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Prêmio de exportação da soja brasileira.; Braziliam soybeans export premiums.

Moraes, Mauricio de
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 22/01/2003 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.77%
Este trabalho buscou entender o prêmio de exportação da soja em grão no porto de Paranaguá, seu mecanismo de formação, padrão sazonal, as principais variáveis responsáveis pelas oscilações diárias e mensais, bem como determinar qual contrato futuro da bolsa de Chicago e prêmio (preços FOB) estão mais relacionados com os preços internos. Para tanto, foram levantadas através da literatura e entrevistas as variáveis potencialmente significativas para explicar as variações do prêmio de exportação da soja em grão. Adicionalmente foram calculadas séries de preços FOB, que foram posteriormente relacionadas com os preços da soja no mercado interno. Através de testes de causalidade foram definidas as principais variáveis explicativas do prêmio. Estas variáveis foram relacionadas ao prêmio através de regressões lineares, utilizando-se dados diários e mensais. O mesmo procedimento foi utilizado para definir a série de preço de exportação mais relacionada com o preço doméstico da soja. Para cada série foi realizado o teste de raiz unitária, objetivando-se verificar a estacionariedade das séries. As variáveis que apresentaram relação causal com o prêmio da soja em grão são: o prêmio do grão defasado...

O segmento exportador da cadeia agroindustrial de cafés especiais : emergência de novos padrões de competitividade

Anceles, Elisângela Karsten
Fonte: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul Publicador: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul
Tipo: Trabalho de Conclusão de Curso Formato: application/pdf
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.66%
O trabalho tem como objetivo principal investigar a origem do segmento exportador da cadeia agroindustrial de cafés especiais, após a desregulamentação do setor no início dos anos 90, analisando os novos padrões de competitividade desse mercado, o comportamento das exportações de 2006 a 2012, as vantagens e desvantagens da sua produção, bem como o papel das instituições para o seu desenvolvimento. Ao longo deste trabalho, são revisados aspectos teóricos referentes à Economia Industrial, a história do setor cafeeiro no Brasil, observando a origem, o início das exportações e a transição política da regulamentação à desregulamentação. Analisa-se a estrutura do setor cafeeiro brasileiro, destacando os principais fatores competitivos de cada segmento exportador (café verde, torrado, moído e solúvel) e seu comportamento no mercado internacional no período de 2000 a 2012. A partir daí, investiga-se a produção de cafés especiais pelo segmento exportador de café verde, enquanto alternativa para a valorização do produto, por meio da análise das exportações brasileiras de cafés especiais no período de 2006 a 2012, bem como as ações privadas e estratégias públicas imprescindíveis para o seu desenvolvimento. Desse modo...

Skills, Exports, and the Wages of Five Million Latin American Workers

Brambilla, Irene; Carneiro, Rafael Dix; Lederman, Daniel; Porto, Guido
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.55%
The returns to schooling or the skill premium is a key parameter in various literatures, including globalization and inequality and international migration. This paper explores the skill premium and its link to exports in Latin America, thus linking the skill premium to the emerging literature on the structure of trade and development. Using data on employment and wages for over five million workers in sixteen Latin American economies, the authors estimate national and industry-specific skill premiums and study some of their determinants. The evidence suggests that both country and industry characteristics are important in explaining skill premiums. The analysis also suggests that the incidence of exports within industries, the average income per capita within countries, and the relative abundance of skilled workers are related to the underlying industry and country characteristics that explain skill premiums. In particular, higher sectoral exports are positively linked with the skill premium at the industry level...

Canada-Wheat : Discrimination, Non-Commercial Considerations, and State Trading Enterprises

Hoekman, Bernard; Trachtman, Joel
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.42%
Statutory marketing boards that have exclusive authority to purchase domestic production, sell for export, and set purchase and sales prices of commodities are a type of state trading enterprise that is subject to World Trade Organization disciplines. This paper assesses a recent dispute brought by the United States against Canada, alleging that WTO rules require state trading enterprises to operate solely in accordance with commercial considerations and that the Canadian government did not require the Canadian Wheat Board to do so. The panel and Appellate Body found that the primary discipline of the WTO regarding state trading enterprises was nondiscrimination, and that operating on the basis of "commercial considerations" was not an independent obligation. Instead, WTO disciplines regarding the pricing behavior of state trading enterprises use a "commercial considerations" test as a possible indicator of discrimination. Although a significant degree of price discrimination is observed in the case of Canadian wheat exports...

