiology and Population Health, The Australian National University Publicador: Health Transition Centre, National Centre for Epidemiology and Population Health, The Australian National University
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 49513 bytes; application/pdf
EN_AU
Relevância na Pesquisa
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The objective of this paper is to examine how child mortality changes with different levels of maternal education and to quantify the impact of maternal education and female labour force participation. Child mortality gradients, according to years of education, are rather steep at the primary education level for both male and female children. In post-primary stages of education incremental gains in mortality reduction are almost non-existent. Child mortality is inversely related to both maternal education and female labour force participation but disaggregated analysis showed that female labour force participation has no impact on child mortality among females with fewer than seven years of education. The relative impact of maternal education on child mortality is three times stronger than that of female labour force participation. Excess female child mortality prevailing in certain parts of India also has an inverse relationship with the length of mothers’ education, and female labour force participation. Female labour force participation has a stronger influence on excess female child mortality than on absolute child mortality. The evidence in the paper lends support to Bardhan’s hypothesis on excess female child mortality.; yes

The female prostate and prostate-specific antigen. lmmunohistochemical localization, implications of this prostate marker in women and reasons for using the term "prostate" in the human female

Zaviacic, M.; Ablin, R.J.
Fonte: Murcia : F. Hernández Publicador: Murcia : F. Hernández
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.32%
Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is currently the most frequently used marker for the identification of normal and pathologically altered prostatic tissue in the male and female. Immunohistochemically PSA is expressed in the highly specialized apically-superficial layer of female and male secretory cells of the prostate gland, as well as in uroepithelial cells at other sites of the urogenital tract of both sexes. Unique active moieties of cells of the female and the male prostate gland and in other parts of the urogenital tract are indicative of secretory and protective function of specialized prostatic and uroepithelial cells with strong immunological properties given by the presence of PSA. In clinical practice, PSA is a valuable marker for the diagnosis and monitoring of diseases of the male and the female prostate, especially carcinoma. In the female, similarly as in the male, the prostate (Skene's gland) is the principal source of PSA. The value of PSA in women increases in the pathological female prostate, e.g., carcinoma. Nevertheless, the total amount of PSA in the female is the sum of normal or pathological female prostate and non-prostatic female tissues production, e.g., of diseased female breast tissue. The expression of an antigen specific for the male prostate...

Female Labor Force Participation in Turkey : Trends, Determinants and Policy Framework; Turkiye de KadInlarIn isgucune KatIlImI

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Public Sector Study; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.31%
Turkey has been collaborating with the World Bank in developing macroeconomic policies and implementing various reforms such as social security, investment climate, competitiveness, labor market, and public sector management. One of the salient features of the labor market in Turkey is the distinctly lower labor force participation (LFP) rates of women. As of January 2009, female LFP in Turkey was 23.5 percent. Urbanization and the move out of subsistence agriculture have had a profound effect on employment patterns for women, especially among those who have not attained university education. Family farming and subsistence agriculture have become less and less important as other more attractive opportunities expand in the service and manufacturing sectors. In the ninth development plan the Turkish Government has set goals to increase the number of women who are actively employed. The national action plan for gender equality emphasizes that using women's talents and skills in the labor market not only provides families with more economic independence...

Female Labor Participation in the Arab World : Some Evidence from Panel Data in Morocco

Verme, Paolo; Barry, Abdoul Gadiry; Guennouni, Jamal
Fonte: World Bank Group, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank Group, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.31%
Female labor participation in the Arab world is low compared with the level of economic development of Arab countries. Beyond anecdotal evidence and cross-country studies, there is little evidence on what could explain this phenomenon. This paper uses the richest set of panel data available for any Arab country to date to model female labor participation in Morocco. The paper finds marriage, household inactivity rates, secondary education, and gross domestic product per capita to lower female labor participation rates. It also finds that the category urban educated women with secondary education explains better than others the low level of female labor participation. These surprising findings are robust to different estimators, endogeneity tests, different specifications of the female labor participation equations, and different sources of data. The findings are also consistent with previous studies on the Middle East and North Africa region and on Morocco. The explanation seems to reside in the nature of economic growth and gender norms. Economic growth has not been labor intensive...

Low Female Labor Force Participation in Sri Lanka : Contributory Factors, Challenges and Policy Implications

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Working Paper
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.3%
Even though Sri Lanka is a fore-runner in many human development dimensions and aspects of gender equality amongst the South Asian countries, it is similar to other South Asian countries when it comes to women's participation in economic activities. Female labor force participation has not changed much in recent decades and remained stagnant at a rate around 30 to 35 percent of working age women. This rate is much lower than one would expect given the educational attainment of the female population in Sri Lanka. In order to encourage increased women s participation in economic activities, the first condition is to understand what is keeping them out of the scene. This paper analyzes the underlying reasons behind low participation rates of women in economic activities. It also investigates the employment outcomes, occupational choice, rates of returns, and skills set of economically active women in comparison with men to identify and understand the gaps. The findings have been used to suggest potential policies and programs that can help remove some of those barriers and encourage and enable women to become more economically active in the labor market.

