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Prêmio de exportação da soja brasileira.; Braziliam soybeans export premiums.

Moraes, Mauricio de
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 22/01/2003 PT
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67.13%
Este trabalho buscou entender o prêmio de exportação da soja em grão no porto de Paranaguá, seu mecanismo de formação, padrão sazonal, as principais variáveis responsáveis pelas oscilações diárias e mensais, bem como determinar qual contrato futuro da bolsa de Chicago e prêmio (preços FOB) estão mais relacionados com os preços internos. Para tanto, foram levantadas através da literatura e entrevistas as variáveis potencialmente significativas para explicar as variações do prêmio de exportação da soja em grão. Adicionalmente foram calculadas séries de preços FOB, que foram posteriormente relacionadas com os preços da soja no mercado interno. Através de testes de causalidade foram definidas as principais variáveis explicativas do prêmio. Estas variáveis foram relacionadas ao prêmio através de regressões lineares, utilizando-se dados diários e mensais. O mesmo procedimento foi utilizado para definir a série de preço de exportação mais relacionada com o preço doméstico da soja. Para cada série foi realizado o teste de raiz unitária, objetivando-se verificar a estacionariedade das séries. As variáveis que apresentaram relação causal com o prêmio da soja em grão são: o prêmio do grão defasado...

Trade Finance during the Great Trade Collapse

Chauffour, Jean-Pierre; Malouche, Mariem
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
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26.1%
The bursting of the subprime mortgage market in the United States in 2008 and the ensuing global financial crisis were associated with a rapid decline in global trade. The extent of the trade collapse was unprecedented: trade flows fell at a faster rate than had been observed even in the early years of the great depression. G-20 leaders held their first crisis-related summit in November 2008. The goal was to understand the root causes of the global crisis and to reach consensus on actions to address its immediate effects. In the case of trade, a key question concerned the extent to which a drying up of trade finance caused the observed decline in trade flows. This book brings together a range of projects and studies undertaken by development institutions, export credit agencies, private bankers, and academics to shed light on the role of trade finance in the 2008-09 great trade collapse. It provides policy makers, analysts, and other interested parties with analyses and assessments of the role of governments and institutions in restoring trade finance markets. A deeper understanding of the complexity of trade finance remains critical as the world economy recovers and the supply of trade finance improves. The international community continues to know too little about the fragility of low income economies in response to trade finance developments and shocks...

Skills, Exports, and the Wages of Five Million Latin American Workers

Brambilla, Irene; Carneiro, Rafael Dix; Lederman, Daniel; Porto, Guido
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
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26.6%
The returns to schooling or the skill premium is a key parameter in various literatures, including globalization and inequality and international migration. This paper explores the skill premium and its link to exports in Latin America, thus linking the skill premium to the emerging literature on the structure of trade and development. Using data on employment and wages for over five million workers in sixteen Latin American economies, the authors estimate national and industry-specific skill premiums and study some of their determinants. The evidence suggests that both country and industry characteristics are important in explaining skill premiums. The analysis also suggests that the incidence of exports within industries, the average income per capita within countries, and the relative abundance of skilled workers are related to the underlying industry and country characteristics that explain skill premiums. In particular, higher sectoral exports are positively linked with the skill premium at the industry level...

Female Wages in the Apparel Industry Post-MFA : The Cases of Cambodia and Sri Lanka

Savchenko, Yevgeniya; Lopez Acevedo, Gladys
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
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26.73%
The end of the Multi-fiber Arrangement/Agreement on Textiles and Clothing in 2005 was a major policy change that affected the allocation of global apparel productions well as the lives of workers involved in this sector. Since the apparel industry is often the major female employer in developing countries, this policy change was expected to have major implications for women. This paper analyzes the wages and working conditions of women in the apparel sector in Cambodia and Sri Lanka following the phase-out the Multi-fibre Arrangement. In both countries, apparel is a major source of exports, and women constitute 70 to 80 percent of the workers employed in the apparel industry. The paper finds that after the removal of the Multi-fibre Arrangement, apparel prices declined as a result of the increased competition. The theoretical model suggests that a decrease in prices would lead to a decrease in apparel wage premiums relative to other industries in the short run and the widening of the male-female wage gap in the long run. The empirical findings support these theoretical predictions. Wage premiums in the apparel sector relative to other industries went down post-Multi-fibre Arrangement in Cambodia and Sri Lanka and the male-female wage gap increased. The paper finds mixed results in terms of working conditions in Cambodia and Sri Lanka.

