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Effect of Environmental Temperature During the First Week of Brooding Period on Broiler Chick Body Weight, Viscera and Bone Development

Moraes, VMB; Malheiros, RD; Furlan, Renato Luis; Bruno, LDG; Malheiros, EB; Macari, Marcos
Fonte: Fundação APINCO de Ciência e Tecnologia Avícolas Publicador: Fundação APINCO de Ciência e Tecnologia Avícolas
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.03%
O presente trabalho teve como objetivo estudar o efeito de diferentes temperaturas-ambiente durante a primeira semana de vida de pintos de corte sob parâmetros zootécnicos, desenvolvimento visceral e crescimento ósseo. Foram utilizados 240 pintos de um dia, alojados em 3 câmaras climáticas, com temperaturas constantes de 20, 25 e 35°C do 1° ao 7° dia de vida. Diariamente, o consumo de água e ração, bem como o peso vivo, o peso relativo do fígado, moela, coração, saco vitelino e bursa de Fabricius foram avaliados. A tíbia e o fêmur também foram pesados e o comprimento e espessura (diâmetro médio) mensurados. As aves criadas a 20°C ganharam menos peso e consumiram menos ração do que aves mantidas a 25°C e menos água do que aves mantidas a 35°C. O peso relativo do fígado, coração e moela foram afetados pela temperatura ambiente, entretanto, não foi observado efeito da temperatura de criação sobre o peso do saco vitelino e bursa de Fabricius. Os dados mostraram que todos os parâmetros ósseos pesquisados aumentaram com a idade das aves. A temperatura ambiente não afetou a espessura da tíbia e do fêmur, mas foi observado um aumento significativo no peso e comprimento dos ossos com o aumento da temperatura ambiente. Os resultados desse experimento mostraram que o estresse por frio (20°C) reduziu o crescimento ósseo bem como o peso vivo das aves...

Environmental temperature and cloacal and surface temperatures of broiler chicks in first week post-hatch

Malheiros, R. D.; Moraes, V. M. B.; Bruno, L. D. G.; Malheiros, E. B.; Furlan, R. L.; Macari, Marcos
Fonte: Applied Poultry Science Inc Publicador: Applied Poultry Science Inc
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 111-117
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.03%
Adequate environmental temperature during the brooding period is very important to future broiler performance. Thus, the objective of this study was to investigate the extent to which environmental temperature affects the body weight and cloacal and surface (back, head, wing, and shank) temperatures. The study also investigated the sensible heat loss by radiation of broiler chicks reared at three environmental temperatures (35, 25, and 20 degrees C) up to 7 days of life. The results showed that chicks raised at low environmental temperature (20 degrees C) had lower body weight at 7 days of age. Birds kept at 20 degrees C also had significantly lower cloacal and surface temperatures than did other birds. The most marked difference was seen in the shanks. These findings revealed that body weight declined in chicks reared at 20 degrees C, and radiant heat loss (W) was nine times higher than for the birds kept at 35 degrees C at 7 days of age.

Protein levels and environmental temperature effects on carcass characteristics, performance, and nitrogen excretion of broiler chickens from 7 to 21 days of age

Faria Filho, DE; Rosa, PS; Vieira, BS; Macari, Marcos; Furlan, Renato Luis
Fonte: Fundação APINCO de Ciência e Tecnologia Avícolas Publicador: Fundação APINCO de Ciência e Tecnologia Avícolas
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 247-253
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.05%
This trial was conducted to evaluate the utilization of low-protein diets formulated based on the ideal protein concept for broiler chickens from 7 to 21 days of age reared at different environmental temperatures. Nine hundred male Cobb-500® chickens were used. At day seven chicks were distributed according to a completely randomized design in a 3 x 3 factorial with four replications of 25 birds each. It was used three crude protein levels in the diet (21.5; 20.0 and 18.5%) and three environmental temperatures (low, thermoneutral and high). The performance, carcass characteristics (yield and chemical composition), and nitrogen ingestion and excretion were assessed. There was no significant interaction among the factors for the evaluated variables. Environmental temperatures affected differently chicken performance. High environmental temperature resulted in lower weight gain and higher wing fat percentage, whereas cold temperature resulted in higher feed conversion. on the other hand, low-protein diets decreased weight gain, breast yield, nitrogen excretion and influenced breast and wings chemical composition. Birds reared at high environmental temperature showed lower nitrogen intake and excretion. The results showed that the decrease in protein levels from 7 to 21 days of age contributed to lower nitrogen excretion in broiler chickens...

