Página 1 dos resultados de 1053 itens digitais encontrados em 0.008 segundos

Coding behavioural data for cladistic analysis: using dynamic homology without parsimony

JAPYASSU, Hilton F.; MACHADO, Fabio de A.
Fonte: WILEY-BLACKWELL Publicador: WILEY-BLACKWELL
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.23%
Many of the controversies around the concept of homology rest on the subjectivity inherent to primary homology propositions. Dynamic homology partially solves this problem, but there has been up to now scant application of it outside of the molecular domain. This is probably because morphological and behavioural characters are rich in properties, connections and qualities, so that there is less space for conflicting character delimitations. Here we present a new method for the direct optimization of behavioural data, a method that relies on the richness of this database to delimit the characters, and on dynamic procedures to establish character state identity. We use between-species congruence in the data matrix and topological stability to choose the best cladogram. We test the methodology using sequences of predatory behaviour in a group of spiders that evolved the highly modified predatory technique of spitting glue onto prey. The cladogram recovered is fully compatible with previous analyses in the literature, and thus the method seems consistent. Besides the advantage of enhanced objectivity in character proposition, the new procedure allows the use of complex, context-dependent behavioural characters in an evolutionary framework...

The crystal structure of the leptospiral hypothetical protein LIC12922 reveals homology with the periplasmic chaperone SurA

GIUSEPPE, Priscila O.; ATZINGEN, Marina Von; NASCIMENTO, Ana Lucia T. O.; ZANCHIN, Nilson I. T.; GUIMARAES, Beatriz G.
Fonte: ACADEMIC PRESS INC ELSEVIER SCIENCE Publicador: ACADEMIC PRESS INC ELSEVIER SCIENCE
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.9%
Leptospirosis is a world spread zoonosis caused by members of the genus Leptospira. Although leptospires were identified as the causal agent of leptospirosis almost 100 years ago, little is known about their biology, which hinders the development of new treatment and prevention strategies. One of the several aspects of the leptospiral biology not yet elucidated is the process by which outer membrane proteins (OMPs) traverse the periplasm and are inserted into the outer membrane. The crystal structure determination of the conserved hypothetical protein LIC12922 from Leptospira interrogans revealed a two domain protein homologous to the Escherichia coli periplasmic chaperone SurA. The LIC12922 NC-domain is structurally related to the chaperone modules of E. coli SurA and trigger factor, whereas the parvulin domain is devoid of peptidyl prolyl cis-trans isomerase activity. Phylogenetic analyses suggest a relationship between LIC12922 and the chaperones PrsA, PpiD and SurA. Based on our structural and evolutionary analyses, we postulate that LIC12922 is a periplasmic chaperone involved in OMPs biogenesis in Leptospira spp. Since LIC12922 homologs were identified in all spirochetal genomes sequenced to date, this assumption may have implications for the OMPs biogenesis studies not only in leptospires but in the entire Phylum Spirochaetes. (C) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.; FAPESP[CEPID/CBME 98/14138-2]; Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (FAPESP); Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (FAPESP); FAPESP[SMolBNet 00/10266-8]; Synchrotron SOLEIL; Synchrotron SOLEIL; FAPESP; Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (FAPESP); PDEE/CAPES; Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior (CAPES)

Homology and errors

Brower, Andrew V. Z.; de Pinna, Mario C. C.
Fonte: WILEY-BLACKWELL; HOBOKEN Publicador: WILEY-BLACKWELL; HOBOKEN
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.25%
A recent review of the homology concept in cladistics is critiqued in light of the historical literature. Homology as a notion relevant to the recognition of clades remains equivalent to synapomorphy. Some symplesiomorphies are homologies inasmuch as they represent synapomorphies of more inclusive taxa; others are complementary character states that do not imply any shared evolutionary history among the taxa that exhibit the state. Undirected character-state change (as characters optimized on an unrooted tree) is a necessary but not sufficient test of homology, because the addition of a root may alter parsimonious reconstructions. Primary and secondary homology are defended as realistic representations of discovery procedures in comparative biology, recognizable even in Direct Optimization. The epistemological relationship between homology as evidence and common ancestry as explanation is again emphasized. An alternative definition of homology is proposed. (c) The Willi Hennig Society 2012.; CNPq; CNPq; FAPESP; FAPESP

The crystal structure of the leptospiral hypothetical protein LIC12922 reveals homology with the periplasmic chaperone SurA