The Promise and Peril of Post-MFA Apparel Production

Lopez-Acevedo, Gladys; Robertson, Raymond
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
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For anyone concerned about the effects of globalization on poverty in developing countries, the apparel sector in general and the end of the Multi-Fibre Arrangement (MFA) and the Agreement on Textiles and Clothing (ATC) in particular are key areas of interest. As an important first step toward industrialization, the apparel sector continues to provide an alternative for workers in low-wage agriculture or service jobs (especially less-skilled workers and women), even after other manufacturing sectors are established. By providing formal labor experience, these jobs hold the promise of lifelong participation in the labor market, which in the long term can help workers move out of poverty. Therefore, understanding how employment, wage premiums, and the structure of the apparel industry have changed after the end of the MFA and ATC is important to appreciate the effects of this significant policy change on poverty.

International Liquidity Rents

Eden, Maya
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
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26.1%
This paper presents a model of global liquidity shortages. Liquid claims are enforceable promises that play a transaction role. Since developed economies have a comparative advantage in creating liquidity, they export liquid claims to emerging economies, resulting in a permanent current account deficit. This model suggests that unrestricted liquidity flows are (a) welfare reducing for emerging economies and (b) Pareto inefficient. The inefficiency results both from excessive investment for the purpose of creating collateral-backed liquid claims, and from excessive global fragility with respect to collateral shocks.

Trade Liberalization and Labor Market Adjustment in Brazil

Pavcnik, Nina; Blom, Andreas; Goldberg, Pinelopi; Schady, Norbert
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.1%
The authors study the impact of the 1988-94 trade liberalization in Brazil on wage distribution. They explore three main channels through which trade liberalization could have affected wage distribution: (1) increasing returns to skilled workers because of Hecksher-Ohlin adjustments to trade policy; (2) trade-induced skill-biased technological change; and (3) changes in industry wage premiums. The results suggest that trade reform in Brazil did contribute to the growing skill premium through skill-biased technological change, which was partially instigated by increased foreign competition. The authors also find that sector-specific returns to skill increased more in sectors with bigger tariff reductions. But they find little support for Hecksher-Ohlin type adjustments to trade reform. Overall, the effects of trade reform on wage inequality seem relatively small.

Export Shocks and the Volatility of Returns to Schooling : Evidence from Twelve Latin American Economies

Lederman, Daniel; Rojas, Diego
Fonte: World Bank Group, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank Group, Washington, DC
EN_US
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36.27%
This paper builds on previous studies to uncover evidence suggesting that cyclical fluctuations in returns to schooling are determined by fluctuations in foreign demand, which tend to be positively correlated with returns to schooling. The effect of export fluctuations (driven by changes in foreign demand) seems to be attenuated by labor market rigidities, such as constraints on employers to hire temporary workers on an hourly basis. This evidence suggests that countries that have flexible labor markets and experience volatility in their external demand might also experience volatility in returns to schooling. The paper discusses why this might be a concern for developing countries.

Export premium, productivity, trade openness and wage inequality in China : empirical evidence from firm-level data.