Performance and egg quality of Japanese quails submitted to cyclic heat stress

Vercese, F; Garcia, Edivaldo Antônio; Sartori, JR; Silva, A de P; Faitarone, ABG; Berto, da; Molino, A de B; Pelícia, K
Fonte: Fundação APINCO de Ciência e Tecnologia Avícolas Publicador: Fundação APINCO de Ciência e Tecnologia Avícolas
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 37-41
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.98%
Aiming at evaluating the influence of cyclic temperatures on the performance and egg quality of Japanese quails an experiment was carried out with 480 birds after egg production peak. Birds were housed in a bioclimatic chamber with automatic temperature control that contained two rooms, one maintained at thermoneutral temperature (21 ºC) and the other adjusted for the tested cyclic temperatures (24, 27, 30, 33 and 36 ºC at a time). Each room had a battery of five floors and ten cages, with a capacity of 24 birds per cage, totaling 240 birds per battery. Birds were fed iso-nutritious and iso-caloric diets. Data obtained under the tested cyclic temperatures were compared with those obtained under thermoneutral temperature. At the end of each experimental period (14 days) performance and egg quality parameters were evaluated. A completely randomized experimental design with two treatments (thermoneutral temperature and tested temperature) and ten replicates of 24 birds each. Cyclic increases of 27 ºC and higher in environmental temperature negatively affected bird performance, with reduced feed intake and consequent reductions in egg weight and mass. A cyclic increase of the environmental temperature to 36 ºC reduced the percentage of saleable eggs and egg production.

Influence of early qualitative feed restriction and environmental temperature on long bone development of broiler chickens

Bruno, L. D. G.; Luquetti, B. C.; Furlan, R. L.; Macari, Marcos
Fonte: Elsevier B.V. Publicador: Elsevier B.V.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 349-354
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.03%
This investigation was carried out to study the influence of early qualitative feed restriction and environmental rearing temperature on long bone development in broiler. Energy and protein restriction reduced femur width and humerus weight, but did not affect tibia parameters. Broilers kept at cold environmental temperature showed reduced femur, tibia and humerus length and tibia weight, but the calculated density was not affected by rearing temperature. These findings suggest that qualitative feed restriction and environmental temperature influenced the normal long bone growth; however, bone weight/bone length index (calculated density) was not affected by rearing temperature. (c) 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Selection of environmental temperature by the yellow scorpion Tityus serrulatus Lutz & Mello, 1922 (Scorpiones, Buthidae)

Hoshino, K.; Moura, A. T V; De Paula, H. M G
Fonte: Universidade Estadual Paulista Publicador: Universidade Estadual Paulista
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 59-66
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.9%
The preferred temperature of the yellow scorpion Tityus serrulatus was investigated since its dispersion is a matter of concern. Adult T. serrulatus, weighing 1.24 ± 0.20 g (mean + sd) and with a standard length of 59.3 ± 2.5 mm, were used. A metallic corridor (120 cm long, 5 cm large and 10 cm high) with thermal gradient ranging from 0°C to 40°C was used. Tityus serrulatus chose and stayed in temperatures ranging from 14° C to 38°C when safe conditions were offered (dark and thigmotactic stimuli). The number of animals that remained in the 11°C-20°C, 21°C-30°C, and 31°C-40°C temperature zones were 8, 8, and 9, respectively. The chi-square test (degree of freedom = 2) showed that differences were not significant (p>0.05). Some animals moved to lower temperature areas (less than 8°C) when the corridor was completely illuminated and thigmotactic stimuli were absent, which led the animals to present a torpor state. It is concluded that T. serrulatus does not select a specific environmental temperature. Associated with the capacity of temporally surviving at low temperatures, this species seems to be highly adaptable to different thermal zones.