GIUSEPPE, Priscila O.; ATZINGEN, Marina Von; NASCIMENTO, Ana Lucia T. O.; ZANCHIN, Nilson I. T.; GUIMARAES, Beatriz G.
Fonte: ACADEMIC PRESS INC ELSEVIER SCIENCE Publicador: ACADEMIC PRESS INC ELSEVIER SCIENCE
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.9%
Leptospirosis is a world spread zoonosis caused by members of the genus Leptospira. Although leptospires were identified as the causal agent of leptospirosis almost 100 years ago, little is known about their biology, which hinders the development of new treatment and prevention strategies. One of the several aspects of the leptospiral biology not yet elucidated is the process by which outer membrane proteins (OMPs) traverse the periplasm and are inserted into the outer membrane. The crystal structure determination of the conserved hypothetical protein LIC12922 from Leptospira interrogans revealed a two domain protein homologous to the Escherichia coli periplasmic chaperone SurA. The LIC12922 NC-domain is structurally related to the chaperone modules of E. coli SurA and trigger factor, whereas the parvulin domain is devoid of peptidyl prolyl cis-trans isomerase activity. Phylogenetic analyses suggest a relationship between LIC12922 and the chaperones PrsA, PpiD and SurA. Based on our structural and evolutionary analyses, we postulate that LIC12922 is a periplasmic chaperone involved in OMPs biogenesis in Leptospira spp. Since LIC12922 homologs were identified in all spirochetal genomes sequenced to date, this assumption may have implications for the OMPs biogenesis studies not only in leptospires but in the entire Phylum Spirochaetes. (C) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.; Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (FAPESP); Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior (CAPES)

Evolution and development: some insights from evolutionary theory

DAVID,JEAN R.
Fonte: Academia Brasileira de Ciências Publicador: Academia Brasileira de Ciências
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/09/2001 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.03%
Developmental biology and evolutionary biology are both mature integrative disciplines which started in the 19th century and then followed parallel and independent scientific pathways. Recently, a genetical component has stepped into both disciplines (developmental genetics and evolutionary genetics) pointing out the need for future convergent maturation. Indeed, the Evo-Devo approach is becoming popular among developmental biologists, based on the facts that distant groups share a common ancestry, that precise phylogenies can be worked out and that homologous genes often play similar roles during the development of very different organisms. In this essay, I try to show that the real future of Evo-Devo thinking is still broader. The evolutionary theory is a set of diverse concepts which can and should be used in any biological field. Evolutionary thinking trains to ask « why » questions and to provide logical and plausible answers. It can shed some light on a diversity of general problems such as how to distinguish homologies from analogies, the costs and benefits of multicellularity, the origin of novel structures (e.g. the head), or the evolution of sexual reproduction. In the next decade, we may expect a progressive convergence between developmental genetics and quantitative genetics.

Evolutionary histories of expanded peptidase families in Schistosoma mansoni

Silva,Larissa Lopes; Marcet-Houben,Marina; Zerlotini,Adhemar; Gabaldón,Toni; Oliveira,Guilherme; Nahum,Laila Alves
Fonte: Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Ministério da Saúde Publicador: Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Ministério da Saúde
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/11/2011 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36%
Schistosoma mansoni is one of the three main causative agents of human schistosomiasis, a major health problem with a vast socio-economic impact. Recent advances in the proteomic analysis of schistosomes have revealed that peptidases are the main virulence factors involved in the pathogenesis of this disease. In this context, evolutionary studies can be applied to identify peptidase families that have been expanded in genomes over time in response to different selection pressures. Using a phylogenomic approach, we searched for expanded endopeptidase families in the S. mansoni predicted proteome with the aim of contributing to the knowledge of such enzymes as potential therapeutic targets. We found three endopeptidase families that comprise leishmanolysins (metallopeptidase M8 family), cercarial elastases (serine peptidase S1 family) and cathepsin D proteins (aspartic peptidase A1 family). Our results suggest that the Schistosoma members of these families originated from successive gene duplication events in the parasite lineage after its diversification from other metazoans. Overall, critical residues are conserved among the duplicated genes/proteins. Furthermore, each protein family displays a distinct evolutionary history. Altogether...