Madrasas and NGOs : Complements or Substitutes? Non-State Providers and Growth in Female Education in Bangladesh

Asadullah, Mohammad Niaz; Chaudhury, Nazmul
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.32%
There has been a proliferation of non-state providers of education services in the developing world. In Bangladesh, for instance, Bangladesh Rural Advancement Committee runs more than 40,000 non-formal schools that cater to school-drop outs from poor families or operate in villages where there's little provision for formal schools. This paper presents a rationale for supporting these schools on the basis of their spillover effects on female enrollment in secondary (registered) madrasa schools (Islamic faith schools). Most madrasa high schools in Bangladesh are financed by the sate and include a modern curriculum alongside traditional religious subjects. Using an establishment-level dataset on student enrollment in secondary schools and madrasas, the authors demonstrate that the presence of madrasas is positively associated with secondary female enrollment growth. Such feminization of madrasas is therefore unique and merits careful analysis. The authors test the effects of the Bangladesh Rural Advancement Committee primary schools on growth in female enrollment in madrasas. The analysis deals with potential endoegeneity by using data on number of the number of school branches and female members in the sub-district. The findings show that madrasas that are located in regions with a greater number of Bangladesh Rural Advancement Committee schools have higher growth in female enrollment. This relationship is further strengthened by the finding that there is...

FEMALE ORNAMENTATION IN THE AMERICAN ROBIN

Parker, LORI
Fonte: Quens University Publicador: Quens University
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
EN; EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.34%
Ornamental traits in male birds have been the subject of much research effort, and sexual selection is recognized as the leading explanation for their evolution. The expression of ornamental traits in females has received little study until recent decades. Female colouration has been considered a non-adaptive, correlated response to selection on males. However, models predict that male mate choice, female competition, and the evolution of honest signals could help explain female ornamentation, especially where male investment in offspring and variation in female quality are high. I investigated this in the American robin (Turdus migratorius), a socially monogamous species with bi-parental care and variable female ornamentation. Female robins display conspicuous red breast plumage, bright yellow bills, and achromatic ornamentation. Female ornamentation is similar to males, but is subdued to varying degrees across individuals. Female colouration could function as a useful criterion in mate selection by males if it is correlated with aspects of female quality important to producing viable offspring. I assessed whether female ornamentation in robins might act as an honest signal by relating variation in female colour to measures of individual quality and reproductive investment. To assess ornamentation...

The acceptability of the female condom: Perspectives of family planning providers in New York City, South Africa, and Nigeria

Mantell, Joanne E.; Hoffman, Susie; Weiss, Eugene; Adeokun, Lawrence; Delano, Grace; Jagha, Temple; Exner, Theresa M.; Stein, Zena A.; Karim, Quarraisha Abdool; Scheepers, Elma; Atkins, Kim; Weiss, Ellen
Fonte: Springer-Verlag Publicador: Springer-Verlag
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /12/2001 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.34%
This article seeks to fill the gap in female condom acceptability research by examining family planning (FP) providers' attitudes and experiences regarding the female condom in three countries (South Africa, the US, and Nigeria) to highlight providers' potential integral role in the introduction of the female condom. The case studies used data drawn from three independent projects, each of which was designed to study or to change FP providers' attitudes and practices in relation to the female condom. The case study for New York City used data from semistructured interviews with providers in one FP consortium in which no special female condom training had been undertaken. The data from South Africa were drawn from transcripts and observations of a female condom training program and from interviews conducted in preparation for the training. The Nigerian study used observations of client visits before and after providers were trained concerning the female condom. In New York City, providers were skeptical about the contraceptive efficacy of the female condom, with only 8 of 22 providers (36%) reporting they would recommend it as a primary contraceptive. In South Africa, providers who had practiced insertion of the female condom as part of their training expressed concern about its physical appearance and effects on sexual pleasure. However...