Lin, Faqin
Fonte: Universidade de Adelaide Publicador: Universidade de Adelaide
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Publicado em //2012
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36.94%
This thesis uses Chinese firm-level data to investigate the relationships between the export premium, firm productivity and wage inequality. Using Chinese annual survey data for all state-owned firms and other non-state-owned firms with sales on mainland China over 5 million RMB, the author finds that there is a series of premiums for exporters compared with non-exporters. On average, exporters pay higher wages, produce more, sell more, add more value, employ more labour, have higher capital intensity, and have higher productivity (based on 1999-2003 data). Firms with relatively high export values will also be relatively more productive. Quantile results show that the premium decreases with the increase of the quantile. In addition, the export premium declines over time and across the industries, provinces and ownership types, and the higher the export intensity, the lower the export premium. The thesis further investigates the question: what determines the export premium – the selection effect or learning-by-exporting effect? First, the author uses the Olley and Pakes (1996) method to control both selection and simultaneity bias to estimate the reliable firm productivity. Then the author tests the self-selection and learning-by-exporting effects both parametrically and non-parametrically. The author finds both strong self-selection and learning-by-exporting effects at the aggregate level. The higher the productivity the firm has today...

Global Economic Prospects 2009 : Commodities at the Crossroads

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH
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The release of this year's global economic prospects finds the world economy at a crossroads. Markets all over the world are engulfed in a global economic crisis, with stock markets sharply down and volatile, almost all currencies having depreciated substantially against the dollar, and risk premiums on a wide range of debt having increased by 600 or more basis points. Commodity markets too have turned a corner. Following several years of increase, prices have plummeted, and although well above their 1990s levels, they have given up most of the increases of the past 24 months. Chapter one of this report examines the medium-term implications of this crisis for developing-country growth, inflation, and world trade. Chapter two looks at longer-term supply and demand prospects in commodity markets. It takes into account the long-term growth prospects of developing countries and their rising share in world GDP (gross domestic product), the declining quality of new pools of resources, and the influence of technology on both demand and supply. Finally...

Bosnia and Herzegovina : Accounting and Auditing; Bosna i Hercegovina - Izvjestaj o postivanju standard i kodeksa : racunovodstvo i revizija

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Accounting and Auditing Assessment (ROSC); Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
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This assessment of accounting and auditing (A&A) practices in Bosnia and Herzegovina is part of a joint initiative by the World Bank and International Monetary Fund (IMF) to prepare reports on the Observance of Standards and Codes (ROSC). The assessment focuses on the strengths and weaknesses of the accounting and auditing environment that influence the quality of corporate financial reporting, and includes a review of both statutory requirements and actual practice. It uses International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) and International Standards on Auditing (ISA) as benchmarks and draws on international experience and best practices. This assessment updates the findings of the previous A&A ROSC conducted and published in Bosnia and Herzegovina in 2004. With a population of 3.8 million, Bosnia and Herzegovina is one of the smallest countries in Central and Eastern Europe. That population is largely made up of three constituent peoples: Bosniaks, Serbs, and Croats. Prior to the war, the three groups were more evenly distributed throughout the territory of Bosnia and Herzegovina...

Argentina - Country Note on Climate Change Aspects in Agriculture

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Brief; Publications & Research
ENGLISH
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This country note briefly summarizes information relevant to both climate change and agriculture in Argentina, with focus on policy developments (including action plans and programs) and institutional make-up. Argentina is one of the four developing countries in the world to have submitted two national communications to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), indicating strong commitment by the government for addressing climate change issues across sectors. Agriculture (including land use change and forestry) is the largest contributor to green house gas (GHG) emissions in the country, while contributing less than six percent of Gross Domestic product (GDP), and it represents fifty-five percent of the country's export base (including processed agricultural goods). The emission reduction potential of the agricultural sector (including land use change and forestry) is significant and not yet sufficiently explored in the country. Argentina currently counts with only one Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) projects in the agricultural sector. Agriculture is highly vulnerable to climate variability. The extension and improvement of both irrigation infrastructure and climate-sensitive insurance coverage for agricultural production can reduce some of the observed vulnerabilities in the country.