Does Tariff Liberalization Increase Wage Inequality? Some Empirical Evidence

Milanovic, Branko; Squire, Lyn
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.43%
The objective of the paper is to answer an often asked question: If tariff rates are reduced, what will happen to wage inequality? The authors consider two types of wage inequality: between occupations (skills premium) and between industries. They use two large databases of wage inequality that have recently become available and a large data set of average tariff rates covering the period between 1980 and 2000. The authors find that tariff reduction is associated with higher inter-occupational and inter-industry inequality in poorer countries (those below the world median income) and the reverse in richer countries. However, the results for inter-occupational inequality must be treated with caution.

Developing the Organic Agriculture Sub-Sector in Samoa

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.39%
The World Bank has provided technical assistance (TA) support to the Government of Samoa to help identify measures to strengthen agriculture sector institutions, to improve the performance of selected commodities - including livestock, fruits and vegetables and organic products - and to identify strategic agriculture infrastructure investments. This report provides information and analysis on opportunities for further development of organic products. The report also contains recommendations for activities that could be potentially supported as part of the proposed Samoa Agriculture Competiveness Enhancement Project (SACEP). This TA has identified a number of interventions to support further development of Samoan organic products. These include promoting domestic-oriented organic production targeted at the hospitality industry; support for up-grading and expanding existing value chains for export-oriented products including Misiluki bananas, coconut oil and products made from coconut oil; and investments in improved technology...

Weather Risk Management Pilot Program : Tanzania

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.43%
A feasibility study to select the crop(s) and the area(s) to be covered in this pilot phase was completed by TechnoServe in August of 2006. The study identified maize as the most appropriate crop to pilot because it was identified as the most important food crop in Tanzania because it is grown mostly by smallholder farmers; it was highly susceptible to drought; and ample agronomic information was available on maize cultivation and the water requirements of the maize plant. Given the rapid timeline for implementation international experience already existed which could guide the design of the contract. Although coffee was also recommended for inclusion in a weather insurance pilot project as an important export crop, given the tight time line for the implementation of the pilot, it would have been very difficult to gather the necessary information for the development of an index that clearly demonstrated the correlation between rainfall and coffee production. The development of a coffee index would have required significant time spent on research and development which was not available...

Importing, Exporting and Innovation in Developing Countries

Seker, Murat
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.43%
Recent studies have shown that not only exporters but also importers perform better than firms that do not trade. Using a detailed firm level dataset from 43 developing countries, I show that there are persistent differences in evolution of firms when they are grouped according to their trade orientation as: two-way traders (both importing and exporting), only exporters, only importers, and non-traders. Extending the existing models of firm evolution in open economies by incorporating importing decision, I show that: i) globally engaged firms are larger, more productive, and grow faster than non-traders; ii) two-way traders are the fastest growing and most innovative group who are followed by only-exporters; iii) estimating export premium without controlling for import status is likely to overestimate the actual value by capturing the import premium; and iv) R&D investment contributes to growth of traders significantly more than to non-traders. Finally I show the robustness of the findings by providing evidence from the panel data constructed from the original dataset and controlling for variables that are likely to affect firm growth.

Export Shocks and the Volatility of Returns to Schooling : Evidence from Twelve Latin American Economies

Lederman, Daniel; Rojas, Diego
Fonte: World Bank Group, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank Group, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.43%
This paper builds on previous studies to uncover evidence suggesting that cyclical fluctuations in returns to schooling are determined by fluctuations in foreign demand, which tend to be positively correlated with returns to schooling. The effect of export fluctuations (driven by changes in foreign demand) seems to be attenuated by labor market rigidities, such as constraints on employers to hire temporary workers on an hourly basis. This evidence suggests that countries that have flexible labor markets and experience volatility in their external demand might also experience volatility in returns to schooling. The paper discusses why this might be a concern for developing countries.