Predicting the Three-Dimensional Structure of the Human Facilitative Glucose Transporter Glut1 by a Novel Evolutionary Homology Strategy: Insights on the Molecular Mechanism of Substrate Migration, and Binding Sites for Glucose and Inhibitory Molecules

Salas-Burgos, Alexis; Iserovich, Pavel; Zuniga, Felipe; Vera, Juan Carlos; Fischbarg, Jorge
Fonte: Biophysical Society Publicador: Biophysical Society
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.11%
The glucose transporters (GLUT/SLC2A) are members of the major facilitator superfamily. Here, we generated a three-dimensional model for Glut1 using a two-step strategy: 1), GlpT structure as an initial homology template and 2), evolutionary homology using glucose-6-phosphate translocase as a template. The resulting structure (PDB No. 1SUK) exhibits a water-filled passageway communicating the extracellular and intracellular domains, with a funnel-like exofacial vestibule (infundibulum), followed by a 15 Å-long × 8 Å-wide channel, and a horn-shaped endofacial vestibule. Most residues which, by mutagenesis, are crucial for transport delimit the channel, and putative sugar recognition motifs (QLS, QLG) border both ends of the channel. On the outside of the structure there are two positively charged cavities (one exofacial, one endofacial) delimited by ATP-binding Walker motifs, and an exofacial large side cavity of yet unknown function. Docking sites were found for the glucose substrate and its inhibitors: glucose, forskolin, and phloretin at the exofacial infundibulum; forskolin, and phloretin at an endofacial site next to the channel opening; and cytochalasin B at a positively charged endofacial pocket 3 Å away from the channel. Thus...

Including Biological Literature Improves Homology Search

Chang, Jeffrey T.; Raychaudhuri, Soumya; Altman, Russ B.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2001 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.03%
Annotating the tremendous amount of sequence information being generated requires accurate automated methods for recognizing homology. Although sequence similarity is only one of many indicators of evolutionary homology, it is often the only one used. Here we find that supplementing sequence similarity with information from biomedical literature is successful in increasing the accuracy of homology search results. We modified the PSI-BLAST algorithm to use literature similarity in each iteration of its database search. The modified algorithm is evaluated and compared to standard PSI-BLAST in searching for homologous proteins. The performance of the modified algorithm achieved 32% recall with 95% precision, while the original one achieved 33% recall with 84% precision; the literature similarity requirement preserved the sensitive characteristic of the PSI-BLAST algorithm while improving the precision.

HOMOLOGY, CORRESPONDENCE, AND CONTINUITY ACROSS DEVELOPMENT: THE CASE OF SLEEP

Blumberg, Mark S.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.98%
The developmental relations among different behaviors can take many forms. At one extreme, two behaviors emerge independently of one another and, at the other extreme, the emergence of one behavior depends on the prior emergence of the other. Whether the two behaviors in the latter case should be designated as developmentally homologous is explored in this essay by reviewing differing approaches to conceptualizing the development of sleep. It is argued that whereas the concept of developmental homology may offer little new to the understanding of sleep development, the conventional notion of evolutionary homology remains to be fully exploited. Identifying homologous sleep processes will benefit from the adoption of a developmental comparative approach that emphasizes real-time sleep dynamics and individual sleep components. Because evolution occurs through the modification of developmental processes, a new commitment to a developmental comparative approach to sleep is a necessary next step toward a better understanding of its evolution.

A Pluralistic Account of Homology: Adapting the Models to the Data

Haggerty, Leanne S.; Jachiet, Pierre-Alain; Hanage, William P.; Fitzpatrick, David A.; Lopez, Philippe; O’Connell, Mary J.; Pisani, Davide; Wilkinson, Mark; Bapteste, Eric; McInerney, James O.
Fonte: Oxford University Press Publicador: Oxford University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.38%
Defining homologous genes is important in many evolutionary studies but raises obvious issues. Some of these issues are conceptual and stem from our assumptions of how a gene evolves, others are practical, and depend on the algorithmic decisions implemented in existing software. Therefore, to make progress in the study of homology, both ontological and epistemological questions must be considered. In particular, defining homologous genes cannot be solely addressed under the classic assumptions of strong tree thinking, according to which genes evolve in a strictly tree-like fashion of vertical descent and divergence and the problems of homology detection are primarily methodological. Gene homology could also be considered under a different perspective where genes evolve as “public goods,” subjected to various introgressive processes. In this latter case, defining homologous genes becomes a matter of designing models suited to the actual complexity of the data and how such complexity arises, rather than trying to fit genetic data to some a priori tree-like evolutionary model, a practice that inevitably results in the loss of much information. Here we show how important aspects of the problems raised by homology detection methods can be overcome when even more fundamental roots of these problems are addressed by analyzing public goods thinking evolutionary processes through which genes have frequently originated. This kind of thinking acknowledges distinct types of homologs...