Exchange Rate Overvaluation and Trade Protection; Lessons from Experience

Shatz, Howard J.; Tarr, David G.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Working Paper; Publications & Research; Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper
ENGLISH; EN_US
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Despite a trend toward more flexible rates, more than half the world's countries maintain fixed or managed exchange rates. In the 1980s and 1990s, developing countries as a group progressively liberalized their trade regimes, but some governments defend their exchange rate in actions that run counter to long-run plans for liberalization. Without discussing the relative merits of fixed and flexible exchange rate systems, the authors note that exchange rate management in many countries has resulted in overvaluation of the real exchange rate. Roughly twenty five percent of the countries for which data are available have overvalued exchange rates, with black market premiums from 10 percent to more than 100 percent. After surveying the literature, the authors present lessons from experience about what has worked (or not) in response to crises involving external shocks and external trade deficits - and why. Trying to defend an overvalued exchange rate with protectionist trade policies is a classic pattern, but experience shows such protection does significantly retard the country's growth...

Mongolia - Sources of Growth : Country Economic Report

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Country Economic Memorandum; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH
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This economic report aims to inform the ongoing debate on the Government's long term development priorities in Mongolia. It discusses the key facts and potential implications the government would need to consider when determining its public spending, public investment program, fiscal space, and borrowing strategy going forward. The report begins by reviewing the Mongolian growth experience over the 1990s as a pre-requisite to understand the present endowments, and the circumstances under which one needs to think about the future. Chapter 2 applies the "growth diagnostics" approach to identify those factors that are "binding" constraints to growth and are areas in need of immediate policy interventions by the government. Chapter 3 discusses the issues that will need to be addressed in order to develop non-mining sector activities with the aim of economic and export diversification and suggests policies to encourage firm innovation'' and private sector growth. Chapter 4 discusses policies to relax infrastructure bottlenecks in the context of regional development and Mongolia's unique geography. Chapter 5 presents a menu of policies tailored to address the mismatch of skills workers bring to the market and those demanded by the market. Chapter 6 discusses issues related to appropriate management and development of its mineral wealth...

Export Led Growth, Pro-Poor or Not? Evidence from Madagascar's Textile and Apparel Industry

Nicita, Alessandro
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Madagascar's textile and apparel industry has been among the fastest growing in Sub-Saharan Africa. Fueled by low labor costs, a fairly productive labor force, and preferential access to industrial countries, Madagascar's exports of textile and apparel products grew from about US$45 million in 1990 to almost half a billion in 2001. The impact of this export surge has been large in terms of employment and wages, but less so in terms of poverty reduction. To address the concern of whether the poor benefit and to what extent, the author follows a new approach to identify the beneficiaries of globalization and to quantify the benefits at the household level, so as to understand which segments of the population benefit most and which, if any, are marginalized. The analysis focuses on the labor market channel which has been recognized as the main transmission between economic growth and poverty. The methodology uses household level data and combines the wage premium literature with matching methods. The results point to a strong variation in the distribution of the benefits from export growth with skilled workers and urban areas benefiting most. From a poverty perspective, export-led growth in the textile and apparel sector has only a small effect on overall poverty. This study points to two reasons for this. First...

Foreign Wage Premium, Gender and Education : Insights from Vietnam Household Surveys

Fukase, Emiko
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.61%
This paper investigates the differential impacts of foreign ownership on wages for different types of workers (in terms of educational background and gender) in Vietnam using the Vietnam Household Living Standards Surveys of 2002 and 2004. Whereas most previous studies have compared wage levels between foreign and domestic sectors using firm-level data (thus excluding the informal sector), one advantage of using the Living Standards Surveys in this paper is that the data allow wage comparison analyses to extend to the informal wage sector. A series of Mincerian earnings equations and worker-specific fixed effects models are estimated. Several findings emerge. First, foreign firms pay higher wages relative to their domestic counterparts after controlling for workers personal characteristics. Second, the higher the individual workers' levels of education, the larger on average are the wage premiums for those who work for foreign firms. Third, longer hours of work in foreign firm jobs relative to working in the informal wage sector are an important component of the wage premium. Finally...