Influence of environmental temperature and electrolyte balance on the performance of quails (Coturnix Coturnix Coturnix)

Barbosa Lima, R; Silva, Jhv Da; Givisiez, Pen; Martins, Tdd; Saraiva, Ep; Costa, Fgp; Macari, M
Fonte: Fundação APINCO de Ciência e Tecnologia Avícolas Publicador: Fundação APINCO de Ciência e Tecnologia Avícolas
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 249-256
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.99%
Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (FAPESP); Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq); Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior (CAPES); High environmental temperatures have a negative effect on the production efficiency of poultry reared in hot climates. This study evaluated the efficiency of electrolyte supplementation under high environmental temperature conditions by manipulating water and feed electrolyte balance (EB) on the survival and performance of European quails. In experiment 1, a completely randomized experimental design was applied in a 4 x 2 factorial arrangement. Treatments consisted in four feed EB values (0, 120, 240, 360 mEq/kg), and two environmental temperatures (25 and 34 ºC). Feed electrolyte balance was manipulated by the addition of sodium bicarbonate and ammonium chloride. In experiment 2, birds were randomly distributed according to a 5 x 2 factorial arrangement. Treatments consisted in five BE values in the drinking water (0, 30, 60, 90, 120 mEq/L) and two environmental temperatures (25 and 34 °C). Only sodium bicarbonate was added to the water to obtain the different BE values. The experiments were carried out simultaneously in environmental chambers at constant temperatures with 20- to 37-d-old quails. Most evaluated parameters were influenced by temperature in both experiments. In experiment 1...

Effects of environmental temperature on life tables of Rhodnius neivai Lent, 1953 (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) under experimental conditions

Cabello,Daniel R
Fonte: Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Ministério da Saúde Publicador: Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Ministério da Saúde
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/09/1999 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.86%
Changes in life tables of Rhodnius neivai due to variations of environmental temperature were studied, based on nine cohorts. Three cohorts were kept at 22°C, three at 27°C and three at 32°C. Cohorts were censused daily during nymphal instars and weekly in adults. Nine complete horizontal life tables were built. A high negative correlation between temperature and age at first laying was registered (r=-0,84). Age at maximum reproduction was significantly lower at 32°C. Average number of eggs/female/week and total eggs/female on its life time were significantly lower at 22°C. Total number of egg by cohort and total number of reproductive weeks were significantly higher at 27°C. At 32°C, generational time was significantly lower. At 27°C net reproductive rate and total reproductive value were significantly higher. At 22°C, intrinsic growth, finite growth and finite birth rates were significantly lower. At 22°C, death instantaneous rate was significantly higher.

Influence of low environmental temperature on inflammation in bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana): qualitative and quantitative evaluation

CATÃO-DIAS,José Luiz; SINHORINI,Idércio Luiz
Fonte: Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia / Universidade de São Paulo Publicador: Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia / Universidade de São Paulo
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/1999 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.94%
Objectives of this study were to investigate the influence of low environmental temperature on the experimentally induced inflammatory response in post-metamorphic Rana catesbeiana (bullfrogs). To accomplish these goals, 120 specimens of Rana catesbeiana were kept at 6ºC and 24ºC, and treated by transfixion of thigh muscular tissue with a 5-0 suture or IM carrageenan injection. Results obtained through qualitative and quantitative evaluations showed that the lower environmental temperature significantly modulates the inflammatory process development. The animals in both models that were kept at 6ºC showed a significantly lower number of inflammatory cells in the lesion site than the one verified at 24ºC, apart from the evolution time. On the other hand, any factor related to the host mechanism of defense ought not to be blocked by the temperature, since the area of reaction to the injury showed to be equivalent in most of the studied time.