The Role of Developmental Genetics in Understanding Homology and Morphological Evolution in Plants

Jaramillo, M. Alejandra; Kramer, Elena
Fonte: University of Chicago Press Publicador: University of Chicago Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.08%
Homology assessments are critical to comparative biological studies. Although gene expression data have been proposed as instrumental for defining homologous relationships, several lines of evidence suggest that this type of data can be misleading if used in isolation. The correspondence between the homology of genes and that of structures is not simple, and conclusions can be derived only after careful examination of all available data. For instance, the MADS-box gene family is one of the best-studied families of transcription factors, and it provides several examples of dissociation between genetic and morphological homology. In this regard, we examine the role of APETALA3 and PISTILLATA homologs in the development of petaloid organs, a feature thought to have originated multiple times. We also consider the role of members of the AGAMOUS subfamily in the development of the pistil, a character that originated only once. Additionally, we discuss how serial homology makes gene co-option a very common phenomenon in plants. In spite of the multiple cases of this type of dissociation, comparative developmental genetics can yield other types of information that help assess homologies. Furthermore, comparative gene expression studies provide useful data for dissecting the origin of morphological innovations and are...

A Pluralistic Account of Homology: Adapting the Models to the Data

Haggerty, Leanne S.; Jachiet, Pierre-Alain; Hanage, William P.; Fitzpatrick, David A.; Lopez, Philippe; O’Connell, Mary J.; Pisani, Davide; Wilkinson, Mark; Bapteste, Eric; McInerney, James O.
Fonte: Oxford University Press Publicador: Oxford University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.39%
Defining homologous genes is important in many evolutionary studies but raises obvious issues. Some of these issues are conceptual and stem from our assumptions of how a gene evolves, others are practical, and depend on the algorithmic decisions implemented in existing software. Therefore, to make progress in the study of homology, both ontological and epistemological questions must be considered. In particular, defining homologous genes cannot be solely addressed under the classic assumptions of strong tree thinking, according to which genes evolve in a strictly tree-like fashion of vertical descent and divergence and the problems of homology detection are primarily methodological. Gene homology could also be considered under a different perspective where genes evolve as “public goods,” subjected to various introgressive processes. In this latter case, defining homologous genes becomes a matter of designing models suited to the actual complexity of the data and how such complexity arises, rather than trying to fit genetic data to some a priori tree-like evolutionary model, a practice that inevitably results in the loss of much information. Here we show how important aspects of the problems raised by homology detection methods can be overcome when even more fundamental roots of these problems are addressed by analyzing public goods thinking evolutionary processes through which genes have frequently originated. This kind of thinking acknowledges distinct types of homologs...

Evolutionary analysis of vertebrate Notch genes

Kortschak, R.; Tamme, R.; Lardelli, M.
Fonte: Springer-Verlag Publicador: Springer-Verlag
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2001 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.89%
We have conducted an evolutionary analysis of Notch genes of the vertebrates Danio rerio and Mus musculus to examine the expansion and diversification of the Notch family during vertebrate evolution. The existence of multiple Notch genes in vertebrate genomes suggests that the increase in Notch signaling pathways may be necessary for the additional complexity observed in the vertebrate body plan. However, orthology relationships within the vertebrate Notch family indicate that biological functions are not fixed within orthologous groups. Phylogenetic reconstruction of the vertebrate Notch family suggests that the zebrafish notch1a and 1b genes resulted from a duplication occurring around the time of the teleost/mammalian divergence. There is also evidence that the mouse Notch4 gene is the result of a rapid divergence from a Notch3-like gene. Investigation of the ankyrin repeat region sequences showed there to be little evidence for gene conversion events between repeat units. However, relationships between repeats 2–5 suggest that these repeats are the result of a tandem duplication of a dual repeat unit. Selective pressure on maintenance of ankyrin repeat sequences indicated by relationships between the repeats suggests that specific repeats are responsible for particular biological activities...