Wine export shocks and wine tax reform in Australia: regional consequences using an economy - wide approach

Anderson, Kym; Valenzuela, Ernesto; Wittwer, Glyn
Fonte: Wiley Publicador: Wiley
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 14 pages
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.57%
We provide economy-wide modelling results of the national and regional implications of two current challenges facing the Australian wine industry: a decline in export demand, and a possible change in the tax on domestic wine sales following the Henry Review of Taxation. The demand shock causes regional GDP to fall in the cool and warm wine regions, but not in the hot wine regions unless the shock is large. A change from the current ad valorem tax to a similarly low volumetric tax on domestic wine sales causes regional GDP to rise in the cool and warm wine regions, partly offsetting its fall due to the export demand shock, but GDP in the hot wine regions would fall substantially. The switch to a volumetric tax as high as the standard beer rate would raise tax revenue and lower domestic wine consumption by more than one-third. However, it would induce a one-third decrease in production of non-premium wine as its consumer price would rise by at least three-quarters (while the average price of super premium wines would change very little). This would exacerbate the difference in effects of a tax reform on GDP in hot versus warm and cool wine regions.; Thanks to the GWRDC (Project Number UA08⁄04) and the University of Adelaide’s Wine2030 Network for financial support.

Wine Export Shocks and Wine Tax Reform in Australia: Regional Consequences Using an Economy-wide Approach

Anderson, K.; Valenzuela, E.; Wittwer, G.
Fonte: Wiley-Blackwell Publishing Asia Publicador: Wiley-Blackwell Publishing Asia
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2011 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.57%
We provide economy-wide modelling results of the national and regional implications of two current challenges facing the Australian wine industry: a decline in export demand, and a possible change in the tax on domestic wine sales following the Henry Review of Taxation. The demand shock causes regional GDP to fall in the cool and warm wine regions, but not in the hot wine regions unless the shock is large. A change from the current ad valorem tax to a similarly low volumetric tax on domestic wine sales causes regional GDP to rise in the cool and warm wine regions, partly offsetting its fall due to the export demand shock, but GDP in the hot wine regions would fall substantially. The switch to a volumetric tax as high as the standard beer rate would raise tax revenue and lower domestic wine consumption by more than one-third. However, it would induce a one-third decrease in production of non-premium wine as its consumer price would rise by at least three-quarters (while the average price of super premium wines would change very little). This would exacerbate the difference in effects of a tax reform on GDP in hot versus warm and cool wine regions.; http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1759-3441.2011.00124.x/abstract; Kym Anderson...

Export premium, productivity, trade openness and wage inequality in China : empirical evidence from firm-level data.

Lin, Faqin
Fonte: Universidade de Adelaide Publicador: Universidade de Adelaide
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Publicado em //2012
Relevância na Pesquisa
67.1%
This thesis uses Chinese firm-level data to investigate the relationships between the export premium, firm productivity and wage inequality. Using Chinese annual survey data for all state-owned firms and other non-state-owned firms with sales on mainland China over 5 million RMB, the author finds that there is a series of premiums for exporters compared with non-exporters. On average, exporters pay higher wages, produce more, sell more, add more value, employ more labour, have higher capital intensity, and have higher productivity (based on 1999-2003 data). Firms with relatively high export values will also be relatively more productive. Quantile results show that the premium decreases with the increase of the quantile. In addition, the export premium declines over time and across the industries, provinces and ownership types, and the higher the export intensity, the lower the export premium. The thesis further investigates the question: what determines the export premium – the selection effect or learning-by-exporting effect? First, the author uses the Olley and Pakes (1996) method to control both selection and simultaneity bias to estimate the reliable firm productivity. Then the author tests the self-selection and learning-by-exporting effects both parametrically and non-parametrically. The author finds both strong self-selection and learning-by-exporting effects at the aggregate level. The higher the productivity the firm has today...