Effect of Environmental Temperature During the First Week of Brooding Period on Broiler Chick Body Weight, Viscera and Bone Development

Moraes,VMB; Malheiros,RD; Furlan,RL; Bruno,LDG; Malheiros,EB; Macari,M
Fonte: Fundação APINCO de Ciência e Tecnologia Avícolas Publicador: Fundação APINCO de Ciência e Tecnologia Avícolas
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2002 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.03%
The objective of the present study was to assess the development of broiler chicks during the first week post-hatching when reared at three different environmental temperatures. A total of 480 day-old chicks were placed in three environmentally controlled rooms (20, 25 and 35°C) from 1 to 7 days of age. Body weight gain, feed and water intake, as well as liver, gizzard, heart, yolk sac and bursa of Fabricius weights were measured daily. Tibia and femur bones were weighed and their length and width (medial diameter) were also obtained. The chicks reared at 20º C had lower weight gain and ingested less food than chicks reared at 25°C and less water than chicks kept at 35°C. Relative weights of the liver, heart, and gizzard were affected by environmental temperature, whereas yolk sac and bursa of Fabricius relative weights were not. The data showed that all bone parameters increased with bird age. Environmental temperature did not affect tibia or femur width, however a significant increase in bone weight and length occurred with increasing environmental temperature. These results indicate that brooding temperature of 20°C during the first seven days post-hatching was stressful decreasing broiler bone development and reducing chicks body weight.

Protein levels and environmental temperature effects on carcass characteristics, performance, and nitrogen excretion of broiler chickens from 7 to 21 days of age

Faria Filho,DE; Rosa,PS; Vieira,BS; Macari,M; Furlan,RL
Fonte: Fundação APINCO de Ciência e Tecnologia Avícolas Publicador: Fundação APINCO de Ciência e Tecnologia Avícolas
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/12/2005 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.05%
This trial was conducted to evaluate the utilization of low-protein diets formulated based on the ideal protein concept for broiler chickens from 7 to 21 days of age reared at different environmental temperatures. Nine hundred male Cobb-500® chickens were used. At day seven chicks were distributed according to a completely randomized design in a 3 x 3 factorial with four replications of 25 birds each. It was used three crude protein levels in the diet (21.5; 20.0 and 18.5%) and three environmental temperatures (low, thermoneutral and high). The performance, carcass characteristics (yield and chemical composition), and nitrogen ingestion and excretion were assessed. There was no significant interaction among the factors for the evaluated variables. Environmental temperatures affected differently chicken performance. High environmental temperature resulted in lower weight gain and higher wing fat percentage, whereas cold temperature resulted in higher feed conversion. On the other hand, low-protein diets decreased weight gain, breast yield, nitrogen excretion and influenced breast and wings chemical composition. Birds reared at high environmental temperature showed lower nitrogen intake and excretion. The results showed that the decrease in protein levels from 7 to 21 days of age contributed to lower nitrogen excretion in broiler chickens...

Performance and egg quality of Japanese quails submitted to cyclic heat stress

Vercese,F; Garcia,EA; Sartori,JR; Silva,A de P; Faitarone,ABG; Berto,DA; Molino,A de B; Pelícia,K
Fonte: Fundação APINCO de Ciência e Tecnologia Avícolas Publicador: Fundação APINCO de Ciência e Tecnologia Avícolas
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/03/2012 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.98%
Aiming at evaluating the influence of cyclic temperatures on the performance and egg quality of Japanese quails an experiment was carried out with 480 birds after egg production peak. Birds were housed in a bioclimatic chamber with automatic temperature control that contained two rooms, one maintained at thermoneutral temperature (21 ºC) and the other adjusted for the tested cyclic temperatures (24, 27, 30, 33 and 36 ºC at a time). Each room had a battery of five floors and ten cages, with a capacity of 24 birds per cage, totaling 240 birds per battery. Birds were fed iso-nutritious and iso-caloric diets. Data obtained under the tested cyclic temperatures were compared with those obtained under thermoneutral temperature. At the end of each experimental period (14 days) performance and egg quality parameters were evaluated. A completely randomized experimental design with two treatments (thermoneutral temperature and tested temperature) and ten replicates of 24 birds each. Cyclic increases of 27 ºC and higher in environmental temperature negatively affected bird performance, with reduced feed intake and consequent reductions in egg weight and mass. A cyclic increase of the environmental temperature to 36 ºC reduced the percentage of saleable eggs and egg production.