Globalization, Wages, and the Quality of Jobs : Five Country Studies

Robertson, Raymond; Brown, Drusilla; Pierre, Gaëlle; Sanchez-Puerta, María Laura
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
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The country studies in this volume analyze the link between globalization and working conditions in Cambodia, El Salvador, Honduras, Indonesia, and Madagascar. These countries vary significantly in population, economic circumstances, region, history, and institutions. All have experienced liberalization and globalization in the last 20 years. The heterogeneity of these countries provides the basis for a useful comparison of the effects of globalization on working conditions. As suggested in the framework, each country study has three main components: a description of the country's experience with globalization, a qualitative part that analyzes country-specific aspects of working conditions, and an analysis of changes in interindustry wage differentials (IIWDs) that can be compared across countries. In general, globalization has been characterized by export-driven foreign direct investment (FDI) concentrated in relatively few sectors. Export-driven FDI in the apparel sector plays a prominent role in each country...

Study of Equipment Prices in the Power Sector

Pauschert, Dirk
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: ESMAP Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
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26.1%
Global economic growth, particularly from 2004 to 20071, has fueled an expansion in the construction of industrial, power plant, and manufacturing facilities in the United States and a dramatic escalation in the construction of these types of heavy construction projects overseas. In addition, the increase in demand for oil by rapidly growing countries such as China and India and the falling value of the dollar has resulted in an unprecedented rise in the price of oil. This has significantly accelerated oil exploration and resulted in capacity-expansion projects at existing oil refineries. The combination of power plant, infrastructure, and oil-related projects has resulted in significant growth in demand for boilers, rotating equipment, piping, structural steel, concrete, electrical components, and electric wiring. In light of this finding, this study compared the cost of power plants without market demand to the actual costs incurred in constructing power plants. The results indicate that owners are purchasing plants in a sellers' market...

What are the Constraints to Inclusive Growth in Zambia?

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Policy Note; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.42%
Despite positive, relatively broad-based and stable growth record in recent years and immense untapped potential in agriculture, mining and services, Zambia's poverty rates have not declined significantly and remain high. Income growth is limited by coordination failures such as poor access to domestic and international markets, inputs, extension services and information. High indirect costs - most of which attributable to infrastructure service-related inputs into production including energy, transport, telecom, water, but also insurance, marketing and professional service - undermine Zambia's competitiveness limit job creation and therefore serve as a major constraint to pro-poor growth. Continued real appreciation is another serious threat to the competitiveness of export-oriented and import-competing sectors and to job creation. For Zambia to stay competitive and sustain the growth momentum it will be critical to improve productivity - including the productivity of its labor force, and to lower indirect production costs related to basic services. Carefully crafted monetary and fiscal policies will also be critical in responding to the real appreciation pressures. Improving the quality and access to secondary and tertiary education is essential if the poor are to benefit from future growth of the non-farm economy. Weak governance and in particular poor government effectiveness...

Trade and Shared Prosperity in the Caribbean Region

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Brief
ENGLISH; EN_US
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This policy note is based on the seven chapters of the Caribbean trade report, The New Trade Environment and Shared Prosperity in the Caribbean, prepared by the World Bank for the Caribbean Growth Forum. Despite fairly respectable economic growth over the decades and a degree of high trade openness, unemployment rates remain very high in the Caribbean, averaging 10 percent for the region between 2002 and 2009, and poverty reduction has been slow. The purpose of this note is to provide background information on the role of trade in the unemployment and poverty reduction in the Caribbean and, based on recent World Bank analysis, to suggest areas where greater policy attention could promote trade and thus reduce poverty. The report begins with a profile of employment in the Caribbean, and discusses the impact of trade on employment during the global financial crisis. Evidence is reviewed on the role of trade in employment and development over the long term, and whether the poor in the Caribbean benefit from export activities. Then the report presents a discussion how addressing constraints on exports and reducing tariff levels will enhance growth and reduce poverty. The conclusion summarizes the main issues of addressing constraints on exports and promoting broad-based benefits of trade. The report's analysis shows that international trade plays a major role in terms of job creation and poverty reduction in the Caribbean...