Female novelty and the courtship behavior of male guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus)

Cohn,D.W.H.; Tokumaru,R.S.; Ades,C.
Fonte: Associação Brasileira de Divulgação Científica Publicador: Associação Brasileira de Divulgação Científica
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/06/2004 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.29%
In several rodent species, an increase or recovery of sexual behavior can be observed when sexually satiated males are placed in contact with a novel mate. In order to assess the influence of female novelty on the courtship behavior of guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus), four adult males were observed during four daily 15-min sessions while interacting with the same pregnant female (same-female sessions). A new female was presented during the fifth session (switched-female session). The duration of behavioral categories was obtained from videotape records using an observational software. From the first to the second session, all males decreased the time allocated to investigating (sniffing and licking), following, and mounting the female, and that response did not recover by the end of the same-female sessions. No similar decreasing tendencies were detected in the circling or rumba categories. A marked increase of investigating occurred in all males from the last same-female session (8.1, 11.9, 15.1 and 17.3 percent session time) to the switched-female one (16.4, 18.4, 37.1 and 28.9 percent session time, respectively). Increases in following and circling were recorded in three of four males, and full-blown recovery of mounting in one male. No consistent changes in the females' responses to males (following or attacking) were observed throughout testing. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that guinea pig males recognize individual females and that courtship responses may suffer a habituation/recovery process controlled by mate novelty.

Understanding female social dominance: comparative behavioral endocrinology in the Genus Eulemur

Petty, Joseph Michael Alexander
Fonte: Universidade Duke Publicador: Universidade Duke
Tipo: Dissertação
Publicado em //2015
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.34%

Female social dominance over males is unusual in mammals, yet characterizes most Malagasy lemurs, which represent almost 30% of all primates. Despite its prevalence in this suborder, both the evolutionary trajectory and proximate mechanism of female dominance remain unclear. Potentially associated with female dominance is a suite of behavioral, physiological and morphological traits in females that implicates ‘masculinization’ via androgen exposure; however, relative to conspecific males, female lemurs curiously show little evidence of raised androgen concentrations. In order to illuminate the proximate mechanisms underlying female dominance in lemurs, I observed mixed‐sex pairs of related Eulemur species, and identified two key study groups ‐‐ one comprised of species expressing female dominance and, the other comprised of species (from a recently evolved clade) showing equal status between the sexes (hereafter ‘egalitarian’). Comparing females from these two groups, to test the hypothesis that female dominance is an expression of an overall masculinization of the female, I 1) characterize the expression of female dominance, aggression, affiliation, and olfactory communication in Eulemur; 2) provide novel information about the hormonal and neuroendocrine correlates associated with the expression of female dominance; 3) investigate the activational role of the sex-steroid hormones in adult female Eulemur using seasonal correlates of hormonal and behavioral change; and 4) examine the specific role of estrogen in the regulation and expression of sex-reversed female behavior in these species. In doing so I highlight significant behavioral and physiological differences between female-dominant and egalitarian Eulemur and show that female dominance is associated with a more masculine behavioral and hormonal profile. I also suggest that these behavioral and hormonal differences may be the result of fundamental differences in the biosynthetic pathway associated with estrogen production. Moreover...

Breaking the Metal Ceiling; Female Entrepreneurs Who Succeed in Male-Dominated Sectors

Campos, Francisco; Goldstein, Markus; McGorman, Laura; Munoz Boudet, Ana Maria; Pimhidzai, Obert
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Working Paper; Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.31%
A range of reasons is cited to explain gender differences in business performance in Africa. Within those, the sector of operations is consistently identified as a major issue. This paper uses a mixed methods approach to assess how women entrepreneurs in Uganda start (and strive) operating firms in male-dominated sectors, and what hinders other women from doing so. The study finds that women who cross over into male-dominated sectors make as much as men, and three times more than women who stay in female-dominated sectors. The paper examines a set of factors to explain the differences in sector choices, and finds that there is a problem of information about opportunities in male-dominated industries. The analysis also concludes that psychosocial factors, particularly the influence of male role models and exposure to the sector from family and friends, are critical in helping women circumvent or overcome the norms that undergird occupational segregation.

The use of the female condom by women in Brazil participating in HIV prevention education sessions

Vieira,Elisabeth Meloni; Machado,Alcyone Artioli; Duarte,Geraldo; Souza,Regina Helena Brito de; Rodrigues Junior,Antonio Luis
Fonte: Organización Panamericana de la Salud Publicador: Organización Panamericana de la Salud
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/06/2004 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
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OBJECTIVES: To study HIV-positive women and women at risk of becoming infected with HIV who attended HIV prevention education group sessions at a university hospital in Bra-zil and to compare the use of the female condom and the male condom by these two groups of women. METHODS: The study subjects were 165 women participating in HIV prevention education group sessions at the Medical School Hospital of Ribeirão Preto of the University of São Paulo, in the city of Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo, Brazil. Women could be enrolled in the study from August 2000 to June 2001, and the follow-up observation time period was from August 2000 to July 2001. Male condoms and female condoms were freely distributed to all the participants at the end of each educational session and also at the end of each follow-up visit that the participants made. Each woman took part in an initial interview and was asked to return monthly. At each follow-up visit an additional short interview was carried out in order to investigate use of the male condom and of the female condom. Variables that were examined for the study included age, education, ethnic group, marital or relationship status, number of children, the women's use of male condoms and female condoms, commercial sex (whether the women had ever had sex in exchange for money...