Influence of environmental temperature and electrolyte balance on the performance of quails (Coturnix Coturnix Coturnix)

Barbosa Lima,R; Silva,JHV da; Givisiez,PEN; Martins,TDD; Saraiva,EP; Costa,FGP; Macari,M
Fonte: Fundação APINCO de Ciência e Tecnologia Avícolas Publicador: Fundação APINCO de Ciência e Tecnologia Avícolas
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/09/2014 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.99%
High environmental temperatures have a negative effect on the production efficiency of poultry reared in hot climates. This study evaluated the efficiency of electrolyte supplementation under high environmental temperature conditions by manipulating water and feed electrolyte balance (EB) on the survival and performance of European quails. In experiment 1, a completely randomized experimental design was applied in a 4 x 2 factorial arrangement. Treatments consisted in four feed EB values (0, 120, 240, 360 mEq/kg), and two environmental temperatures (25 and 34 ºC). Feed electrolyte balance was manipulated by the addition of sodium bicarbonate and ammonium chloride. In experiment 2, birds were randomly distributed according to a 5 x 2 factorial arrangement. Treatments consisted in five BE values in the drinking water (0, 30, 60, 90, 120 mEq/L) and two environmental temperatures (25 and 34 °C). Only sodium bicarbonate was added to the water to obtain the different BE values. The experiments were carried out simultaneously in environmental chambers at constant temperatures with 20- to 37-d-old quails. Most evaluated parameters were influenced by temperature in both experiments. In experiment 1, EB affected water intake and intestinal length. In experiment 2...

Selection of environmental temperature by the yellow scorpion Tityus serrulatus Lutz & Mello, 1922 (Scorpiones, Buthidae)

Hoshino,K.; Moura,A. T. V.; De Paula,H. M. G.
Fonte: Centro de Estudos de Venenos e Animais Peçonhentos - CEVAP, Universidade Estadual Paulista - UNESP Publicador: Centro de Estudos de Venenos e Animais Peçonhentos - CEVAP, Universidade Estadual Paulista - UNESP
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2006 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.9%
The preferred temperature of the yellow scorpion Tityus serrulatus was investigated since its dispersion is a matter of concern. Adult T. serrulatus, weighing 1.24 + 0.20 g (mean + sd) and with a standard length of 59.3 + 2.5 mm, were used. A metallic corridor (120 cm long, 5 cm large and 10 cm high) with thermal gradient ranging from 0°C to 40°C was used. Tityus serrulatus chose and stayed in temperatures ranging from 14°C to 38°C when safe conditions were offered (dark and thigmotactic stimuli). The number of animals that remained in the 11°C-20°C, 21°C-30°C, and 31°C-40°C temperature zones were 8, 8, and 9, respectively. The chi-square test (degree of freedom = 2) showed that differences were not significant (p>0.05). Some animals moved to lower temperature areas (less than 8°C) when the corridor was completely illuminated and thigmotactic stimuli were absent, which led the animals to present a torpor state. It is concluded that T. serrulatus does not select a specific environmental temperature. Associated with the capacity of temporally surviving at low temperatures, this species seems to be highly adaptable to different thermal zones.

Modification by diet and environmental temperature of enterocyte function in piglet intestine.

Dauncey, M J; Ingram, D L; James, P S; Smith, M W
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /08/1983 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.02%
Intestinal morphology, enterocyte life span and alanine transport have been studied in the small intestine of piglets fed different amounts of food at high and low environmental temperatures. Villus height and crypt depth were both greater in pigs maintained on a high energy intake. Environmental temperature produced negligible effects on intestinal structure. Enterocyte life span increased from 45 h in pigs kept at 35 degrees C to about 70 h in animals living at 10 degrees C. A low energy intake prolonged enterocyte life span at an environmental temperature of 10 degrees C. The Na-dependent fraction of alanine uptake, judged by analysis of autoradiographs and by measurement of alanine-dependent short-circuit current, was greater in intestines taken from pigs maintained on a restricted diet. This effect, which appeared to be due to changes in the number of carriers (Jm) rather than the apparent affinity of the carrier for the amino acid (Km) was most noticeable using intestines taken from pigs kept at 10 degrees C. The Na-independent fraction of alanine uptake remained unchanged either by alterations in diet or in the environmental temperature at which pigs were kept. Restricting the diet of pigs at low environmental temperature leads to a relative increase in the capacity of the intestine to absorb alanine through an Na-dependent process. This increase appears to be caused by an extension of enterocyte life span rather than by any change in the time of onset or rate of expression of carrier function in a single enterocyte.