Evolutionary Relationships Beyond Fold Boundaries

Farias Rico, Jose Arcadio
Fonte: Universidade de Tubinga Publicador: Universidade de Tubinga
Tipo: Dissertação
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.33%
The comparative study of protein sequences and structures is traditionally used to better understand protein fold evolution. The insights we gain from our evolutionary analyses are applied in protein design projects. At the same time, we engineer proteins to test evolutionary assumptions; thus, we establish a feedback loop between both aspects of protein science. First, we compared Profile Hidden Markov Models, state of the art tools for homology detection, that represent all structures that adopt the (βα)8-barrel and the flavodoxin-like fold to discover an evolutionary relationship between these basic structural forms. Moreover, we located the region of the sequence space where both folds are most closely related. Having found this interface, we performed remote homologous searches and protein clustering to find sequences with intermediate features between the (βα)8-barrel and the flavodoxin-like fold. We determined the x-ray crystal structure of one of these sequences to learn possible scenarios of fold change during the evolution of these ancestral structures. The intermediate sequence, named NTM0182, displayed features towards both folds. Moreover, and by structurally superimposing the three structures, we found classical evidences of homology among the three folds: high sequence identity over long aligned fragments. Our approach then starts by using very sensitive novel tools for homology detection (probability scores)...

Evolutionary Patterns in Coiled-Coils

Surkont, J.; Pereira-Leal, J. B.
Fonte: Oxford University Press Publicador: Oxford University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 10/01/2015 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.26%
Models of protein evolution are used to describe evolutionary processes, for phylogenetic analyses and homology detection. Widely used general models of protein evolution are biased toward globular domains and lack resolution to describe evolutionary processes for other protein types. As three-dimensional structure is a major constraint to protein evolution, specific models have been proposed for other types of proteins. Here, we consider evolutionary patterns in coiled-coil forming proteins. Coiled-coils are widespread structural domains, formed by a repeated motif of seven amino acids (heptad repeat). Coiled-coil forming proteins are frequently rods and spacers, structuring both the intracellular and the extracellular spaces that often form protein interaction interfaces. We tested the hypothesis that due to their specific structure the associated evolutionary constraints differ from those of globular proteins. We showed that substitution patterns in coiled-coil regions are different than those observed in globular regions, beyond the simple heptad repeat. Based on these substitution patterns we developed a coiled-coil specific (CC) model that in the context of phylogenetic reconstruction outperforms general models in tree likelihood...

Phylogenetic position of the acariform mites: sensitivity to homology assessment under total evidence

PEPATO, Almir Rogério; ROCHA, Carlos Eduardo Falavigna da; DUNLOP, Jason A.
Fonte: BIOMED CENTRAL LTD; LONDON Publicador: BIOMED CENTRAL LTD; LONDON
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.1%
Background: Mites (Acari) have traditionally been treated as monophyletic, albeit composed of two major lineages: Acariformes and Parasitiformes. Yet recent studies based on morphology, molecular data, or combinations thereof, have increasingly drawn their monophyly into question. Furthermore, the usually basal (molecular) position of one or both mite lineages among the chelicerates is in conflict to their morphology, and to the widely accepted view that mites are close relatives of Ricinulei. Results: The phylogenetic position of the acariform mites is examined through employing SSU, partial LSU sequences, and morphology from 91 chelicerate extant terminals (forty Acariformes). In a static homology framework, molecular sequences were aligned using their secondary structure as guide, whereby regions of ambiguous alignment were discarded, and pre-aligned sequences analyzed under parsimony and different mixed models in a Bayesian inference. Parsimony and Bayesian analyses led to trees largely congruent concerning infraordinal, well-supported branches, but with low support for inter-ordinal relationships. An exception is Solifugae + Acariformes (P. P = 100%, J. = 0.91). In a dynamic homology framework, two analyses were run: a standard POY analysis and an analysis constrained by secondary structure. Both analyses led to largely congruent trees; supporting a (Palpigradi (Solifugae Acariformes)) clade and Ricinulei as sister group of Tetrapulmonata with the topology (Ricinulei (Amblypygi (Uropygi Araneae))). Combined analysis with two different morphological data matrices were run in order to evaluate the impact of constraining the analysis on the recovered topology when employing secondary structure as a guide for homology establishment. The constrained combined analysis yielded two topologies similar to the exclusively molecular analysis for both morphological matrices...