AN ECONOMIC ANALYSIS OF THAILAND'S RICE TRADE

MEENAPHANT, SORRAYUTH
Fonte: Universidade Rice Publicador: Universidade Rice
Tipo: Thesis; Text Formato: application/pdf
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.99%
This study is an analysis of Thailand's rice export sector with reference to three major issues: government trade policy, trade performance, and the structure of trade preferences. In analyzing the rice trade policy, particularly the rice premium, both theoretical and empirical analyses were undertaken in order to measure and evaluate the policy's effects on exports and domestic prices. A dynamic simultaneous equation econometric model for Thailand's rice economy was formulated and estimated for the period from 1959 to 1976. The study then measured the relative competitiveness of Thai rice exports in the world markets during the period from 1952 to 1976 by quantitatively decomposing the export growth into the four separate components of market, growth, competitiveness, and interaction effects. And, finally, to detemine the trade preference structure of major rice exporters and importers, a probablistic trade flow model was employed. The theoretical findings of this study indicated that the government trade policy reduced rice export volumes and lowered domestic rice prices below the no intervention equilibrium levels. Concerning the effectiveness of the rice premium policy in stabilizing domestic rice prices, the analytical results suggested that the policy would be relatively effective only if the export demand for Thai rice was highly elastic with respect to the export price. Since this price elasticity was estimated to be only 1.07...

Economic reforms, manufacturing employment and wage in Vietnam

Nguyen, Kien Trung
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Thesis (PhD); Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)
EN_AU
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.75%
The purpose of this thesis is to examine patterns and determinants of manufacturing employment and wages in Vietnam during the process of economic transition from a centrally planned to a market- oriented economy during the period 1990-2011. The thesis begins with an interpretative survey of the theoretical and empirical literature on manufacturing employment and wages in a labour-abundant economy, in order to provide the analytical context for the Vietnam case study. The second chapter surveys the market-oriented economic reforms in Vietnam over the last quarter century, with special emphasis on policies directly relevant for examining labour market outcomes. The next four chapters form the analytical core of the thesis. Chapter 4 examines structural changes in employment patterns in the economy with emphasis on the shift in the patterns of labour deployment from agriculture to manufacturing. Chapter 5 probes the impact of manufacturing export expansion on sectoral employment patterns. Chapter 6 deals with the determinants of inter-industry patterns of manufacturing employment, paying particular attention to the role of export orientation and firm ownership. Chapter 7 focuses on the determinants of manufacturing wages and wage premium. The empirical analysis in these four chapters makes use of a new firm-level panel dataset compiled from unpublished returns to the Annual Enterprise Survey undertaken by the Vietnamese General Statistical Office. The final chapter summarizes the key findings and provides policy implications. The findings suggest that the reforms have resulted in a significant shift in the pattern of labour absorption in the economy from the agriculture to manufacturing over the past three decades. Employment expansion in the manufacturing sector has been underpinned by a significant change in the employment pattern by ownership. Private sector firms...

India's Emergent Horticultural Exports : Addressing Sanitary and Phytosanitary Standards and Other Challenges

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Policy Note; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.42%
This study was initiated by a request from the State Governments of Tamil Nadu and Maharashtra for the World Bank to examine the current and prospective sanitary and phytosanitary (SPS)-related barriers facing their tropical fruit exports. Specific interest was expressed in examining issues and outlining solutions pertaining to exports of bananas, pomegranates, and fresh mangoes. This study seeks to (1) provide insights into the range of SPS-related and broader competitiveness challenges and opportunities facing Indian export horticulture, (2) highlight strengths and weaknesses in current approaches and capacities to address these challenges, and (3) identify near- and medium-term priority actions-both specific and strategic-to enhance competitiveness and standards compliance. The study ultimately seeks to catalyze a more strategic dialogue between Indian policy makers, technical agencies, and the private sector regarding priority actions and the appropriate and sustainable division of roles and responsibilities of different players. This study is organized as follows: an introduction followed by Chapter 2...

Export Led Growth, Pro-Poor or Not? Evidence from Madagascar's Textile and Apparel Industry

Nicita, Alessandro
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.67%
Madagascar's textile and apparel industry has been among the fastest growing in Sub-Saharan Africa. Fueled by low labor costs, a fairly productive labor force, and preferential access to industrial countries, Madagascar's exports of textile and apparel products grew from about US$45 million in 1990 to almost half a billion in 2001. The impact of this export surge has been large in terms of employment and wages, but less so in terms of poverty reduction. To address the concern of whether the poor benefit and to what extent, the author follows a new approach to identify the beneficiaries of globalization and to quantify the benefits at the household level, so as to understand which segments of the population benefit most and which, if any, are marginalized. The analysis focuses on the labor market channel which has been recognized as the main transmission between economic growth and poverty. The methodology uses household level data and combines the wage premium literature with matching methods. The results point to a strong variation in the distribution of the benefits from export growth with skilled workers and urban areas benefiting most. From a poverty perspective, export-led growth in the textile and apparel sector has only a small effect on overall poverty. This study points to two reasons for this. First...