THE INFLUENCE OF ENVIRONMENTAL TEMPERATURE ON THE UTILIZATION OF FOOD ENERGY IN BABY CHICKS

Kleiber, M.; Dougherty, J. E.
Fonte: The Rockefeller University Press Publicador: The Rockefeller University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 20/05/1934 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.08%
1. An optimum of environmental temperature is to be expected for the utilization of food energy in warm blooded animals if their food intake is determined by their appetite. 2. Baby chicks were kept in groups of five chicks in a climatic cabinet at environmental temperatures of 21°, 27°, 32°, 38°, and 40°C. during the period of 6 to 15 days of age. The intake of qualitatively complete food was determined by their appetite. Food intake, excretion, and respiratory exchange were measured. Control chicks from the same hatch as the experimental groups were raised in a brooder and were given the same food as the experimental chicks. The basal metabolism of each experimental group was determined from 24 to 36 hours without food at the age of 16 days. 3. The daily rate of growth increased with decreasing environmental temperature from 2.74 gm. at 40°C. to 4.88 gm. at 21°C. This was 4.2 to 6.5 per cent of their body weight. 4. The amount of food consumed increased in proportion to the decrease in temperature. 5. The availability of the food, used for birds instead of the digestibility and defined as See PDF for Structure showed an optimum at 38°C. 6. The CO2 production increased from 2.95 liters CO2 per day per chick at 40°C. to 6.25 liters at 21°C. Per unit of the 3/4 power of the body weight...

Development of software architecture for environmental monitoring using wireless sensor networks

Hari, Piyush
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 63 leaves; 18187306 bytes; 18186972 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.99%
In this thesis, I describe the development of the software architecture for temperature monitoring using Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN). The goal of the software is to provide a means to remotely monitor and analyze temperature data in a closed environment. This architecture forms a building block to achieve the larger aim of energy management in built facilities. A 16 node wireless sensor network was set up to monitor ambient temperature at various locations in MIT. A console application was developed in the C# language to collect temporal sensor data and store it in a SQL database. The application also provides a management system for fire hazard warnings by sending e-mails and calling mobile phones. An ASP.NET web application is then developed to retrieve temperature data over Internet. The data is accessible in different formats-table, XML and visualized in graphical form. This application lets the user register their phone numbers and e-mails to be informed in case of a fire emergency or excessive heating/cooling. A mobile application is developed on top of the web application to increase the range of data access to handheld Internet enabled telephony devices such as mobile phones and PDAs.; (cont.) The web access is implemented in XHTML-MP with a .NET web service and J2EE web service client back end. A desktop application is then used to access the real time temperature data through a PC desktop connected to the Internet. Spatial representation of data is visualized by overlaying the temperature profiles with floor plans and maps of the buildings using GIS.; by Piyush Hari.; Thesis (S.M.)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology...

Interplay between thermal and immune ecology: Effect of environmental temperature on insect immune response and energetic costs after an immune challenge

Kalergis, Alexis M.; Wozniak, Aniela; Bozinovic, Francisco; Niemeyer, Hermann M.; Catalán, Tamara P.
Fonte: Elsevier Publicador: Elsevier
Tipo: Artículo de revista
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.99%
Although the study of thermoregulation in insects has shown that infected animals tend to prefer higher temperatures than healthy individuals, the immune response and energetic consequences of this preference remain unknown.Weexamined the effect of environmental temperature and the energetic costs associated to the activation of the immune response of Tenebrio molitor larvae following a lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge. We measured the effect of temperature on immune parameters including phenoloxidase (PO) activity and antibacterial responses. Further as proximal and distal costs of the immune response we determined the standard metabolic rate (SMR) and the loss of body mass (mb), respectively. Immune response was stronger at 30 C than was at 10 or 20 C. While SMR at 10 and 20 C did not differ between immune treatments, at 30 C SMR of LPS-treated larvae was almost 25–60% higher than SMR of PBS-treated and naïve larvae. In addition, the loss in mb was 1.9 and 4.2 times higher in LPS-treated larvae than in PBStreated and naïve controls. The immune responses exhibited a positive correlation with temperature and both, SMR and mb change, were sensitive to environmental temperature. These data suggest a significant effect of environmental temperature on the immune response and on the energetic costs of immunity.; Comisión Nacional de Investigación Científica y Tecnológica (CONICYT) doctoral thesis fellowship to TPC...