Communication : where evolutionary linguistics went wrong

Balari, Sergio; Lorenzo González, Guillermo
Fonte: Universidade Autônoma de Barcelona Publicador: Universidade Autônoma de Barcelona
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; info:eu-repo/semantics/acceptedVersion Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2010 ANG
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.11%
In this article we offer a detailed assessment of current approaches to the origins of language, with a special focus on their historical and theoretical underpinnings. It is a widely accepted view within evolutionary linguistics that an account of the emergence of human language necessarily involves paying special attention to its communicative function and its relation to other animal communication systems. Ever since Darwin, some variant of this view has constituted the mainstream version in evolutionary linguistics; however, it is our contention in this article that this approach is seriously flawed, and that “animal communication” does not constitute a natural kind on which a sound theoretical model can be built. As a consequence, we argue that this communicative perspective is better abandoned in favor of a structural/formal approach based on the notion of homology, and that some interesting and unexpected similarities may be found by applying this venerable comparative method founded in the 19th century by Richard Owen.

How did the platypus get its sex chromosome chain? A comparison of meiotic multiples and sex chromosomes in plants and animals

Gruetzner, Frank; Ashley, Terry; Rowell, David M; Graves, Jennifer
Fonte: Springer Publicador: Springer
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.11%
The duck-billed platypus is an extraordinary mammal. Its chromosome complement is no less extraordinary, for it includes a system in which ten sex chromosomes form an extensive meiotic chain in males. Such meiotic multiples are unprecedented in vertebrates but occur sporadically in plant and invertebrate species. In this paper, we review the evolution and formation of meiotic multiples in plants and invertebrates to try to gain insights into the origin of the platypus meiotic multiple. We describe the meiotic hurdles that translocated mammalian chromosomes face, which make longer chains disadvantageous in mammals, and we discuss how sex chromosomes and dosage compensation might have affected the evolution of sex-linked meiotic multiples. We conclude that the evolutionary conservation of the chain in monotremes, the structural properties of the translocated chromosomes and the highly accurate segregation at meiosis make the platypus system remarkably different from meiotic multiples in other species. We discuss alternative evolutionary models, which fall broadly into two categories: either the chain is the result of a sequence of translocation events from an ancestral pair of sex chromosomes (Model I) or the entire chain came into being at once by hybridization of two populations with different chromosomal rearrangements sharing monobrachial homology (Model II).

Sex chromosomes and sex determination in weird mammals

Graves, Jennifer
Fonte: S Karger AG Publicador: S Karger AG
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.89%
Weird mammals are of two types. Highly divergent mammals, such as the marsupials and monotremes, have informed us of the evolutionary history of the Y chromosome and sex-determining gene, and the recently specialized rodents can help us predict its future. The Y chromosome has had a short but eventful history, and is already heading briskly for oblivion. It originated as a homologous partner of the X when it acquired a sex-determining gene (not necessarily SRY). Most of the genes on the Y, even those with a male-specific function, evolved from genes now on the X. At the mercy of a high rate of variability and the forces of drift and selection, the Y has lost genes at a rate of 3-6 genes/million years, sparing those that acquired critical male-specific functions. Even these genes have disappeared from one mammalian lineage or another as their functions were usurped by genes elsewhere in the genome. The mammalian testis-determining gene, SRY, is a typical Y-borne gene. It arose by truncation of a gene (SOX3) on the X that is expressed in brain development, and it may work by interacting with (inhibiting?) related genes, including SOX9. Variant sex-determining systems in rodents show that the action of SRY can change, as it evidently has in the mouse...

`The frozen accident' as an evolutionary adaptation: A rate distortion theory perspective on the dynamics and symmetries of genetic coding mechanisms

James F. Glazebrook; Rodrick Wallace
Fonte: Nature Preceedings Publicador: Nature Preceedings
Tipo: Manuscript
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.96%
We survey some interpretations and related issues concerning the frozen hypothesis due to F. Crick and how it can be explained in terms of several natural mechanisms involving error correction codes, spin glasses, symmetry breaking and the characteristic robustness of genetic networks. The approach to most of these questions involves using elements of Shannon's rate distortion theory incorporating a semantic system which is meaningful for the relevant alphabets and vocabulary implemented in transmission of the genetic code. We apply the fundamental homology between information source uncertainty with the free energy density of a thermodynamical system with respect to transcriptional regulators and the communication channels of sequence/structure in proteins. This leads to the suggestion that the frozen accident may have been a type of evolutionary adaptation.