Export Liberalization, Job Creation and the Skill Premium : Evidence from the U.S.-Vietnam Bilateral Trade Agreement

Fukase, Emiko
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
37%
This paper explores how the expansion of labor-intensive manufacturing exports resulting from the United States-Vietnam Bilateral Trade Agreement in 2001 translated into wages of skilled and unskilled workers and the skill premium in Vietnam through the channel of labor demand. In order to isolate the impacts of trade shock from the effects of other market-oriented reforms, a strategy of exploiting the regional variation in difference in exposure to trade is employed. Using the data on panel individuals from the Vietnam Household Living Standards Surveys of 2002 and 2004, and addressing the issue of endogeneity, the results confirm the existence of a Stolper-Samuelson type effect. That is, those provinces more exposed to the increase in exports experienced relatively larger wage growth for unskilled workers and a decline of (or a smaller increase in) the relative wages of skilled and unskilled workers. During the period 2000-2004, the skill premium increased for Vietnam's economy as a whole in the sample of panel individuals. Thus...

Foreign Wage Premium, Gender and Education : Insights from Vietnam Household Surveys

Fukase, Emiko
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.75%
This paper investigates the differential impacts of foreign ownership on wages for different types of workers (in terms of educational background and gender) in Vietnam using the Vietnam Household Living Standards Surveys of 2002 and 2004. Whereas most previous studies have compared wage levels between foreign and domestic sectors using firm-level data (thus excluding the informal sector), one advantage of using the Living Standards Surveys in this paper is that the data allow wage comparison analyses to extend to the informal wage sector. A series of Mincerian earnings equations and worker-specific fixed effects models are estimated. Several findings emerge. First, foreign firms pay higher wages relative to their domestic counterparts after controlling for workers personal characteristics. Second, the higher the individual workers' levels of education, the larger on average are the wage premiums for those who work for foreign firms. Third, longer hours of work in foreign firm jobs relative to working in the informal wage sector are an important component of the wage premium. Finally...

Globalization, Wages, and the Quality of Jobs : Five Country Studies

Robertson, Raymond; Brown, Drusilla; Pierre, Gaëlle; Sanchez-Puerta, María Laura
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.46%
The country studies in this volume analyze the link between globalization and working conditions in Cambodia, El Salvador, Honduras, Indonesia, and Madagascar. These countries vary significantly in population, economic circumstances, region, history, and institutions. All have experienced liberalization and globalization in the last 20 years. The heterogeneity of these countries provides the basis for a useful comparison of the effects of globalization on working conditions. As suggested in the framework, each country study has three main components: a description of the country's experience with globalization, a qualitative part that analyzes country-specific aspects of working conditions, and an analysis of changes in interindustry wage differentials (IIWDs) that can be compared across countries. In general, globalization has been characterized by export-driven foreign direct investment (FDI) concentrated in relatively few sectors. Export-driven FDI in the apparel sector plays a prominent role in each country...

A State Trading Enterprise for Grains in Russia? Issues and Options

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Policy Note; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.66%
The impact of state trading enterprises (STEs) on domestic and international grain markets has been studied extensively over the years, generating a considerable body of theoretical and empirical evidence. The aim of this note is to draw on this body of evidence to analyze possible options for Russia's future state involvement in grain trade. The note covers the following three parts: i) outline of the potential economic impacts of STEs in grain trade from an economic perspective; ii) review of some of the global experience with STEs that are involved in grain exports; and iii) evaluation of options for state involvement in grain trade in Russia. The coverage in this note is limited to grains and to the impacts of STEs in countries that are net exporters of grain. Of the major grains, the note focuses on wheat which is by far the most important Russian export grain. Importing STEs are much more numerous than exporting STEs worldwide. However, unlike Ukraine, which has jumped between net export and net import situations for wheat as recently as 2003/04...