Influência da baixa temperatura ambiental sobre a atividade fagocítica de troinbócitos de rã touro gigante (Rana catesbeiana); Influence of low environmental temperature on the phagocytic activity of bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana) thrombocytes

Penha, Marcelo De Luca; Dias, José Luiz Catão; Malucelli, Benjamin Eurico
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; ; ; ; ; ; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 01/01/1996 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.97%
O objetivo do presente trabalho foi o de investigar a influência da baixa temperatura ambiental sobre aatividade fagocítica de trombócitos de rã touro gigante (Rana catesbeiana). O modelo indutor defagocitose utilizado foi a injeção de carvão coloidal no saco linfático dorsal. Os resultados alcançados mostraramque o frio foi capaz de modular significativamente a capacidade fagocítica dos trombócitos. Animais tratados e mantidos a 6°C exibiram uma lenta atividade inicial à 1h (16,3 ± 4,3; resultados expressos como média desvio padrão de trombócitos positivos em 400 células analisadas/animal; n=6), que aumentou discretamente às 6h e 12h (45,8 ± 12,2; 55,5 ± 9,6), alcançando o máximo de reação aos 3d e 7d (80,3 ± 27,5; 78,3 ± 29,5). Por outro lado, rãs mantidas a 24°C apresentaram uma forte resposta inicial à 1h (90,0 ± 16,7), aumentando marcadamente até 1d (196,0 ± 49,8), e então diminuindo até 7d (56,0 ± 10,6). Os resultados obtidos suportam estudos prévios que demonstram a importância da temperatura ambiental sobre múltiplos processos relativos aos mecanismos de defesa desses animais.; The influence of low environmental temperature on phagocytic activity of bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana) thrombocytes induced by the injection of colloidal carbon in the dorsal lymphatic sac was investigated. Results showed that low environmental temperature decreased the thrombocyte phagocytic activity. Thrombocytes of animals treated and kept at 6°C showed a slow initial activity at 1h (16.3 ± 4.3; results expressed as mean ± SEM of positive thrombocytes in 400 cell analysed/animal; n=6)...

Influência da baixa temperatura ambiental sobre a inflamação em rã-touro gigante (Rana catesbeiana): avaliações qualitativa e quantitativa; Influence of low environmental temperature on inflammation in bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana): qualitative and quantitative evaluation

Catão-Dias, José Luiz; Sinhorini, Idércio Luiz
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; ; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 01/01/1999 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.94%
O presente trabalho teve por objetivo investigar a modulação exercida pela temperatura ambiental sobre a cinética celular inflamatória experimentalmente induzida em Rana catesbeiana, rã-touro gigante. Para tanto, 120 espécimes pós-metamórficos foram mantidos a 6ºC e 24ºC e tratados pela transfixação do tecido muscular da coxa por fio de sutura ou injeção intramuscular de carragenina. Os resultados obtidos através de avaliações qualitativa e quantitativa do foco lesional mostraram que a baixa temperatura ambiental modula significativamente a evolução do processo inflamatório. Animais mantidos a 6ºC, em ambos os modelos, apresentaram números de células inflamatórias significativamente menores que os verificados a 24ºC, independentemente do tempo de avaliação. Por outro lado, algum fator pertencente aos mecanismos de defesa do hospedeiro não deve ter sido bloqueado pela temperatura, visto que a área de reação à injúria mostrou-se equivalente na maioria dos tempos pesquisados.; Objectives of this study were to investigate the influence of low environmental temperature on the experimentally induced inflammatory response in post-metamorphic Rana catesbeiana (bullfrogs). To accomplish these goals, 120 specimens of Rana catesbeiana were kept at 6ºC and 24ºC...